Police Command National Policing Improvement Agency

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					  Police Service
  Airwave Interoperability



Interoperability for Command and
Control
Course Aim:

 To provide the appropriate knowledge and
 understanding to utilise and manage
 Airwave for Interoperable Voice
 Communications (IVC) for planned and
 spontaneous Multi-Agency operations and
 exercises




 www.npia.police.uk
Communication Interoperability

• The capability of organisations or discrete
  parts of the same organisation to
  exchange operational information and use
  it to inform their decision making




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The purpose of Airwave
Interoperability
• Increasing safety
• Reducing, managing or mitigating risk or harm to
  the public and responders
• Alerting responders rapidly to a hazard
• Supporting decision making either at an individual
  level or as a collective group
• Contributing to a common understanding and
  awareness of the situation
• Improving communications between all or some
  responders attending the incident
• Improving coordination of activities

 www.npia.police.uk
Option 1 - Silver Commander

• Objective:
   – Exchange mission critical or safety information
   – Share tactical decisions
   – Update the Common Operating Picture


• Example of use:
   – Coordination of activities and provision of tactical
     updates at a wide scale incident, such as a flood,
     allowing Silver Commanders to share risk critical
     information when remotely located, or alerting all
     agencies to an imminent risk




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Option 1




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Option 2 - Silver and appropriate
Bronze
• Implemented under authority of Silver
  commander

• Objective:
   – Share safety information
   – Coordinate activities
   – Disseminate the Common Operating Picture

• Example of Use:
   – One agency keeping their partners updated on their
     progress toward a goal, so that others may proceed with
     their own actions according to an agreed multi-agency
     plan.



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Option 2




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Option 3 – Bronze Commander

• Bronze Commanders must understand the limits
  of their authority in order to maintain integrity of
  command

• Objective:
   – Talkgroup a specific task involving multiple agencies

• Example of use:
   – Two or more agencies coordinating the execution of a
     specific task, or part of a multi-agency plan




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Option 3




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Option 4 – All at scene, or
appropriate Responders
• Objective:
  – To keep all Airwave users aware of events
    regardless of their role

• Example of use:
   – Coordination of all agencies at wide-spread
     incident with limited personnel, radio
     equipment, and/or Airwave capacity




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Option 4




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Interoperability – Benefits of use

• Better informed decision making

• Effective use of resources

• Improved cross border/national response

• Increased confidence amongst responders

• Enhanced coordination

• Improved effectiveness



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Interoperability – Risks of not
using
• Communications failure between responders can
  contribute to death/injury to staff or public
• IVC failings lowers response or quality of
  response
• Lack of guidance leading users to develop own ad
  hoc ways of working
• Failure to plan to deal with a large scale multi-
  agency event and to minimise the impact on
  capacity will result in a loss of service and
  potential communication failings



 www.npia.police.uk
Police to Police Talkgroup
Sets (1)
• Police Hailing Talkgroup
• Air-to-Ground Talkgroup
• Police Interoperability Talkgroup 1
• Police Interoperability Talkgroups 2 and 3
• Police Interoperability Talkgroup 4
• National Firearms Talkgroup
• National Protection Talkgroup



 www.npia.police.uk
Police to Police Talkgroup
Sets (2)
• Metropolitan Police National Protection Talkgroups
• Government and Law Enforcement Talkgroup
• Immigration Service Talkgroup
• Police Force “Event” Talkgroups
• National Police Mutual Aid Talkgroups: PMA 1–30
• Unmonitored National Police Mutual Aid Talkgroups:
  PMA 31–60
• National Police Mutual Aid Talkgroups for London:
  PMA 61–70

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Police to Police Talkgroup
Sets (3)
• National Police Only Mutual Aid Talkgroups: PMA
  71–75
• National Police Only Mutual Aid Talkgroups: PMA
  76–80
• Police Travelling Talkgroup: PMA 91
• Highways Agency Hailing Talkgroups
• Highways Agency Incident Talkgroups
• Interoperability with National Police Forces


 www.npia.police.uk
Multi-Agency Talkgroup Sets

• Police Sharers Hailing Talkgroups

• Multi-Agency Incident Command Talkgroups

• Emergency Services Talkgroups

• Inter-Agency Talkgroups

• Multi-Agency Mutual Aid Talkgroups

• Police Mutual Aid Talkgroups



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Availability of Talkgroups
• All the talkgroups, with the exception of Firearms,
  Protection and PMA 76-80, are available on all
  hand-held and mobile terminals
• Talkgroups relevant to the local force are loaded
  in the CCI ports and may be displayed on an
  ICCS (The INTOP 1 & 2 for neighbouring forces
  should also be loaded)
• Use should be in accordance with locally
  developed protocols and SOPs




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General Security Guidelines
• When using any talkgroup consideration should
  be given as to who is listening if sensitive
  information is to be passed
• If it is the right talkgroup for sharing this
  information




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Security – Covert User Groups

• May not be in a position to reveal their identity
  on an overt talkgroup

• May not be able to become involved visibly in an
  incident when they need a uniformed response




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Direct Mode Operation (DMO)
• Equivalent of “back-to-back” communications on an analogue
  radio system
• Users can communicate directly over a limited range
  independent from the Airwave network
• Can be used in areas of poor or non-existent network coverage,
  including inside buildings, but range can be affected by
  obstructions
• Can result in loss of network facilities
• Can reduce the useful duration of battery power
• Unable to use Point to Point, Group Calls and causes limited use
  of the Emergency Button




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Patch and Re-group
• Allows an operator to bring together users on two
  or more different talkgroups without them having
  to alter their own talkgroups on their terminals




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Patch and Re-group - Benefits

• Talkgroups become “all informed”

• Workload for operators may be better managed

• Can reduce congestion

• Allows a “shared” talkgroup to be patched to an
  “unshared” talkgroup, allowing all users to
  communicate



 www.npia.police.uk
Patch and Re-group - Risks
• Only agencies with full Control Room facilities
  have the ability to patch a number of talkgroups
  together
• Talkgroups must be configured in the Control
  Room applying the patch (ICCS specific)
• Agencies capable of providing function must
  ensure operators are familiar with equipment and
  process
• Patched talkgroups can become overcrowded and
  queuing may be experienced


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Point to Point
• Similar to a ‘private’ talkgroup call between two
  terminals

• Appropriate to seek advice from a Force
  Operational Airwave Tactical Advisor (FOATA)




 www.npia.police.uk
Point to Point – Benefits and
Risks
• Benefits
   – Useful option for one-to-one communications
• Risks
   – Careful consideration should be given to use where
     capacity could be an issue
   – Should be discouraged during major incidents or events
   – Not recorded so will not be available as a
     contemporaneous record
   – Users cannot monitor own talkgroup during Point to
     Point communication



 www.npia.police.uk
Telephony
• Similar to a ‘telephone’ call between two
  terminals (dependent on configuration) or
  between a landline or mobile phone and a
  terminal




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Telephony – Benefits and Risks

• Benefits
   – Capability to contact non Airwave user on landline or mobile
     from Airwave terminal
• Risks
   – Careful consideration should be given to use where capacity
     could be an issue
   – Should be discouraged during major incidents or events
   – Not recorded so will not be available as a contemporaneous
     record
   – Users cannot monitor talkgroup during “Telephony”
     communication
   – Non-secure communication (as it leaves the TeTRa network)


 www.npia.police.uk
Interim Bronze Interoperability
Solution (IBIS)/Loaned Terminals
• Can be loaned by police to responding agencies
  to enable multi-agency IVC
• Local protocol for loan states
   – Where terminals are available for collection
   – Guide to their use
   – If the period of loan is likely to exceed seven days, ASL
     must be consulted




 www.npia.police.uk
IBIS Terminals - Talkgroups
• Sharers Hailing Talkgroups (PFFFF SHG1)
• Inter Service Command Talkgroup (PFFFF IC 1)
• Emergency Services Talkgroups (PFFFF ES 1 - 3)
• Inter Agency Talkgroups (XFFFF IAT 1)
• 4 x Direct Mode Emergency Services Talkgroups
  (XDM ES 1 - 4)
• 10 x Multi Agency Mutual Aid Talkgroups (MAMA
  1 - 10)
• 10 x Police Mutual Aid Talkgroups (PMA 81 - 90)

www.npia.police.uk
Risks in deploying IBIS
• IBIS terminals should only be used when absolutely
  necessary
• Each terminal uses capacity which can impact
  capability
• Widespread distribution of IBIS terminals has the
  potential to introduce risk to command and control
  and network capacity if not managed effectively




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Invoking IVC

• Need for IVC is identified and agreement is reached
  to invoke (decision should be recorded)
• Need can be suggested by a first/initial responder
  but invoking requires authority from Silver/Senior
  Incident Commander
   – Consider access to second radio or staff officer to monitor
     talkgroup
   – Understand who the authorised personnel are to request
     the invoking of IVC
   – All relevant personnel informed of decision



 www.npia.police.uk
Invoking IVC, cont.

• Control Room activates IVC on appropriate
  talkgroup and commences monitoring
• Responders change to Interoperable Talkgroup as
  advised by Control Room
• Inform all partner agencies of talkgroup selected
  and nominate agency to coordinate talkgroup




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Voice Procedure
• Single service/organisation call-signs should not
  be used unless instructed to do so
• Use unambiguous call-signs: consider common
  naming conventions to identify clearly every
  resource in “plain speech”
   – Service
   – Role
      e.g. “Essex Police, Incident Commander”
• Common Radio Procedure as adopted by Airwave
  Speak, Civil Protection Lexicon and single-service
  good practice


 www.npia.police.uk
Discontinuing Interoperability
• Direct notification from Silver/Senior Incident Commander to
  the Control Room
• Personnel informed to revert to standard working practices
  and talkgroup by Control Room
• All personnel to ensure they return to regular talkgroup
• Control Room to record decision for audit purposes
• ASL to be informed if they activate talkgroup
• If mutual aid resources have been deployed, they should be
  directed as to which talkgroup should be used when returning
  to their home location
• Debrief should be conducted



 www.npia.police.uk
Capacity
• The capacity of the network is configured for normal
  operating “business as usual” conditions
• Network has a spare ‘surge’ capacity to cater for
  additional users during a major incident
• To ensure against loss of service or congestion it is
  essential that users maintain radio discipline
   – Do not listen to non-essential talkgroups
   – Terminals must be set to the appropriate talkgroup
   – Use of Telephony and Point to Point must be restricted or
     denied
   – Demand on the network can be monitored by the network
     Management Centre (NMC)


 www.npia.police.uk
Network Congestion

• Occurs when the number of talkgroups requiring
  access to the network exceeds the capacity
  available on a given site. A user affiliated to that
  site:
   – Will not be able to transmit until capacity becomes
     available
   – Monitoring a talkgroup may not hear messages broadcast
     on the talkgroup
   – Monitoring a talkgroup may hear only the end of a
     message where capacity becomes available part way
     through a transmission. (Known as late entry)



 www.npia.police.uk
Talkgroup Congestion

• Can occur as only one person at a time can
  transmit on all but very few specialised TeTRa
  talkgroups
• Where a number of users attempt to transmit at
  the same time, only one will be successful




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Queuing

• When the number of talkgroups in simultaneous
  use exceeds the number of timeslots available,
  queuing may be experienced
• The user should be familiar with the specific
  queuing tone associated with their Airwave
  device and be familiar with the procedures to be
  followed to complete their communication




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Emergency Button
• Follow local guidance as to when and how to use
• Pressing the button when set to Interoperable
  Talkgroup will put the terminal and talkgroup into
  emergency mode
   – Note: when the emergency button is activated on an
     Interoperable Talkgroup nominated monitoring Control
     Room will receive the emergency call. The emergency
     activation may not be received within the user’s own
     Control Room
• Local guidance for use of emergency button should
  be followed as this may differ between
  organisations and localities

 www.npia.police.uk
Role of the Gold Commander in
Relation to Interoperability
• Include interoperability in the development of operational
  strategies and contingency plans for major incidents and
  emergencies
• Refer to contingency plans for IVC guidance
• Share appropriate information with other agencies to make
  strategic decisions
• Consider the impact of strategic decisions on other agencies
• Ensure effective communication between Gold Commanders
• Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of interoperability
  during and post event
• Contribute to inter-agency Gold level meetings
• Consider the needs of the other agencies in relation to the
  dissemination of information to the public, press or others


 www.npia.police.uk
Role of the Silver Commander in
Relation to Interoperability
• Include interoperability in the implementation of strategy and
  the development of operational tactics for major incidents
  and emergencies
• Refer to contingency plans for IVC guidance
• Share appropriate information with other agencies to make
  tactical decisions
• Consider the impact of tactical decisions on the other
  agencies
• Ensure effective communication between Silver Commanders
• Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of interoperability
  during and post event
• Contribute to inter-agency Silver level meetings
• Ensure that Bronze Commanders are aware of any protocols
  or agreements for information-sharing with other agencies


 www.npia.police.uk
Role of the Bronze Commander
in Relation to Interoperability
• Ensure that interoperability is explicitly included in the
  implementation of operational tactics for major incidents and
  emergencies
• Refer to contingency plans for IVC guidance
• Ensure that appropriate information from other agencies is
  shared to make operational decisions, in line with agreed
  arrangements or protocols
• Ensure that the impact of operational decisions on other
  agencies is fully considered
• Ensure effective communication between relevant service
  Bronze Commanders
• Monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of interoperability
  during and post- event
• Communicate appropriate interoperability needs to front-line
  staff



 www.npia.police.uk
Advice
• Consult at the earliest opportunity
  – Airwave team
  – Police Force Operational Airwave Tactical
    Advisor (FOATA) – where appropriate
  – Control Centre staff
  – Partner agencies




www.npia.police.uk
                     Any Questions?




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