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					Chapter 14
 Michigan
Government
           State Constitution
• Michigan’s Constitution
  adopted 1963
• Fourth constitution (1835,1850, 1908)
• Problem with state constitutions:
  too specific and detailed
• Georgia – 10 constitutions
• Alabama – 800 amendments –
  357,000 words – longest in U.S.
            State Constitution
• Amending the Constitution
• Signatures = 10% of the votes cast for
  governor last election (2008 =
  694,354) will bring before voters
• State Legislature 2/3 of each house
  bring before voters
• Michigan 31 amendments passed
  – Citizens 26 tries (10 passed)
  – Legislature 42 tries (21 passed)
             State Constitution
• Direct democracy
  –Initiative – 8% of votes cast for gov.
    • Citizens write own law – approved by voters

  –Referendum – 5% of votes cast…
    • Citizens reject law passed by legislature – approved by
      voters

  –Recall – 25% of votes cast
    • Very difficult at state level – some success at
      local level
    • Two state senators in 1983 because of vote to
      increase taxes
California Recall
• Governor Gray
  Davis replaced
  with Arnold
  Schwarzenegger
• Ballot had 135
  candidates on it
       Michigan Constitution
• Declaration of rights
  – Mostly same as U.S. Bill of Rights
  – Free speech, press, religion, bear arms,
    trial by jury, protection against
    unreasonable search seizures, ex post
    facto laws and habeas corpus
  – Initiated by people:
    • Rights of crime victims
    • Definition of marriage – man/woman
    • Prohibition of affirmative action - college
       Michigan Constitution
 • Three branches of government


             Michigan
            Constitution


Executive    Legislative     Judicial
Executive Branch




  * Voters elect University of Michigan,
  Michigan State University and Wayne
  State University boards
        Executive Branch
• Governor
• Qualifications
   –30 years old
   –Registered voter for 4 years
   –No felony convictions for 20 yrs.
• Informal Qualifications
   –$$$, charisma, political
    experience, articulate…
          Executive Branch
• Governor term = 4 years (term
  limits: 2 or 10 years)
• All statewide elected officers have
  term limits of two terms since 1993
• Governor salary = $177,000 -
  $60,000 living expenses
• All state officers salary set by State
  Officer’s Compensation Commission
           Executive Branch
• Governor Rick Snyder
• Most important leader
  in state
• Powers
  – Media exposure to highlight issue
  – Executive orders
  – Veto
  – Commander of state national guard
  – Ambassador to nation/world
            Executive Branch
• Lieutenant Governor
  –Brian Calley
• Elected with governor on same ticket
• President of Senate
• Fills in for governor when she is out
  of state – Calley signed foreclosure
  bill while Snyder out of state
            Executive Branch
• Governor may appoint to head special
  committee – former Lt. Gov. Cherry
 Commission on Higher Education.


           Former-Lieutenant Governor
             John Cherry
               Executive Branch
• Secretary of State Ruth Johnson
• Elected separately
• Duties
  – Head of Department of State
    • Licenses – including driver’s
    • Car/truck… titles
    • Record keeper
  – Oversees elections
          Executive Branch
• Attorney General Bill Schuette
• Elected separately
• Duties
  – State’s chief lawyer
  – Assists county prosecutors
  – Attorney general opinions carry weight
    of law
          Executive Branch
• Governor has less executive &
  administrative power because we elect
  Sec. State, AG…they’re independent
• AG Cox (Republican) conflict with
  Gov. Granholm (Democrat) on health
  insurance law passed by Congress and
  President
• Cox joined suit against federal
  government – Granholm said no
            Executive Branch
• 15 departments that the governor does
  appoint head.
• Agencies and commissions also
  administrate and regulate state affairs
• Governor has consolidated several
  agencies to save money
• Controversial abolishment of Dept of
  Histories, Arts and Libraries in 2009
  – Library of Michigan
             Executive Branch
• State Board of Education
• Serve 8 year term
• Eight members
• Power struggle with governor and
  state legislature over power to run
  state education system
• Board of Education appoints state
  Superintendent of Public Instruction
    (K-12)
         Executive Branch
• University of Michigan Board of
  Reagents, Michigan State University
  Board of Trustees and Wayne State
  University Board of Governors
  elected by the people
• Run universities
          Legislative Branch
• Bicameral
   –House of Representatives – 110
   –Senate – 38
• Nebraska only unicameral legislature
• Michigan one of ten states with
  fulltime legislature (1 of 8 that meet
  year-round)
• Some states meet every 2 years only
         Legislative Branch
• Mich. House & Senate qualifications
  –21 years old
  –Registered Michigan voter
  –Not convicted of felony 20 years
• Women/minorities underrepresented
  –34 of 148 seats in 2010 held by
   women
          Legislative Branch
• Term of Office
  –House – 2 years
  –Senate – 4 years
• Term limits
  – 6 years in House (three terms)
  – 8 years in Senate (two terms)
• Salary = $79,650 (2nd highest paid)
        Legislative Branch
• Organization same as Congress
• Political Parties – August 2011
  –House: Reps = 63 Dems = 47
  –Senate: Reps = 26 Dems = 12
         Legislative Branch
• House
  –Speaker (Jase Bolger)
  –Majority floor leader
  –Minority leader
  –whips
          Legislative Branch
• House
  –Our Rep(s)
  –85
   • Ben Glardon
 –93
   • Paul Opsommer
 –98
   • Jim Stamas
        Legislative Branch
• Senate
  –President = Lt. Gov.
  –Majority leader (Randy
    Richardville)
  –Minority leader
  –whips
           Legislative Branch
• Senate
  –Our Senator(s)
  –33
    • Judy Emmons
  –22
    • John Hune
  –32
    • Roger Kahn
    Redistricting 2013 Districts




House 2013-2022
                   Senate 2013-2022
Redistricting 2013 Districts




   U.S. House 2013-2022
         Legislative Branch
• Committees
  –Standing (House = 25 & Sen. = 21)
  –Subcommittees (appropriations only
   – 19 House & 16 Senate)
  –Select
  –Joint Committee on Admin. Rules
  –Conference committees
         Legislative Branch
• Committee Chairpersons
  –Set agenda
  –Control staff
  –Control junkets
  –Guides bill through process
  –Investigate
         Legislative Branch
• Legislative Service Bureau writes bills
• Similar process to Congress
Introduced HOUSE      OVERVIEW        Introduced SENATE

  Standing                                Standing
 Committee                               committee
               Appropriations
                                                   Appropriations
               Subcommittee
                                                   Subcommittee

House Floor                            Senate Floor



                       Conference
                       Committee


        Governor
        1. Sign it into law
        2. Veto it – 2/3 override
        3. Pocket Veto – 10 days
        4. Let sit for 14 days in session - Law
            Legislative Branch
• Differences Michigan Leg. & Congress
  – Bills must be considered by committee
  – No rules committee in House
  – No filibuster in Senate
  – 2/3 vote on private bills
  – Bill becomes law 90 days after adjourn for year
    • Unless immediate effect – 2/3 vote each chamber
  – Must have majority vote for bill
    • House 56 votes
    • Senate 20 votes
            Legislative Branch
• Governor’s options
  – Sign becomes law 90 days after legislature
    adjourns for year unless immediate effect
  – Let sit on desk for 14 days while legislature in
    session – same effect as signing – becomes law
    90 days…
  – Veto – State legislature may override 2/3 each
    chamber
  – Pocket veto – let sit on desk while legislature
    has adjourned and bill dies after 14 days
            Legislative Branch
• Governor’s options (continued)
  – Line item veto on appropriations only


          Sec. 92a. (1) There is
          appropriated for the
          fiscal year ending
          September 30, 2010,
          $4,500,000.00
         Judicial Branch
• Judges are elected in Michigan
   –Non-partisan
   –Is this best way?
• Missouri Plan
   –Committee selects list
   –Governor appoints
   –Citizens vote to keep
          Judicial Branch
• Trial Courts
  –Probate Court
    • Wills
    • Minors
    • Mental commitment
    • Family matters (custody)
          Judicial Branch
• Trial Courts
  –District – 107 courts
    • Misdemeanors (minor crimes)
    • Small civil under $25,000
      –Small claims court under $3,000
    • Preliminary trial or examination
      –Bound over to circuit court
          Judicial Branch
• Trial Courts
  –Circuit – 57 courts
    • Felonies (major crimes)
    • Civil cases over $25,000
    • Divorces
  –Municipal – 4 cities including
   Detroit
    • For city jurisdictation
            Judicial Branch
• Appellate Courts
• Courts of Appeals
  – 4 districts
• Must hear initial
  appeal
             Judicial Branch
•   Michigan Supreme Court
•   7 Justices
•   8 year term
•   Qualifications
    –License to practice law 5 years in
      Michigan
    –Under 70 at time of election
          Judicial Branch
• Michigan Supreme Court is final say
  on State Constitution and Michigan
  laws
• Term is August 1 – July 31
• @2,000 cases appealed only hears
  about 100 or fewer a year
Local Governments
  • Michigan
    has 83
    counties
        Local Government
• Each County has the following:
  – County commission (5-35 members)
  – Sheriff
  – Prosecuting attorney
  – Clerk
  – Treasurer
  – Register of deeds (may combine)
  – Drain commissioner (72 counties)
        Local Government
• Counties vary greatly in size,
  population, and services provided
• Largest is Wayne County (over 1.8
  million people - 2010)
• Smallest is Keweenaw (2,157 people
  – 2010 census)
         Local Government
• City government
  –Must apply for charter
  –No size requirement
• Cities vary in size and services also
  – Largest = Detroit (over 713,000)
  – Smallest = Omer (313)
          Local Government
• Types of city government
  – Strong mayor/city council
    • Large cities – Detroit
    • Machine politics - Chicago
  – Weak mayor/city council
    • Mayor is figure head (usually highest vote-
      getter from city council)
    • City manager (professional)
  – City commission (maybe mayor)
    • City manager
          Local Government
• Township
  –1,242 in Michigan
  –General law              Advance to see
                            townships for
    • Elect:                O-E Schools
    • Supervisor            All general law
    • Clerk
    • Treasurer
    • 2-4 trustees depending on size
         Local Government
• Township
  –Charter townships – 134 in Michigan
    • More power and protection from
      cities
    • Elect:
      –Supervisor
      –Clerk
                       14,321 residents
      –Treasure
      –Four trustees
        Local Government
• Township
  –Vary in size and services
    • Clinton Township (96,253 people)
    • Pointe Aux Barques Township (10
      people)
          Local Government
• Villages
  –Part of township
  –Home rule elected offices
    • President (council may select)
    • Clerk
    • Village Council
  –General law elected offices
    • President
    • Six trustees
         Local Government
• Villages
  –Largest – Beverly Hills (9,919)
  –Smallest – Stanwood (204)



• City/township/village laws are called
  ordinances
          Local Government
• K-12 school districts – 549
  – Board of Education – 7 members
  – Set policy for schools in district
  – Hire superintendent and all employees
              Local Government
• Intermediate
  School Districts
  (ISDs)
  – 57 – Some called
    RESAs
  – Provide services to
    local school districts
     • Media services,
       printing, special
       education, technical
       education…
          Local Government
• Community Colleges – 28
  – Board elected sets policy for college,
    including tuition rates
  – Hire president and other officers to run
    college

				
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posted:10/20/2012
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