; எகிப்திய புரட்சி
Documents
Resources
Learning Center
Upload
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>

எகிப்திய புரட்சி

VIEWS: 94 PAGES: 4

  • pg 1
									                                 Author: J.F.Minsara
                       Special in Islamic Thought & Civilization
                                      (2006/2007)



                                  vfpg;Jg; Gul;rp…




vfpg;J tlf;F Mgpupf;fhtpy; cs;s xU FbauR ehlhFk;. nfa;Nuh ,e;ehl;bd; jiyefu;
MFk;. ,J cyfpd; 15tJ kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l ehlhFk; Nkw;Nf ypgpahitAk;
njw;Nf #lhidAk; fpof;Nf fhrhf; fiu kw;Wk; ,];NuiyAk; vy;iyahff; nfhz;l
                                                  ;
vfpg;jpd; gug;gsT Rkhu; 10,258,100,258 rJufpNyhkPwwu; MFk;. vfpg;jpd; tlf;F vy;iyahf
kj;jpa jiuf; fly; mike;Js;sJ. mjd; fpof;Nf nrq;flYk; Nkw;Nf ypgpahTk;
fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;ehl;bd; njw;F vy;iyapy; #lhDk; tlNkw;F vy;iyapd; gy];jPDk;
mike;Js;sd. vfpg;jpd; epyg;gug;G Rna]; fhy;thiaAk; fle;J MrpahtpYs;s rpdhag;
gFjp tiu ePz;L fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. nghJthf vfpg;J jho;epyg; gpuNjrkhFk;. ,e;ehL
ghiytdj;jpdhy;      #og;gl;Ls;sJ.       vfpg;jpd;   fpof;F   njd;Nkw;F      gpuNjrq;fs;
kiyg;ghq;fhditahff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;ehl;bd; fhyepiyiag; nghWj;j tiuapy;
ghiytdg;gFjpfs; c\;zkhdjhfTk; tul;rp kpf;fjhfTk; cs;sd. Vida gFjpfs;
c\;zkhdjhfTk; <ug;gjd; nfhz;ljhfTk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. vfpg;J kpff; Fiwe;j kio
tPo;r;rpiaf; nfhz;l xU ehlhf tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. ,J ,U ngUk; gpupTfshfg; gpupj;J
Nehf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j ehl;bd; tl gFjpahdJ fPo; vfpg;J vd;Wk; njd; gFjpahdJ
Nky; vfpg;J vd;Wk; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd. vfpg;J gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; rpwg;Gw;W tpsq;fpa
ehlhFk;.



vfpg;jpa Gul;rp ,uhZtk; vd;fpw Kjyhspj;Jt murpd; mbj;jsj;jijf; nfhz;l MAjk;
jupj;j kdpju;fspd; mq;fq;fs; vdf; $wg;gLfpd;wJ. Vg;uy; 6> 2011 thypgu; ,af;fk; vd;gJ
,`;thDy;        K];ypkpd;    ,af;fj;jpd;   thypgu;fisAk;   Vida       vjpu;f; fl;rpfspd;
thypgu;fisAk; gpujhdkhff; nfhz;l xU mikg;ghFk;. ,e;j Gul;rp ntWk; thypgu; Gul;rp
kl;Lky;y kf;fspd; gy jug;gpdu; xU ,yf;F nfhz;L xd;wpide;j kf;fs; Gul;rpahFk;.
2011 ngg;utup 11 nts;spad;W j`;uPu; rJf;fj;jpy; ,g;Gul;rp ,lk; ngw;wJ. ,J vfpg;jpa
,isQu;fspd;              ;
                   fpsu;rrp>  kf;fSf;fhf      kf;fs;  elj;Jk;    Gul;rp    vdTk;    ,J
miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. Gul;rpfuj; jiyikaw;w Gul;rpfu Kd;Ndhf;fw;w xU Gul;rpfu ntbg;G
vd kf;fs; fUJfpd;wdu;. ,g;Gul;rp Kg;gJ tUl fhykhf vfpg;jpau;fs; mDgtpj;J te;j
muh[fj;Jf;nfjpuhf ntFz;nlOe;j Nghuhl;lkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. 2011 vfpg;jpa
Nghuhl;lk; (2011 Egyptian protests day of Anger), ,isQu; Gul;rp (Youth Revolution) vdf;
Fwpg;gplg;gLk;. 25 [dtup 2011 Kjy; vfpg;jpy; njhlu;e;J epfOk; njUg; Nghuhl;lq;fisAk;
vjpu;g;Gf;fisAk; Fbik xj;JioahikiaAk; Fwpf;fpd;wd. ,J JD}rpag; Gul;rpapd;
gpd;dzpapy; ,g;Gul;rp cUthdJ vdf; $Wfpd;wdu;. ba+dprpa n[];kpd; Gul;rpia
Kd;Djhudkhff; nfhz;L vfpg;jpa nghJ kf;fs; my; ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; mikg;gpdu;
vjpu;f;fl;rpapdu;> rpwpNahu;> ngupNahu;> ,isQu;fs;> vd ,Ugjhapuj;Jf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l
vfpg;jpau;fs; tPjpf;F ,wq;fp mur vjpu;g;G Mu;g;ghl;lj;ij elhj;jp tUfpd;wdu;.



kj;jpa fpof;F ehLfspy; xd;whd nfa;Nuhtpy; cs;s Rje;jpu rJf;fj;jpy; ,yl;rf;
fzf;fhd kf;fspd; Mu;g;ghl;lk; KOikahf tpahgpj;jpUf;fpwJ. ,uhZt lhq;fpfSk;
,uhZtj;jpdUk; Vuhskhff; Ftpf;fg;gl;bUe;j NghjpYk; mtw;iwf; fz;L rpwpJk;
mQ;rplhky; murpd; Culq;F cj;juitr; Jr;rnkdj; J}f;fpnawpe;J fly; Nghd;W kf;fs;
$l;lk; fle;j Kg;gjhz;Lfshf eilngWk; Ml;rp mfw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; kf;fspd;
tho;epiyfis Nkk;gLj;jf; $ba tifapy; [dehaf rPu;j;jpUj;jq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl
Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; Nfhup Mu;g;gupj;J tUfpd;wJ. vfpg;J fle;j Mz;LfspYk; cs;ehl;Lg;
Nghuhl;lq;fs; elg;gJ toikahd xd;whf ,Ue;j NghJk; ,k;Kiw 25 [dtup 2011 Kjy;
ehL jOtpa Nghuhl;lq;fSk; fytuq;fSk; epfo;e;Js;sd. vfpg;jpd; vjpu;f;fl;rpfSk; gpwUk;
ngUk; vjpu;g;G njuptpf;fj; njupe;njLj;j 25 [dtup 2011 “Nfhgj;jpd; ehs;” vdf;
Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;wJ. ,g;Nghuhl;lq;fs; vfpg;jpy; Kd;ndg;NghJk; elf;fhjit vd;Wk; ehl;by;
mz;ikf; fhyj;jpy; ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;l kpfg; ngUk; nghJ kf;fspd; vjpu;g;G vd;Wk;
nfa;Nuh xU Nghu;f;fskhff; fhl;rpaspg;gjhfTk; nra;jpj;jhs;fSk; Clhfq;fSk;
Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;wd.



Nghuhl;lj;jpw;F     vjpuhd    gd;dhl;L     muR      kw;Wk;    mikg;Gf;fspd;    vjpu;tpidfs;
,Ugf;fj;jpdiuAk; td;Kiwiaj; jtpu;f;FkhWk; mikjpg; Ngr;Rf;fs; %yk; jPu;T
fhZkhWk; typAWj;Jtjhf cs;sd. Nghuhl;lf;fhuu;fSf;Fk; ghu;itahsu;fSf;Fk;
njhlu;G nfhs;sTk; xUq;fpidf;fTk; Mtzg;gLj;jTk; cjTk; r%f tiyj;jsq;fshd
Ltpl;lu; (Twitter)> Ng]; Gf; (Face book), A+ LA+g; (You tube) Nghd;wtw;wpd; jhf;fj;jhy; ,e;j
vjpu;g;Gg; Nghuhl;lq;fs; cyfpd; ftdj;ij <u;j;Js;sJ. ,jdhy; ,g; Gul;rp „Ng];Gf; Gul;rp‟
(Face book) vdTk; tu;zpf;fg; gLfpd;wJ. Nghuhl;lj;jpw;fhdd tpsk;guj;ijf; $l;Ltjhy;
vfpg;jpa muR ,iza mZf;fj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;jp tUfpd;wJ. 28 [dtup 2011 md;W
jpl;lkpl;l “Nfhg nts;sp” vjpu;g;gpidnahl;b Kjy; ehs; ,uT efu; Ngrpfs; ,aq;FtJ
jilg;gl;l NghJk; nts;spf; fpoik tpbfhiyapy; me;jj; jil ePf;fg;gl;lJ. vfpg;jpag;
Gul;rp Njhd;wpajw;F gy fhuzq;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. me;jtifapy; 2007> 2008 ,y;
njhlq;fpa cyfg; nghUshjhu KwpT> fhty; Jiwapd; nfhLQ; nray;fs;> neUf;fb
epiyr; rl;lq;fs;> Ntiyapd;ik> czTg; gztPf;ffk;> tWik> Fiwe;j Cjpaj;ij
cau;j;j Ntz;ba Njit> FbapUg;gpy;yhik> czTg; nghUl;fspd; tpiyAau;T> murpay;
Coy;> Ngr;Rupik kWf;fg;gLjy;> Nkhrkhd tho;epiy Nghd;w fhuzq;fspdhy; vfpg;jpy;
Nghuhl;lq;fSk; fytuq;fSk; eilngWfpd;wd. ,j;jifa ky;ypifg; G+ Gul;rpapd; jhf;fk;
kj;jpaf; fpof;fpd; kw;w ehLfspYk; Ntfkhfg; gutp tUfpd;wJ.



%d;W jrhg;jq;fsha; ehl;il Mz;L nfhz;bUe;j vfpg;jpd; ru;tjpfhup `{];dp Kghuf;
fl;lhakhf ,uh[pdhkh nra;aj; js;spaik Mu;g;ghl;lq;fspYk; Ntiy epWj;jq;fspYk;
gq;Nfw;wpUf;Fk; kpy;ypad; fzf;fhz njhopyhsu;fs; kw;Wk; ,isQu;fSf;F xU
kfj;jhd ntw;wp MFk;. fle;j 30 Mz;Lfshf gjtpapy; ,Ue;J tUk; mjpgu; gjtpapy;
,Ue;J tUk; mjpgu; `{];dp Kghufpd; gjtp tpyfiy ,g;Nghuhl;lq;fs; ,yf;fhff;
nfhz;Ls;sd. 11 ngg;utup 2011 md;W Kghuf; Kidg;Gld; nray;gl;l nghJkf;fspd;
vjpu;g;Gf;fSf;fpilNa jkJ gjtpapypUe;J tpyfpdhu;. ,g;Nghuhl;lj;jpw;F Kjd;Kiwahf
midj;J r%f nghUspay; gpd;dzp nfhz;l gy;NtW Jiw kf;fSk; vjpu;g;Gj;
njuptpg;gjpy; xd;WNru;e;Js;sdu;. fle;j [dtup 25Mk; jpfjp md;iwa ehis
vfpg;jpatu;fs; “Nfhg jpdk;” vd milahsg;gLj;jp Mug;ghl;lq;fis mlf;fp xLf;fp
Jg;ghf;fpg; gpuNahfk; Nkw;nfhz;NlDk; Mu;g;ghl;lj;Jf; KbT fl;l Kad;wJ. vfpg;jpa
mjpgu; `{];dp Kghuf; 25-29 Mk; jpfjp tiu Mug;ghl;lf; fhuu;fSld; vt;tpj rkurKk;
nra;J nfhs;sg; Nghtjpy;iy. ,uhZtj;jpdiuf; nfhz;L Mu;g;ghl;lj;ij eRf;Fq;fs;
vdf; fl;lisapl;lhu;. ,uhZtj;jpdUk; nghyp]hUk; ,ize;J Mu;g;ghl;lf; fhuu;fis
eRf;fpdu;. Mu;g;ghl;lf;fhuu;ffSk; gjpYf;F jhf;Fjy; ele;j mJ Xu; cs;ehl;Lg; Nghiug;
Nghy;      ,Ue;jhf    Mu;g;ghl;lj;jpy; fye;J   nfhz;Nlhu; Clfq;fSf;Ff;      fUj;Jj;
njuptpf;fpd;wdu;. `{];dp Kghuf; Mug;ghl;lf;fhuu;fis gaq;futhjpfs; vd Kj;jpiuapl
Kaw;rpf;fpwhu; vdf; $wg;gLfpd;wJ. 25 [dtup 2011 md;W mjpgu; `{];dp Kghuf;
Ml;rpia vjpu;j;J kpfg;gutyhff; fyfq;fs; Njhd;wpd. tpiutpy; ,J khngUk; Fbapay;
vjpu;g;Gg; Nghuhl;lhkhf khwp ngUkstpy; kf;fs; gq;Nfw;f Muk;gpj;jdu;. 29 [dtup md;W
epyik fl;Lf;flq;fhky; Nghtij czu;e;j Kghuf; muR Culq;F cj;juitg;
gpwg;gpj;jJ. Mdhy; kf;fs; ,ijg; nghUl;gLj;jhky; njhlu;e;J Nghuhbdu;. 11 ngg;utup
2011 md;W nfa;Nuhit tpl;L ntspNawpa Kghuf; jd; mjpgu; gjtpia tpl;Lf;nfhLj;jhu;.



01.02.2011 Mk; jpfjp Rkhu; xU kpy;ypaDf;Fk; mjpfkhd kf;fs; jiyefu; nfa;NuhtpYk;
,uz;lhtJ jiyefuhff; fUjg;gLk; mnyf;rhe;jpuh efupYk; xd;W $b Kghuf; kPjhd
jkJ vjpu;g;ig ntspg;gLj;jp ,Ue;jdu; mj;Jld; ,g;Nghuhl;lf; fhuu;fSf;F Mjuthf
ru;tNjr ehLfs; gytw;wpYk; jkJ Mug;ghl;lq;fis elhj;jp tUfpd;wdu;. ,e;epiyapy;
vfpg;J kf;fspd; Nfhupf;iffSf;Fg; gjpyspf;Fk; tifapy; Njrpa njhiyf;fhl;rpapy;
Njhd;wp ciuahw;wpa `{];dp Kghuf; gjtp tpyfNth ehl;il tpl;L ntspNawg; NghtNjh
,y;iy vdTk; $wpaNjhL murpay; kWrPuikg;Gf;F jhd; jahuhf ,Ug;gjhfTk;
njuptpj;Js;shu;. ,Ug;gpDk; `{];dp Kghuf;fpd; ,e;j kWnkhopf;F ,zq;f kWj;j
Nghuhl;lf;fhuu;fs; njhlu;e;Jk; jk; Nghuhl;lj;ijj; njhlu;e;jdu;. 01.02.2011 md;W xd;W
$ba       msTf;fjpfkhd      Mu;g;ghl;lf;fhuu;fs; kPJ  ,uhZtj;jpdu;        td;Kiwiag;
gpuNahfpf;fhJ MjuT toq;fpaJld; ghJfhg;igAk; toq;fp ,Ue;jdu;. ,e;epiyapy;
02.02.2011 Mk; jpfjp cj;jpNahfG+u;t mwpTUj;jy; xd;iw tpLj;j vfpg;J ,uhZtk;
Mu;g;ghl;lf;fhuu;fis tPLfSf;F nry;YkhW ehl;by; rl;lj;ijAk; xOq;ifAk; epiy
epWj;j xj;Jiog;G ey;FkhWk; Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jJ. ,Ug;gpDk; vjpu;f;fl;rpapdu; ,jw;F
,zq;f kWj;jJld; Kghuff; gjtp tpyFk; tiu jhk; tPl;Lf;F nry;yg; Nghtjpy;iy
vdTk; njuptpj;jhu;. [dgjpgjp `{];dp Kghuf;fpw;F MjhuthNdhUk; nfa;Nuhtpy; xd;W
$baij mLj;J ,U jug;gpdUf;fpilapy; Nkhjy; ntbj;jJ. ,jpy; gyu; kuzkile;Jk;
fhag;gl;Lk; ,Ue;jdu;. ,NjNtis vfpg;jpy; jw;NghJ mKypy; ,Uf;Fk; ghuhSkd;wk;
,ilepWj;jg;gl;Ls;sjhf mwptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mj;Jld; ,Wjpahf eilngw;W Kbe;j
Nju;jy; KbTfis kPs;guprPyizf;Fl;gLj;jTk; vfpg;jpa [dhjpgjp ,zf;fk; njuptpj;jhu;.
,jw;fpilapy; Nghuhl;lk; kw;Wk; td;Kiwfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fpy; vfpg;jpd; rpy
gFjpfspy; Culq;F rl;lKk; mKy;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,Ug;gpDk; mjidAk; kPwp kf;fs;
tPjpapy; $l;lk; $l;lkhf FOkp epw;gJk; INtis njhOiffisAk; tPjpfspNyNa
epiwNtw;wp te;jik Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.



ngg;utup 11>2011 md;W Kghuf; gjtp ,wq;fpdhu;. vfpg;J Nghuhl;lq;fSf;F gpw ehLfspy;
MjuTk; kj;jpa fpof;fhrpahtpy; kf;fshl;rpaw;w ehLfspy; Ml;rpahsu;fspd; fz;ldKk;
fpilj;jJ. Nghuhl;lj;Jf;Fj; jkJ Mjuit njuptpf;Fk; Kfkhf cyfpd; gy ehLfspYk;
cs;s Mapuf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; vfpg;jpa J}Jtuhyaq;fSf;F Kd;dhy; vjpu;g;G
Mu;g;ghl;lj;jpy; <Lgl;ldu;. vfpg;jpy; elf;fpd;w epfo;Tfs; xU njhw;W Nehiag; Nghd;wJ
vd;W $wpAs;s rpupahtpd; mjpgu; g]u; my; Mrhj; mtw;iw jiytu;fs; rupahff;
ifahs Ntz;Lk; vd;W $wpAs;shu;. vfpg;jpa Gul;rpahy; gy tpisTfs; Vw;gLfpd;wd.
me;jtifapy; mz;ikapy; mnkupf;f MjuT ,uhZt Ml;rpf;F vjpuhf xU Gjpa Ntiy
epWj;j vjpu;g;Gf;fs; miy vfpg;J KOtJk; gutpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. kUj;Jtu;fs;>
khztu;fs; kw;Wk; mQ;ry; Jiw Copau;fs;> Mrpupau;fs; cl;gl njhopyhsu; tu;f;fj;jpd;
gy gpuptpdu; Ntiy epWj;jq;fspy; <Lgl;Ls;sdu;. vfpg;jpa Gul;rp ntw;wpaspj;jhy; mjw;F
tuyhw;wpy; vd;Wkpy;yhjthW kpfg; ngUk; tpiy nfhLf;fg; NghtJ ,];Nuy; jhd; vd;gjpy;
re;Njfkpy;iy. ehl;bd; tsu;r;rpg; ghijapy; kpfg; ngupa mstpy; khw;wk; epfOk; vd
vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ.       vfpg;jpy;        khngUk;            ;
                                                             tsu;rrpg;     Nghf;Ffs;
eilngw;Wf;nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.      [dhjpgjp     `{];dp     Kghuf;fpw;F  vjpuhf     kf;fs;
Nghuhl;lq;fs; kw;Wk; fhytiuaw;w nghJ Ntiy epWj;jk; gutp tUk; epiyapy; vfpg;jpa
Gul;rpapd; ce;J rf;jpahfj; njhopyhsu; tu;f;fk; vOr;rp ngw;W tUfpd;wJ. vfpg;jpa Ntiy
epWj;jq;fSk; Nghuhl;lq;fSk; ngUf;nfLj;J tUfpd;wd. njhopyhsu; tu;f;fj;jpd; Mo;e;j
r%f rf;jpapd; ntspg;ghlhdJ MSk; tu;f;fj;ij kw;Wk; Kf;fpa Clfq;fspy; ,Uf;Fk;
mjd;       nra;jpj;  njhlu;ghdq;fis      Ml;lk;fhz       nra;Js;sJ.    Mu;g;ghl;lq;fs;
ntspg;gilahd tu;f;f Aj;jkhf khwp tUfpd;wd. vd ept;Nahu;f; ilk;]; gj;jpupif
njuptpf;fpd;wJ.



[dehfg; Gul;rp Neubaha; Nrhryprg; Gul;rpahf tsu;e;J xU Nrhryprg; Gul;rpahf khwp xU
epue;jug; Gul;rpahfTk; khWfpd;wJ. Gul;rpiaj; njhlu;tJk; jdJ eyd;fSf;fhg;
NghuhLtJk; njhopyhsu; tu;f;fj;ijAk; xLf;fg;gl;l gue;j kf;fisAk; ,uhZtj;JlDk;
cj;jpNahf      G+u;t    vjpu;f;fl;rpfSlDk;   kw;Wk;  mnkupf;f     Vfhjpgj;jpaj;JlDk;
Kd;ndg;NghijAk; tpl NeubahdnjhU NkhjYf;Fs; nfhz;L te;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.
,e;jg; Nghuhl;lj;ij Kd;nfhz;L nry;y njhopyhsu; [dehafj;jpd; RahjPdkhd
mikg;Gf;fisf; fl;LtJ vd;gJ mtrpakhfpd;wJ. ,jw;F vfpg;jpd; njhopyhsu;fis xl;L
nkhj;j gpuhe;jpaj;jpd; njhopyhs tu;f;fj;Jld; Kd;Ndwpa Kjyhspj;Jt ehLfspy; cs;s
vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyha; mnkupf;fhtpy; cs;s njhopyhsu;fSld; If;fpag;gLj;Jtjw;fhd
Nghuhl;lk; mtrpakha; cs;sJ. ngU epWtdq;fs; kw;Wk; ePjpj; Jiwapdupdhy;
nra;ag;gLk; nghJthd jhf;FjYf;F vjpuhf cynfq;fpYk; cs;s njhopyhsu;fs; kw;Wk;
xLf;fg;gl;ltu;fspd; xU gFjp jhd; vfpg;jpd; Gul;rpfu vOr;rpahFk;. ,e;j Nghuhl;lq;fis
Nrhryprg; Gul;rp vd;Dk; mtw;wpd; mj;jpatrpakhd Kbtpw;F mioj;Jr; nry;tjw;F
mu;g;gzpg;Gf; nfhz;l xU Gjpa fl;rpiaf; fl;Ltjw;fhd Nghuhl;lj;jpy; ,iztjw;F
vfpg;jpYk; kw;Wk; cyfpd; midj;Jg; gFjpfspYk; cs;s jdJ thrfu;fs; kw;Wk;
mDjhgpfSf;F cyf tiyaj;jsk; miog;G tpLf;fpd;wJ.,t;thwhf vfpg;jpag; Gul;rp
tpsq;Ffpd;wJ.



                                      crhj;Jizfs;



   1. Muhammad Abdul Jabaar Beg, 2006, The Middle East In The Twentieth Century, United
      Kingdom , Cambridge, p.81-134, 135-199, 347-383
   2. wTg; n]a;d;> 2011>[_iy> mwGyfpd; kf;fs; vOr;rp> ,];yhkpf; Gf; `T];> g.19-109
   3. ru;tNjrg; ghu;it> ,jo;-11> 2010>[_d;> “ypgpah> vfpg;J”> nfhOk;G> kPs;ghu;it
      kPbah nrd;lu;> g.12-26
   4. cz;ik cjak;> 2011> khu;r;> cz;ik 57> cjak; 159> “kf;fs; Gul;rpapy; Vw;gl;l
      khw;wq;fs; epfOkh?”> guf`njdpa> [khj; md;]hup Rd;dj;jpy; K`k;kjpah>
      gf;.2>3
   5. tpf;fpgPbah> 2012> vfpg;J> [Online]. Available: http://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/எகிப்து,
      [2012.07.22]
   6. tpf;fpgPbah> 2012.06.25> 2011 vfpg;J Gul;rp> [Online]. Available:
      http://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011_எகிப்திய_புரட்சி, [2012.07.22]

								
To top