قواعد الأسماء

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					www.expressenglish.4t.com   Omar AL-Hourani
                                                                              :Introduction

                                                         .Noun                                        -
      "-ing"                                                                                          -
                                                                                          :       .
                                   eat       à eating
                                                    :        .
                                         play
                                        drive
                                                    .               "-tion"
                              educate        à education
                                                :        .
                                  choose                à choice
                                  ask        à question
                             develop         à development


                                                             :the                a , an

                                                        "a"      :"an" "a"                            -
             "                           "                                                    "an"
                                     : .
                            an hour , a university , an honest
                 h           o         h                    h                       "hour"
     "honest"                an                              o        our                 hour
                                                                                              .



www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                           Omar AL-Hourani
           "an umbrella"                                      " "         u           "university"
                                                                                       .a                               u
                                                  .                                                                         -
We have a cat and a dog.                                                                .
                                        "                             "                                                     -
                                                                                                            .
                  "                                                           "
I am (I'm) going to the supermarket.
                                .                                                       .
We have a cat and a dog. The cat is old, but the dog is puppy.
                                                                  .                                                         -
I am (I'm) a teacher.                                                                                           .
She is (She's) an actress.                                                                                      .
                                                          :   .                                                             -
                  a few              , a little       , a lot         , a pair of                   ,
        a numbers of                            , a hundreds of               , a quarter                           ,
                                                  a bit
                    .                                     "What"                                                            -
What a hole!                                                                                            !
                                 :          .                                                                               -
                                                                                                . ...
The earth moves around the sun.                                                   .
The King.                                                                                                       .
The Eiffel Tower.                                                                                           .
                             .                                            :                                                 -
The British Museum.                                                                             .
The Atlantic.                                                                               .


 www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                                      Omar AL-Hourani
                                              :                                              -
                                                      .
The Rockies.                                      "                       ".
The West Indies.                      "                                    ".
The Red Sea.                      "                                       ".
The Amazon.                                   "                                  ".
The River Amazon.                         "                                 ".
       ."                             "                                                      -
                                ."by"                                                        -
I went by a car.                                                      .
                .                                                                            -
This the pen.
This is the pen.
My a pen.
                                                                                             -
                                                          .
I had lunch with John.                    "                   ".
I bought Cosmopolitan at Paddington Station.

                  .                                                                          -
              at home , at/to work , at/to school , at/to university ,
                     at/to sea , at/to college , at/to church , …
                in/to bed , in/to class , in/to hospital , on foot , …

She goes to a work by bus.                                    .
I was at the home yesterday.                                      .




 www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                 Omar AL-Hourani
                                                                                            -
                                                                                       .
Water boils at 100 C.
Milk is good for you.
I like potato.
             "                                                            "
             "                      "                                             "
                                                 ."
                     .                                                                      −
The First Winner.                                                             .
I am reading the second book.                                         .
      .                           "someone , somebody , some-"                              −
                 "                                                                          −
                                           ."                 Paragraphs

                              .                                  "go home"                  -
 I (go/went) to home.
 I (go/went) home.



                                                                              :

                                                      :Proper Nouns               /


                 .
                                                Capital Letter
                         :    .                 "the"            "a , an"
            Ali              , Damascus     , America         , Friday

 www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                Omar AL-Hourani
                                                  :Common Nouns                                   /


                                   .


       :      .                   "the"                                        "a , an"
                  man         , teacher          , cat       , book             , city

                                                    :Material Nouns                                   /


                                                                                     .
                                                             :     .
           iron         , snow         , water      , sand             , air         , bread

                                                 :Collective Nouns                                /



                                                                                                           .
                                                                                 :       .
              crowd               , army        , fleet           , flock
                            crowds          , armies             , fleets

                                                :Abstract Nouns                               /


                                                         .
                                        :   .
                            joy        , laughter            , pleasure




www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                                    Omar AL-Hourani
                                                       :

                                                               :                /


  "a , an"                                         .
       "many"                                              "the"
                                                                       :   ."few"
              a man           , many men               , a few men
                 many of men                   , a few of men

                                                           :                   /


is , has ,                    "                .
"the"                               "a , an"                                           " ...was
                        ."little"              "much"
                                                                   :               .
                                                        :Substances          (
Material: cotton , cloth , silk , wool , nylon , gold, silver, …
Food: flour , rice , bread , wheat , rye , sugar , salt , pepper, …
Other: butter , cheese , jam , fur , skin , hair , ice , snow , rain , soil ,
grass , land , ground , wood , plastic , leather , coal , rock , sand ,
paper , cement , chalk , plaster , paint, …
                                                              :Liquids       (
water , milk , coffee , tea , oil , petrol , gasoline , juice , alcohol, …
                                                                :Gases       (
air , smoke , steam , oxygen , hydrogen, …
                                                                    :        (
music , luggage , baggage , pay , noise , traffic , furniture ,
accommodation , homework, …

  www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                 Omar AL-Hourani
                                   ."                                " Abstarct Nouns                    (
                 water            , much water        , a little water
              sugar           , much sugar             , a little sugar
        water           , much of water               , a little of water
   sugar             , much of sugar                   , a little of sugar

                                                                                                         -
                                          "     "                    "coffee"                    .
                                                             .                     "             "
 I want a coffee.                              "      " .(                    /             )
 I like coffee.                                                  "                ".
                                              "tea , potato, …"

                                      .
She has much of gold and a little of beauty
This water is sterilized.                                                               .



                        :     .                                                                          -
 The boy threw a stone.                                                           ".
 This wall is made of stone.                                         ".
                                                                                                         -
                                                                     :    .              "s"
                             ideas      , opinions      , truths




 www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                             Omar AL-Hourani
     "s"                                                                                                                                       -
                                                                                                                  :         .
 I met three Omars yesterday.                                                 .



                                                                                              :The plural

                                                                     "s"                                                                       -
                                                                    ."                                                    " -s
"ve"                                                            "fe"              "f"                                                          -
                                                   :            .        -s                                               -s
   leaf à leaves                          , loaf à loaves                               , sheaf à sheaves                                  ,
          thief à thieves                  , calf à calves                                  , self à selves                    ,
     wolf à wolves                    , half à halves                               , scarf à scarves                                  ,
            life à lives              , wife à wives                               , knife à knives
                        :    .                                                                                                                 -
               man à men                    :                  , woman à women                            :           ,
                 child à children                               :        , foot à feet                :           ,
                  tooth à teeth                        :            , mouse à mice                    :           ,
  goose à geese                   :         , louse à lice                              :       , ox à oxen                        :
  erratum à errata                                     :                      , index à indices                             :
                                               :           .                                                                                   -
               deer                       , sheep                                   , swine
                                      :    .                                                                                                   -
              people             , cattle                      , clergy                        , police               ,
                    poultry               , public                       , vermin                             ,
Poultry are there.                                                                                            .

 www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                                                    Omar AL-Hourani
    ."        "      "people"                    .
Peoples of Europe eat much of potato.                                   .
:        .                                               "s"                                                             -
                     dozen: two dozen                        , score : three score                 ,
             thousand : five thousand                          , hundred : eight hundred                         ,
                     million : nine million                       , head : two head
                          :         .
                  dozens of eggs                               , hundreds of boys
                      :         .                                                                                        -
                                news             , innings          , gallows
             ethics                       , mathematics                           , physics                  ,
                                                     phonetics
                                                                                                                         −
                                                                            .                          ...
The scissors are lost.                                                                             .
The scissor is lost.


                                                                                   :Gender

                          .                                                                                              -
                                                         :
                                           .him                    He                                        :           (
                                                                                                   :
         son       , boy                , man          , father    , brother             , uncle                     ,
                      nephew                                 , prince           , king      ,…
                                          .her                    She                                        :           (
                                                                                                   :
              daughter                  , girl         , woman      , mother , sister                        ,

    www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                                  Omar AL-Hourani
   aunt                      , niece                   , princess         , queen              ,…
                                         .it                                           :            (
                                                                                 :    .
pen       , table             , door       , book           , city     , cat     , dog             ,…
                                                   :   .                                       :    (
          child                      , friend                 , doctor                     ,
        judge                         , cousin                                                 ,
                            artist              , teacher                 ,…

                                           :                                                        -


                    boy :                                              girl :
                 brother :                                            sister :
                    bull :                                             cow :
                   cock :                                             hen :
                   dog :                                              bitch :
                  father :                                            mother :
                   fox :                                              vixen :
                 horse :                                              mare :
               husband :                                              wife :
                   king :                                            queen :
                lord :                                               lady :
                   man :                                             woman :
                 monk :                                               nun :
       nephew :                                                 niece :
                   ram :                                               ewe :
                     sir :                                           madam :

www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                        Omar AL-Hourani
                      son :                                  daughter :
                uncle :                                      aunt :


        .it                   country , city                                                        -


                                                   :Case of Nouns

                                      :             :Nominative                               /


                                                                                          .         (
The boy broke the window.                                             .
                                               .                                                    (
This man is my father.                               .                                .
                              :                                                       :
                                                                          ."                  "
                                  :                :Object                                /


                                                                          .                         (
The boy broke the window.                                                     .
                                                                                  .                 (
Put your cup on the table.                                       .
                                                                              .                     (
He came yesterday.                                                                    .




 www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                        Omar AL-Hourani
                             :       :Genitive (           )                            /


                                                                    :                                       (
                                                                   's                               :       -
The girl's robe.                                                                            .


Shakespeare's plays.                                                    .
                                 .
     .-es      -s                                              '                                :       -
The girls' robes.                                                               .
The boys' books.                                                                .
Ali's house.                                                                .
         's                                 -es   -s
                                                                                                .
The men's room.                                                                 .
The children's teacher.                                                     .


                                                       :                                                -
                                            .                                                           (
 The cat's tail.                                               "                    ".
 The men's room.                                           "                ".
 The women's society.                                  "                ".
                                        .                                                               (
 The Beauty's queen.                                                                .




 www.expressenglish.4t.com                                                  Omar AL-Hourani
                      .                "of"                        :                         (
                                                               :



                            Names of the engineers




                             The leg    of    the table



                                                          :                              -
                                        ."      "                                        (
The leg of the table.                                                   .
                              (                           ):
My key of door.
My door's key.
              .                                                                          (
Names of the engineers. OR The engineers' names.




www.expressenglish.4t.com                                              Omar AL-Hourani

				
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