Cause_Effect Essays by fjzhangxiaoquan


									Cause/Effect Essays
Purpose of this Rhetorical Pattern
 To understand a situation
 To solve a problem
 To predict an outcome
 To entertain
 To persuade
Brainstorming Technique
Unity in Cause/Effect
 Focus must be only on one topic and its
 Unity is achieved in a paragraph by
  deciding on an organizational pattern.
 Is there a link between the causes or
  effects? Use that link as the controlling
  idea (ex. negative effects, positive
  outcomes, happy reasons.)
 Create a thesis statement demonstrating
  the topic, the chosen pattern and the
  controlling idea.
Organization Patterns
   Cause Focus - writing only about causes
    ◦ Introduction paragraph (discuss effects as
    ◦ Body Paragraph One: Cause One
    ◦ Body Paragraph Two: Cause Two
    ◦ Body Paragraph Three: Cause Three
    ◦ Conclusion
Organization Patterns
   Effect Focus – writing only about effects
    ◦ Introduction paragraph (discuss causes as
    ◦ Body Paragraph One: Effect One
    ◦ Body Paragraph Two: Effect Two
    ◦ Body Paragraph Three: Effect Three
    ◦ Conclusion
Organization Patterns
   Causes and Effects focus: pay attention to
    transitions between body paragraphs
    ◦ Introduction
    ◦ Paragraph(s) about causes
    ◦ (transition)
    ◦ Paragraph(s) about effects
    ◦ Conclusion
Organization Patterns
   Chain Reaction - used for closely linked
    ◦ Introduction
    ◦ Cause/Effect Body Paragraphs (one link or
      many links in each paragraph)
    ◦ Conclusion
Coherence through Signal Words
   See handout on Signal Words
    ◦ Note the difference with phrases ending in a
      As a result of his achievements, he won the prize.
      He had a lot of achievements. As a result, he won
       the prize.
      As a consequence of the long hours at work, she was
      She worked long hours. As a consequence, she
       was tired.
Practice with Signal Words
Determine the signal word. Identify the cause. Identify the
effect. Understand the grammatical structure that follows.
 President Obama claims that jobs have been saved as a result of the
   stimulus package.
 The Supreme Court denied the petitioner’s case, for the Justices
   believed the petitioner did not meet his burden of proof.
 The reason for the company’s success has been its continued
   expansion of its research and development division.
 Her father had two jobs; as a consequence, she did not see him
   very often.
 Halloween now rivals Christmas as the most popular American
   holiday, thereby dramatically increasing the sales of candy and
   costumes in the past ten years.
Practice with Signal Words
Decide which one if the cause and the effect. Then
create a sentence.
 ____Coral reefs are dying
 ____Scientists are trying to figure out ways to
  protect them.
 ____There was a lot of rain this fall.
 ____The pumpkin crop was not good.
(as a consequence of)
Hook Paragraph
   Dramatic Narrative or Statement
    ◦ Example
                              The Collision
          Darkness surrounds the car, except for two beams of
    light straining against the gloom. The rain pounds the car,
    tapping out a frantic beat. The undertone of the steady
    thumping of the windshield wipers combines with the rain to
    create a hypnotic rhythm; inside the car, the air is warm and
    enveloping. The windows, slightly fogged, sparkle from the
    lights of passing cars, and traffic lights. Now, the twinkling of
    the blinker light up the dashboard. The car eases into the
    next lane and WHAM! The rhythm is destroyed. Now, the
    sounds are the crunching, cracking and popping of metal on
    metal. The car has collided with another and careens to a
    stop. Although the car no longer moves, the effects of the
    car accident have now been set in motion.

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