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ஈரானிய புரட்சி

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ஈரானிய புரட்சி Powered By Docstoc
					                                 Author: J.F.Minsara
                       Special in Islamic Thought & Civilization
                                     (2006/2007)



                                 <uhdpag; Gul;rp…




<uhd; kj;jpa fpof;fpy; cs;s xU ehlhFk;. <uhf;> ghfp];jhd;> Mg;fhdp];jhd; Nghd;w
ehLfs; ,jd; may; ehLfshFk;. ,jd; jiy efuk; nj`;uhd; MFk;. ,e;ehL gz;ila
fhyj;jpy; ghurPfk; vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ. <uhd; ehl;by; 30 khfhzq;fs; cs;sd. xt;nthU
khfhzKk; epakpf;fg;gl;l MSeuhy; Ml;rp nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. KiwNa khfhzq;fs; ngU
khtl;lq;fshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;L Ml;rp nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. khfhzq;fs;> khtl;lq;fs; vd;gd
FWkhtl;lq;fshfg; gpupf;fg;gl;L Ml;rp nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. <uhdpy; gug;gsT 1>648>195 rJu
fpNyh kPw;wuhFk;. cyfpNyNa efu kf;fs; njhif ngUf;f tpfpjk; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLk;
ehLfspy; <uhDk; xd;W. 1950 Mk; Mz;bypUe;J 2002 tiu efu kf;fs; njhif tpfpjkhdJ
27% ,ypUe;J 60% Mf cau;e;jJ. <uhdpd; mjpguhf Maj;Jy;yh`; myp nfhika;dp
tpsq;Ffpd;whu;. FbauRj; jiytuhf k`;%j; m`;kjp e[hj; fhzg;gLfpd;whu;. kj;jpa fpof;F
vd;W Nkw;fj;Nja cyfk; miof;Fk; ngUk; epyg;gug;gpd; njhlf;fk; <uhdpypUe;J jhd;
njhlq;Ffpd;wJ.



K];ypk; ehnlhd;wpy; Kjd;Kjypy; Njhd;wpa Gul;rpahf <uhdpa Gul;rpia r%f tiyj;
jskhd Twitter ,idg; gad;gLj;jp Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ljhy; ,g;Gul;rpia Nkw;fj;Nja Clfq;fs;
“Ltpl;lu; Gul;rp” vd;W miof;fpd;wJ. ,g;Gul;rp 1979.02.10 md;W gy;fiyf;fof khztu;fisf;
nfhz;L cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. ,g;Gul;rpahdJ fhyg;Nghf;fpy; mlf;fg;gl;lhYk; gy Mapuk;
khw;wq;fis cyfpy; Njhw;Wtpj;jhYk; ,jd; jhf;fj;ij ,d;wstpYk; czuf;$bajhfTs;sJ.
<uhdpy; nkhrtp> Nju;jypy; KiwNfL elf;f tha;g;gpUg;gjhf njhlf;fj;jpypUe;Nj $wp te;jhu;.
Kjy; Rw;wpNyNa mfkj; e[hj; 63 rjtPj thf;Ffisg; ngw;wpUg;gjd; %yk; KiwNfL
ele;jpUg;gJ cWjpahfptpl;lJ vd;W mtUk; mtuJ $l;lhspfSk; muRf;F vjpuhf kf;fisj;
jpul;lg;   Nghuhbf;     nfhz;bUf;fpwhu;fs;.   ,jw;Fg;    ‘gr;irg;  Gul;rp’ vd;W  ngau;
itj;jpUf;fpwhu;fs;. mikjpahfj; njhlq;fpa Nghuhl;lq;fs; ,g;NghJ td;Kiwahf khwp gy
capu;fisg; gypthq;fptpl;lJ. <uhdpd; ,];yhkpa Gul;rpapd; ];jhgfu; ,khk; nfhnka;dp (u`;)
mtu;fshthu;. ,tu; <uhdpy; kj mbg;gilapyhd tpopg;Gzu;itj; Njhw;Wtpj;J xU khngUk;
Gul;rpf;F tpj;jpl;lhu;. murpay;> rpe;jid> fyhrhu mbg;gilapy; <uhdpy; xU ,];yhkpa
Gul;rpia cUthf;fpdhu;. ,d;iwa fhyfl;lj;jpy; <uhd; cyf ehLfSf;nfy;yhk; xU
cjhuzkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. rpj;jhe;j uPjpahfNt cyfj;Jld; khWgl;bUf;Fk; xU rpy
ehLfspy; <uhDk; xd;W. mfkj; e[hj; jiyikapyhd <uhd; cyfj;jpd; Nghf;fpypUe;J
Kw;wpYk; khWgl;ljhfNt fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. <uhdpy; Gul;rp Vw;gLtjw;F gy fhuzq;fs;
nry;thf;F nrYj;Jfpd;wd. me;jtifapy; <uhd; kPJ kfh mnyf;rhz;lu; fp.K 331,y;
gilnaLg;G Nkw; nfhz;lJk; r];rhdpau;fspd; Ml;rp ,q;F tsk;ngw njhlq;fpaJk;
,];yhkpa fpyhgj;jpd; Xu; mq;fkhf fp.gp 641,y; ,ize;jJ. ,jd; gpw;ghL n[u];jpupa>
k[_]pfshf fhzg;gl;l kf;fs; ,];yhj;ijj; jOtj; njhlq;fpdu;. gpd;du; cikah>
mg;gh]pau;fspd; Mjpf;fj;jpd; gpd; tsk; ngw;wJ. fp.gp 12> 13Mk; E}w;whz;Lfspy;
nry;[_f;fpaupd;    Ml;rp   mikaj;     njhlq;fpaJld;     nkhq;Nfhypa gilnaLg;G
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. nghUshjhu fyhrhu mk;rq;fs; mopaj; njhlq;fpaJ.



fp;.gp 16Mk; E}w;whz;by; ]/gyp guk;giu ,q;F Ml;rp nra;aj; njhlq;fpaJ. \h ,];khapy;
(1502-1524 tiu) \h mg;gh]; (1587-1629 tiu) Nghd;wtu;fspd; Ml;rpf; fhyg;gug;G
,g;guk;giuapd; cr;rfl;l fhyg;gug;ghFk;. ,tu;fspd; fhyg;gug;gpy; ,];gfhd; jiyefuhd
gpd;du; fp.gp 1722-1730 tiu Mg;fhdpaupd; nry;thf;fpw;F cl;gl;lJ. ,jd; gpd;du; 1776-1825
tiu `h[hu; guk;giu Ml;rp nra;a njhlq;fpaJ. ,tu;fspd; fhyj;jpNyNa n[`;uhd;
jiyefuhf khw;wg;gl;lJ. 1825 fhyg; gug;gpy; u\;ahTf;Fk; <uhDf;Fkpilapy; Nghu; Vw;gl;lJ.
,jpy; <uhdpag; gpuhe;jpaq;fs; gytw;iw u\;ah ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lJk; <uhd; rpy tpl;Lf;
nfhLg;Gf;F mb gzpe;J u\;ahTld; xg;ge;jk; xd;iw Nkw;nfhz;lJ. 19Mk; E}w;whz;bd;
<uhdhdJ Mg;fhd; kPJ Mf;fpukpg;G Nghu; xd;iw Nkw;nfhz;lJ. ,jw;F u\;ah cjtpaJ.
,jid rfpj;Jf; nfhs;shj gpupj;jhdpah cs;spl;l ehLfs; Mg;fhdp];jhDf;F cjtpd. ,jpy;
Mg;fhdpd; Mjpf;fNk mjpfupj;jJ. 1906Mk; Mz;L nghJ Ntiy epWj;jk; xd;iw <uhdpau;fs;
Nkw;nfhz;likahy; gjtpapypUe;J myp \h> Kb Jwf;f Neupl;lJ. gpw;gl;l fhyj;jpy; Kjyhk;
cyfg; Nghu; cUthfj; njhlq;fpaJk; <uhd; eL epiy tfpj;jJ.



1920 [{];ah gjtp ePf;fk; nra;ag;gl;lJk; mNj Mz;L u]h fhd; gjtpNaw;wJk; <uhdpa
murpaypy;     Vw;gLj;jpd.   JUf;fp>Mg;fhdp];jhd;     cs;spl;l  ehLfs;    jq;fSf;Fs;     Xu;
cld;ghl;Lf;F te;jd. ,JNt ]Mjhghj; cld;ghL vdg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jd; gpd;du; <uhdpy;
fhzg;gl;l N[u;kdpa Kftu;fis gopthq;Fk; Kfkhf 1941 fhyg;gug;gpy; Ner ehl;Lg; gilfs;
<uhd; kPJ nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;jpd. ,Ug;gpDk; Dr. K]j;jpf; mtu;fspd; gpujku; Ml;rpf;
fhyj;jpy; gy rPu; jpUj;jf; nfhs;iffs; Kd; itf;fg;gl;l gpd;du; Nghu; mopTfs; KbTf;Ff;
nfhz;L te;jd. gpd;du; \h`pjpw;Fk; K]j;jpw;Fk; Kuz;ghL Njhd;wpaJ. ,jidg;
gad;gLj;jp     \h`pjp     muir    ifg;gw;wpf;  nfhz;lhu;    ,jd;  gpw;ghlhd   fhyg;gug;gpy;
ntspehl;bypUe;J tUif je;j \h murd; 1953Mk; Mz;L GJ munrhd;iw <uhdpy;
Vw;gLj;jpdhu;. ,tupd; Ml;rpf; fhyg;gug;G Muk;gj;jpy; R%fkhd Kiwapy; eilngw;w NghjpYk;
1979,y; <uhdpa Gul;rp Vw;gLj;Jtjw;Fg; gpd;epd;w fhyg;gug;G Jiz epd;wJ.



1979Mk; Mz;Lf;Fg; gpw;gl;l fhyj;jpy; <uhdpy; ghupa murpay; khw;wq;fis me;ehL
nfhz;bUe;jik       mtjhdpj;Jf;    nfhs;s    KbAkhdnjhd;whFk;.    Fwpg;ghf    <uhdpa
Ml;rpahsu;fsplk;    nghJthff;    fhzg;gl;l   Nkw;fj;Nja  Nkhfk;>    xOf;ff;    NfL>
Ml;rpahsu;fNshL ,ize;J kf;fNshL nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;jpa ,];yhkpa fyhrhuj;ij
tpl;Lk; tpyfpr; nry;Yk; epiy> Coy;> nghUshjhu uPjpapyhd ,wf;Fkjp mjpfupg;G> njhlu;G
rhjdq;fspd;      Kiwaw;w     ghtid>Nkw;fj;Nja    ehLfNshL     nra;J     nfhs;sg;gl;l
cld;gbf;iffs; vd;git <uhdpa Gul;rpapd; gpd;dzpf; fhuzpfshf mike;jpUe;j NghjpYk;
cldbf; fhuzq;fshf Maj;Jy;yh myp nfhnka;dp jiyikj;JtKk; mtiu <uhdpa
Ml;rpahsu;fs; ehL flj;jpaikAk; 1979Mk; Mz;L ,uhZtr; rl;lk; gpufldg;gLj;jg;gly;
kf;fs; Nghuhl;lq;fis Mjupj;jy; ,itfSld; ,ize;jjhf gy;fiyf;fofk;> ghlrhiy>
khzt> Mrpupau;fs; ,];yhkpa vOr;rpia Nehf;fp jpir jpUg;gg; gl;lik vd;gitfisf;
Fwpg;gpl KbAk;. nghJthf 1979,y; ngg;utup 10Mk; jpfjp Vw;gl;l <uhdpa ,];yhkpa
Gul;rpahdJ gy khWjy;fis Njr> ru;tNjr uPjpapy; Vw;gLj;jpaJ. Fwpg;ghf ru;tNjr
uPjpapyhd khw;wq;fshf my;yJ tpisTfshf <uhdpy; vOr;rpapy; Nkw;fj;Njak; gyk; ,oj;jy;>
kj;jpa fpof;Fj; njhlu;ghd Nkw;fj;Nja nfhs;ifapy; khw;wk; nfhz;L tug;gly;> ,];yhkpa
,af;fq;fis xU Kfg;gLj;jy;> gpw;gl;l fhy ,];yhkpa vOr;rpfSf;F tpj;jply;
vd;gitfisf; Fwpg;gpl KbAk;. vdpDk; 1990Mk; Mz;Lfspy; Vw;gl;l tis Flh Aj;jk; ,f;
nfhs;ifapy; Nkw;fj;Njaj;jpd; CLUtiy mjpfupf;f cjtpaJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.



<uhdpa muR gykhd munrhd;whfg; gpufldg; gLj;jg;gly;> <uhdpau;fs; Jiw uPjpapy;
Kd;Ndw;wk; fhz toptFj;jy; \uPM rl;lk; mKyhf;fk;> cs;shu;e;j fl;Lkhd Jiwfspy;
              ;
Vw;gl;l tsu;rrp nghJthd Mj;kPf uPjpapyhd jiyikj;Jtq;fspy; ,Ug;G vd;gitfisj;
Njrpa uPjpapyhd tpisTfshff; nfhs;s KbAk; ,Ug;gpDk; mz;ikapy; <uhdpa mZF
Kiw njhlu;ghf Nkw;fj;Njak; nfhz;bUf;Fk; epiyg;ghL>Nkw;fj;Njak; njhlu;ghd <uhdpa
[dhjpgjp m`;kj; e[hap>ntspehl;Lf; nfhs;ifAk; Kuz;gl;Lf; fhzg;gLfpd;wik ,jDld;
,ize;J Nkw;fj;Njak; rhu;ghd <uhdpa vjpu;fl;rpfs; kf;fs; Nghuhl;lq;fSf;F miog;G
tpLj;jpUe;jikAk; vjpu;fhy <uhdpa vjpu;g;igf; Nfs;tpf; Fwpahf;fpaJ. mj;Jld; m`kJ
e[hj; mjpguhf njhlUk; tiuapy; <uhdpd; mD MAjj;jpl;lq;fisNah. jd;dpr;irahd
Nghf;ifNah Klf;fNt KbahJ vd;gij Nkiy ehLfs; czu;e;jpUf;fpd;wd. ,jw;fhfNt
kf;fs; Nghuhl;lk; vd;w Nghu;itapy; <uhidr; rpijf;Fk; eltbf;ifapy; Nkw;F ehLfs;
,wq;fpapUf;fpwJ. kj mlf;FKiw> ngz; mbikj;jdk; Mfpatw;Wf;F vjpuhf kf;fs;
jq;fshfNt       tPjpapy; ,wq;fp   m`kj;      e[hJf;F   vjpuhfg;  Nghuhl;lk;   elhj;jpf;
nfhz;bUf;fpwhu;fs;. <uhdpy; Nkw;fj;Nja rpe;jid ngUfptpl;lNj kf;fs; vOr;rpf;Ff; fhuzk;
                                                  ;
vd;W $wg;gLfpd;wJ. Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <LgLNthu; rPuj;jpUj;jk; Njit vd;fpwhu;fNs jtpu
,];yhj;Jf;F vjpuhd fUj;Jf;fisj; njuptpg;gjpy;iy. mjdhy; kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ,e;jg;
Nghuhl;lj;Jf;Fg; gykhd MjuTk; fpilj;jpUf;fpwJ.



1979 ,y; <uhdpy; \htpw;F vjpuhf ele;j Gul;rp cyfpd; ftdj;ij <u;j;jJ. jd;Dila
mjpfhuk;> Ez;zurpay; Nfhl;ghLfSf;F Kuzhf ,];Nuy; MjuT epiyg;ghl;il vLj;j
kp\y; G+f;Nfh $l <uhdpa Gul;rpia Mjupj;jhu; me;jg; Gul;rp cyf tuyhw;wpy; ngUk;
                                                                               ;
khWjy;fis Vw;gLj;Jk; vd ek;gpdhu;. \hTf;F vjpuhd <uhdpag; Gul;rpapy; r%f rPuj;jpUj;j
Nrhrypr     ,af;fq;fspd;  gq;Nfw;G   fzprkhf     ,Ue;jJ.     ,jpy;     <uhdpy;   kdpj
cupikahsu;fs;>mwpT [Ptpfs; gq;Nfw;wdu;. mtu;fspy; khf;rpa rpe;jidahsuhd kd;#u;
`pf;kj; Kf;fpakhdtu;. ,tu; \hTf;F vjpuhd Gul;rpapy; mtu; mq;Fs;s r%f rPu;j;jpUj;j
,af;fq;fNshL ,ize;J nray;gl;lhu;. 1978 ,y; fk;A+dprg; Nghuhspfspd; $l;likg;ig
Vw;gLj;jpdhu;. ,jdbg;gilahf Gul;rpfu Nghuhl;lq;fisj; jPtpug;gLj;jpdhu;. etPd Afj;jpy;
ePbj;jpUe;j kpfg; ngUk; kd;duhl;rp ehlhd <uhdpy; eilngw;w Gul;rpahdJ cyif
mjpuitj;jJ vdyhk;. Maj;Jy;yh`; nfhika;dpapd; jiyikapyhd khngUk; kf;fs;
Gul;rpapd; tpisTfis cyfk; fz;$lhfg; ghu;j;jJ. mNkupf;f MjuTld; ghurPf kd;du;
guk;giuf;Nf cupa gyk;nghUe;jpa mjpfhuj;Jld; rpk;khrdj;jpy; tPw;wpUe;j kd;du; \h
g`;ytpapd; Ml;rpia kf;fs; vjpu;j;jdu;. jdJ ,uhZtg; gyk; KOtijAk; jdf;F
Mjuthd Nkw;fj;Nja rf;j;jpfisAk; gad;gLj;jp kf;fs; Gul;rpia eRf;Ftjw;F Kbe;j
vy;yh Kaw;rpfisAk; \h Nkw;nfhz;lhu;. Ml;rp khw;wk; Ntz;Lk;. gpd;du; ntspNaw
Ntz;Lk;. vd;w kf;fs; Nfhupf;iffspy; ve;j khw;wKk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. kf;fs; gyk;
kd;duhl;rpia KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L te;jJ. kd;du; \h ntspNaw;wg;gl;lhu;. kd;du;fs; my;y
kf;fs; jhd; ehl;il Ms Ntz;Lnkd;w nra;jpia 1979 Mk; Mz;L <uhdpa kf;fs; Gul;rp
ntspg;gLj;jpaJ. muG ehLfspy; ,r; nra;jp xU mjpu;r;rp miyahfg; gutpaJ. kf;fs; Gul;rp
ntbf;fyhk; vd;W kd;du;fSk; mlf;FKiw Ml;rpahsu;fSk; eLeLq;fpa fhyg;gFjpahFk;.
Gul;rp miyfs; muG ehLfspy; guttpy;iyahapDk; kf;fs; vOr;rp “kf;fs; Gul;rp” vd;w
jj;Jtj;ij mJ muGyfpw;Ff; fw;Wf; nfhLj;jJ. gpuhe;jpaj;jpd; kPjhd <uhdpfs; nry;thf;F>
\Pah rkag; gpuptpdupd; vOr;rp vd;w ,U Nfhzq;fspy; muGyfk; guprPypf;fj; njhlq;fpaJ.
muG ehLfspy; gy E}w;whz;Lfshfj; jpUg;jpaw;w rpWghd;ikf; FOthf tho;e;jpUe;j
\Pahf;fspd; murpay; czu;TfSf;F <uhdpd; vOr;rp xU MWjiy my;yJ Ntfj;ij
toq;fpaJ. Fwpg;ghf g`;nua;d; \Pahf;fs; <uhdpa vOr;rpia rhjfkhfg; gad;gLj;Jk;
Kaw;rpfspy; ,wq;fpdu;.



<uhdpy; kd;du; \h`;Tila murhq;fj;Jf;F vjpuhd Gul;rp ntbj;j NghJ ehL flj;jg;gl;l
Fikdp <uhf;fpYk; gpuhd;]pYk; jdJ ngUk;ghyhd ehl;fisf; fopj;J tpl;L j`;uhd;
te;jile;j NghJ <uhdpNy \h`;Tila murhq;fj;ij tPo;j;jp tpl;L ‘[{k;`_upah ,];thkpah’
(,];yhkpaf; FbauR)it ];jhgpj;J tpl;ljhfg; gpufldk; nra;jhu;. ,jd; tpisthf <uhdpa
ntspAwTf; nfhs;ifapy; rpwe;jnjhU khw;wk; Vw;;gLk; vdTk; Vfhjpgj;jpak; KbTf;Ff;
nfhz;L te;J kf;fshl;rp kyUk; vdTk; Fbkf;fsila eyd;fSk; mgpyhirfSk;
ghJfhf;fg;gLk; vdTk; gpuhe;jpa kf;fs; vjpu;ghu;j;jdu;. ,g;ghupa jpUg;GKidia gpuhe;jpa
kf;fSk;      mikg;Gf;fSk;    tuNtw;wd.      Mdhy;      me;jf;   fdT      edthftpy;iy.
,t;ntjpu;ghu;g;Gf;fs; midj;Jk; nrhw;g ehl;fspNyNa jtpL nghbahfpd. <uhdpa Gul;rp
murhq;fk; mz;ila mwG ehLfSld; gykhd cwTg; ghyj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;Gk;
Kaw;rpiaNah        gykhd    cwTg;    ghyj;ijf;    fl;bnaOg;Gk;    Kaw;rpiaNah    rkur
ey;ypzf;fj;Jf;fhd Kaw;rpiaNah njhlutpy;iy. khwhf>jkJ Gul;rpf; nfhs;ifiag;
gpuhe;jpa ehLfspYk; kf;fspYk; jpzpg;gjpYk; mNefkhd mz;ila ehLfspypy; ghJfhg;Gj;
jsk;gy;fis Vw;gLj;JtjpYNk <uhdpa muR mf;fiw fhl;baJ. ,jpNy <uhdpag; Gul;rp
murhq;fj;jpd; gilfSk; csT epWtdq;fSk; jiyapl;ld. ,J fyfq;fis Vw;gLj;jpaJld;
VuhskhNdhu; nfhiy nra;ag;glTk; fhaq;fSf;F cs;shfTk; toptFj;jJ. ,itfis
tpgupg;gjw;F ,q;F gf;fq;fs; ,lk; jukhl;lhJ.



Gul;rpiaj; njhlu;e;J <uhDk; kj;jpa fpof;fpy; thOk; \Pahf;fspd; eydpd; mf;fiw
fhl;Ltjw;Fk; gpuhe;jpaj;jpy; jdJ nry;thf;if mjpfupg;gjw;Fk; Kaw;rpfis vLf;fj;
jtwtpy;iy. muG ehLfSk; Rd;dp K];ypk;fSk; ,ijnahU ntWf;fj;jf;f jiyapbahfNt
fUjpdu;. <uhdpa Gul;rp mjw;Fwpa jhf;fj;ij muG kf;fspilNa ntspg;gilahf cUthf;fj;
jtwpajw;F ,JnthU Kf;fpa fhuzkhf mike;jJ. <uhdpa murhq;fj;jhy; elj;jg;gl;l
,Uk;Gf;fuk; nfhz;l xLf;FKiwahdJ tpiyAau;Tfs;> Ntiy tha;g;gpd;ik> r%fk;
rkj;Jtkpd;ik> kf;fspd; Nfhgk; Nghd;wtw;wpdhy; cUthdJ vdyhk;. 1979f;Fg; gpw;gl;l
fhyj;jpy; <uhdpy; ghupa khw;wk; xd;iw me;ehL nfhz;bUe;jik mtjhdpg;Gs;s tplakhFk;.
<uhd; ehl;bd; gpd;dzp ,g;Gul;rpiaj; Jupjg;gLj;jpaJ. <uhdpa Ml;rpahsu;fsplk; nghJthff;
fhzg;gl;l Nkw;fj;Nja Nkhfk;> xOf;ff;NfL> Ml;rpahsu;fNshL ,ize;J kf;fNshL
nry;thf;F nrYj;jpa>,];yhkpa fyhrhuj;ij tpl;Lk; tpyfpr; nry;Yk; epiy> Coy;>
,wf;Fkjp mjpfupg;G> njhlu;ghlypy; Kiwaw;w ghtid> Nkw;fj;Nja xg;ge;jk;>cld;gbf;iffs;
vd;git       <uhdpa     Gul;rpapd;   gpd;dzpf;fhuzq;fshf      mike;jpUe;j     NghjpYk;
cldbf;fhuzq;fshf Maj;Jy;yh`; myp nfhnka;dpapd; jiyikj;JtKk; mtiu ehL
flj;jpaikAk;      1979   ,uhZt      rl;lgpufldk;>kf;fs;  Nghuhl;lq;fs;>  ,uhZtj;jpdu;
Nghuhl;lj;jpid Mjupj;jy; Nghd;wdTk; gy;fiyf;fof khztu;fs;> ghlrhiy khztu;fs;
,];yhkpa vOr;rpia Nehf;fp jpir jpUg;gg;gl;lik vd;gitfisf; Fwpg;gpl KbAk;.
<uhdpag; Gul;rpahdJ gy khWjy;fis Njr ru;tNjr uPjpapy; Vw;gLj;jpaJ. Fwpg;ghf ru;tNjr
tpisTfshf <uhdpd; vOr;rpapy; Nkw;fj;Njak; gykpyj;jy;> kj;jpa fpof;F njhlu;ghd
Nkw;fj;Nja nfhs;if khw;wk;> ,];yhkpa ,af;fq;fspd; xUKfk;> gpw;gl;l ,];yhkpa
vOr;rpfSf;F tpj;jply;> 1990 ,y; tisFlh Aj;jk; ,f; nfhs;ifapy; Nkw;fj;Nja
CLUtiy mjpfupf;f cjtpaJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;. <uhdpa muR gykhd murhfg;
gpufldg;gLj;jg;gly;> <uhdpau;fspd; Jiw uPjpahd Kd;Ndw;wk;> \uPM rl;l mKyhf;fk;>
                                 ;
cs;shu;e;j fl;Lkhdj;Jiw tsu;rrp> nghJthd Mj;kPf jiyikj;Jt ,Ug;G vd;gitfis
Njrpa uPjpapyhd tpisTfshff; nfhs;s KbAk;. ,Ug;gpDk; mz;ikapy; <uhdpa mZ
ciy njhlu;ghf Nkw;fj;Njak; nfhz;bUf;Fk; epiyg;ghLk; Nkw;fj;Njak; njhlu;ghd <uhdpa
[dhjpgjp m`;kj; e[hjpd; ntspehl;Lf; nfhs;ifAk; Kuz;gl;Lf; fhzg;gLfpd;wik ,jDld;
,ize;J Nkw;fj;Nja        rhu;ghd <uhdpa vjpu;f;fl;rpfs; kf;fs; Nghul;lq;fSf;F miog;G
tpLj;jikAk; vjpu;fhy <uhdpd; ,Ug;ig Nfs;tpf;Fs;shf;fpaJ.



<uhdpag; Gul;rp gy tpisTfis cyfpy; Vw;gLj;jpAs;sd. me;j tifapy; <uhdpa
Ml;rpahdJ vfpg;ijg; Nghd;Nw kf;fs; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; njhopyhsu;fs; <LgLtjw;fhd rhj;jpaf;
$Wfs; cs;sd. <uhdpaj; njhopyhsu;fs; kw;Wk; xLf;fg;gl;l kf;fspd; xU gue;j Gul;rpfu
Nghuhl;lj;jpd; mgptpUj;jpahdJ murhq;fj;Jld; kl;Lky;yhky; khwhf ciof;Fk; kf;fSf;F
Kw;wpYk; vjpuhf r%f eyd;fisf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; tyJrhup Kjyhspj;Jt vjpu;g;GlDk;
cldbahf Kuz;ghl;bw;F tUk; vd vjpu;ghu;f;fg; gLfpd;wJ. mj;Jld; <uhidj; jdJ
Mjpf;fj;jpd; fPo; itj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy; vDk; mnkupf;fhtpd; fdT jfu;e;J nfhz;Nl
tUfpd;wJ. K];ypk; cyfpy; nrwpe;J fhzg;gLk; ngw;Nwhypa kw;Wk; ,ju ,aw;if
tsq;fis MAjKidapy; #iwahLtJjhd; ,e;j Mf;fpukpg;G murpaypd; mbg;gil ,yf;F.
tsu;e;JtUk; murpay; ,];yhj;ijj; jLj;J epWj;JtJ mj;jpl;lj;jpd; ,uz;lhtJ ,yf;F.
fle;j xd;iwiuj; jrjhg;jj;jpw;F Kd;du; jPl;lg;gl;l ,j;jifa ,uhZt Mf;fpukpg;Gj;
jpl;lq;fis 2001 ,ypUe;J mnkupf;fhTk; mjw;F rhu;ghd rpy Nkw;F INuhg;gpa rf;jpfSk;
muq;Nfw;wp tUfpd;wd. <uhf;if Mf;fpukpj;Js;s mnkupf;f gpupj;jhdpaf; $l;Lg; gilfs; mjd;
vy;iyg; GwehLfspYk; jdJ Vfhjpgj;jpa ,uhZtj;ijf; Ftpj;jpUf;fpd;wJ. rTjp mNugpah>
Fitj;> g`;iud;> Xkhd; vd gy K];ypk; ehLfspy; ,d;W mnkupf;fj; JUg;gpdu;
epWj;jg;gl;Ls;sdu;. ,g;NghJ <uhd; kPJ mnkupf;f muR mr;RWj;jy; tpLj;J tUfpd;wJ. may;
gpuhe;jpa ,uhZtf; Ftpj;J %yk; <uhd; Kw;Wif epiyf;Fs; epiyf;Fs; nfhz;L
tug;gl;Ls;sJ.



1974Mk; Mz;ila ,];yhkpag; Gul;rpiaj; njhlu;e;J <uhd; mnkupf;fhtpd; jhf;Fjy;
gl;baypy; Nru;f;fg;gl;lJ. mjdhy; ,d;Wtiu <uhid mbgzpa itf;Fk; Mf;fpukpg;G
murpaiy mnkupf;f murhq;fk; ifahz;L tUfpd;wJ. <uhdpd; cs;sf murpaiy
   ;
rPuFiyj;J cs;Kuz;ghLfis Vw;gLj;j mnkupf;fh muR Kad;W Njhy;tp fz;lJ. vdpDk;
,d;Wk; $l <uhdpy; ,aq;fp tUk; rpy A+jthj ]pNahdp] epWtdq;fspd; ehrfhu
NtiyfSf;F         nth\pq;ld;    epu;thfk;  jPdpNghl;L  tUfpd;wJ.    <uhd;   ,];yhkpaf;
                       ;
FbauRf;nfjpuha; #o;rrpj;jpl;lq;fis Nkw;nfhz;L tUk; K[h`pNj `y;f; vd;w ]pNahdp]
MjuTldhd ,af;fj;jpw;F mnkupf;f epu;thfk; NguhjuT toq;fp tUfpd;wJ. <uhdpy; Ml;rpf;
fjpiuapy; mku;j;jg;gl;l Kd;dhs; kd;du; \htpd; Gjy;thud wp]h g`;ytpAk; mtuJ
FLk;gKk; ,t;tpaf;fj;jpd; gpd;dzpapy; ,Uf;fpd;wdu;. ,j;jifa vjpu;f;fl;rpfSf;F mnkupf;f
muR jdJ ehl;bNyNa milf;fyk; nfhLj;J <uhdpd; Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;f;f epjpAjtpfisAk;
MAj          cjtpfisAk;      toq;fp       tUfpd;wJ.    Ml;rpf;nfjpuhd     Gul;rpfisAk;
     ;
#o;rrpj;jpl;lq;fisAk; Nkw;nfhz;L <uhid mbikg;gLj;j mnkupf;f ]pNahdp] rf;jpfs;
,Jtiu Nkw;nfhz;l gfPujg; gpuaj;jdq;fs; Njhy;tpaile;Jtpl;ld. ,g;NghJ NtW tifahd
je;jpNuhghaj;ijf;    ifapy;    vLf;fj;    Jtq;fpAs;sJ.  <uhdpy;    mZthAj       cw;gj;jp
eilngWtjhf xU Gjpa Fw;wr;rhl;ilf; fl;likf;fpd;wJ. ,jw;fhd Mjhuq;fs; vJTk;
,Jtiu Kd;itf;fg;gltpy;iy. mwpQu;fs; ghu;itapy; <uhdpag; Gul;rpia Nehf;Fifapy; my;
m];`u; mwpQu; kd;wj;jpd; Kd;dhy; jiytu; fyhepjp K`k;kj; mg;Jy; Kd;mk; my;gu;up
mtu;fs; ,J gw;wp $Wifapy; “<uhdpa Gul;rp ,];yhkpag; Gul;rp MfhJ. mJ ntWk; ntw;Wf;
Nfh\Nk. ,dthj Kj;jpiuiag; gjpg;gJ kl;Lk;jhd; <uhdpag; Gul;rpahy; Kbe;jJ.
kiwKfkhfthapDk; mnkupf;fh Nghd;w ,e;j ck;kj;jpd; tpNuhjpfNshL if Nfhu;j;J <uhd;
Mg;fhdp];jhd;><uhf; Mf;fpukpg;Gf;F fhj;jpukhd gq;fspg;ig ey;fpaJ” NkYk; mtu;
$Wifapy; “<uhdpa muR mjd; Fbkf;fshd ]{d;dPf;fis Xuq;fl;b> \Pahf;fSf;F kj;jpapy;
ghugl;rk; fhl;Lk; Ml;rpia elhj;JfpwJ. vdNt ,jpNy vq;Fjhd; ,];yhj;ij vjpu; ghu;f;f
KbAk;? <uhf;> nygdhd; Nghd;w ehLfspy; ,dthj eltbf;iffspy; ,wq;fpAs;s <uhd;
m`;Y]; Rd;dhTf;nfjpuhd #o;r;rpfis nra;J tUfpd;wJ. gy];jPdpNy gjh`;> `kh];
Mfpa ,U FOf;fSf;fpilNa Nkhjy;fis Vw;gLj;jpg; gy];jPd kf;fisg; gpsTgLj;JfpwJ.
jd; kPjhd mnkupf;f neUf;fbfis nefpo itj;Jr; rYifffisg; ngWtjw;fhfNt K];ypk;
ck;khit ,t;thW gypflhthf;FfpwJ.



NkYk; “ck;K`hj;Jy; K/kpd;fs; (ehafj;jpd; kidtpkhu;fs;) kPJ gLJ}WfisAk;
mghz;lq;fisAk; gug;Gjy;> ehafj;jpd; Njhou;fis ,opT gLj;Jjy; Nghd;w ,op
nfhs;iffisf; nfhz;l top nfl;l \Pahr; rpe;jidfis m`;Y]; Rd;dhf;fSf;F kj;jpapy;
gug;Gk; FOf;fisg; Nghrpg;gjw;Fk; mNugpa ehLfspy; <uhdpa ,dthjg; Gul;rpapd; eyid
Nkk;gLj;jTk; gy kpy;ypad; nlhyu; gzj;ij ms;sp tPRfpwJ” vd fLikahf tpku;rpf;fpwhu;.
Id; \k;]; gy;fiyf;fof <uhdpaf; fw;iffSf;fhd c];jhj; fyhepjp K`k;kj; ]<j;
mg;Jy; K/kpd; <uhdpag; Gul;rpapd; nfhs;iffisf; fLikahf tpku;rpg;gJld; mJ 32
Mz;Lfshf tpistpj;J tUk; ghupa Nrjq;fisAk; ,og;Gf;fisAk; fLikahfr; rhLfpwhu;.
<uhdpag; Gul;rpia ,];yhkpag; Gul;rpahfg; ghu;f;Fk; mNefkhNdhu; ,jd; %ykhtJ <uhdpd;
cz;ik Kfj;ij tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s Kd;tu Ntz;Lk;. ntspg;gilahf kl;Lk; mnkupf;fhit
vjpu;g;igf; fz;L Vkhe;J tplyhk;. jdJ eyDf;fhf ,];yhkpa ck;kj;ijg; gypf;flhthf;f
Mf;Fk; <uhdpd; jpl;lj;ijAk; #o;r;rpiaAk; kf;fs; Kd; mk;gyg;gLj;j mwpQu;fs; Kaw;rpf;f
Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thwhf <uhdpag; Gul;rp tpsq;Ffpd;wJ.




                                       crhj;Jizfs;



   1. Muhammad Abdul Jabaar Beg, 2006, The Middle East In The Twentieth Century, United
      Kingdom , Cambridge, p.81-134, 135-199, 347-383
   2. nksyhdh.v];.vr;.> ,];yhkpa cyFk; rthy;fSk;> ntypfik> kpNydpak; fy;tp
      ];jhgdk;> g.15
   3. tpf;fpgPbah> 2012> <uhd;> Online]. Available: http://ta.wikipedia.org/wiki/ஈரான் ,
      [2012.07.22]

				
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