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					  Meetings with Indigenous
     Religious Leaders:
A Preparation Guide for Army
         Chaplains
              April 2008



           For Official Use Only
        Religious Leader Liaison:
                    Consider the Terms
BI-LATERAL defined:
   1. affecting reciprocally two nations or parties.
   2. to arrange or bring about an agreement through conference, discussion,
      and compromise.
ENGAGEMENT defined:
   1.   a promise or commitment to appear at a certain time.
   2.   appointment.
   3.   a battle or encounter.
   4.   a hostile encounter between military forces.
   5.   to interlock.
   6.   emotional involvement, commitment, promise.
LIAISON defined:
   1. a close bond or connection.
   2. communication for establishing and maintaining mutual understanding esp.
      between parts of an armed force.
MEETING defined:
   1. the act or process or an instance of coming together; an encounter.
   2. an assembly or gathering of people, as for a business, social, or religious
      purpose

                             For Official Use Only
        Religious Leader Liaison:
                    Consider the Terms

The Religious Leader Liaison mission does not refer
only to meetings with indigenous religious leaders.
The Army RLL mission is defined as follows: the unit
chaplain, as the unit Religious Leader, conducts full
spectrum liaison functions for all aspects of the JIIM
environment. This means that the unit chaplain will
interface/liaison with Joint forces, Interagency
organizations and individuals, Intergovernmental
organizations and individuals, and Multinational
forces (JIIM).
-- Chaplain (LTC) Guy E. Glad, Branch Chief, Joint and Multinational Concepts
and Doctrine Directorate of Combat Developments US Army Chaplain Center
and School




                              For Official Use Only
    Who Can Engagements/Meetings
           Take Place With?

Iraqi/Afghan Leaders: Any Time, Any Place
• Imams
•   Mullahs
•   Police Chiefs
•   Mayors
•   Sheikhs
•   Medical Personnel
•   City Council Members
•   Ministers
•   Iraqi Army Leaders
•   Media

                  For Official Use Only
   An Expanded Role for the
 Chaplain in Current Operations

Religion in Counterinsurgency Operations
Often the United States attempts to avoid religion in
an effort to respect the personal dimension of faith.
Nations that do not separate church and state
perceive this attempt at respect as dismissive,
thereby furthering the perception of the “God-less
West.” The United States adheres foundationally to
separation of politics and religion. In the Muslim
world, religious leaders are more powerful than
political leaders.
-- Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in
Stability Operations, Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee




                              For Official Use Only
   An Expanded Role for the
 Chaplain in Current Operations

Religion in Counterinsurgency Operations
It is through communication and understanding that
we may win the hearts and cooperation of the local
populace. Victory for moderate Muslims over an
extremist minority vying for control in many Muslim
nations depends upon the United States effectively
filling the “information gap.” Miscommunication
can lead to misunderstandings and misperceptions
of US intent and plans.
-- Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in
Stability Operations, Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee




                              For Official Use Only
   An Expanded Role for the
 Chaplain in Current Operations

“Overall we are not doing a good job…
of trying to include religious leaders to
show respect for their faith as apart of
stability operations.”
-- Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld, responding to an inquiry about
how well the Department of Defense intentionally brings indigenous religious
leaders into the planning and implementation process for stability operations




                             For Official Use Only
   An Expanded Role for the
 Chaplain in Current Operations

Military chaplains are uniquely suited and
positioned within the US military structure to
function as the initial component resource to
provide for inclusion of local religious groups into
stability operations.
-- Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in
Stability Operations, Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee




                              For Official Use Only
   An Expanded Role for the
 Chaplain in Current Operations
The following chart contrasts the most likely candidates among US
Army military personnel for religious liaison missions. Training
criteria included general knowledge of major world religions, faiths,
practices and beliefs. Skills criteria indentified as negotiation,
religious diplomacy and consensus building.
(From Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in Stability
 Operations, Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee)

Civil Affairs     Limited          Yes            Yes             No             4

Chaplain            Yes            Yes            Yes            Yes             1

S-2 (Intel)       Limited           No             No            Yes             5

S-1               Limited          Yes          Limited          Yes             2
(Personnel)

Staff Judge          No            Yes            Yes            Yes             3
Advocate
                  Training        Skills      Credentials    Accessibility     Final
                                                                              Ranking
                                  For Official Use Only
              Scenario One

The Task Force Commander calls you to his desk
    in the Tactical Operations Command (TOC).
“Chaplain, we got a Imam in the city preaching
    jihadist messages from his mosque. I need
    you to go meet with him. See if you can get
    him to stop these messages.”
    1.   What are you thinking?
    2.   What are your concerns?
    3.   What are your questions?
    4.   What is your response to the CDR?
                  For Official Use Only
    Use W.A.T.E.R.S. as a Guide

W   WHO AND WHAT
A   ACTION LEADER
T   TIME AND PLACE
E   EFFECTS
R   RESPONSE
S   SPECIFIC MESSAGE

             For Official Use Only
              W.A.T.E.R.S.

WHO AND WHAT
Who am I conducting the liaison with?
What are his issues?




                 For Official Use Only
              W.A.T.E.R.S.

ACTION LEADER
Who is the primary conducting the liaison?




                 For Official Use Only
              W.A.T.E.R.S.

TIME AND PLACE
What is the time and place of the meeting?




                 For Official Use Only
              W.A.T.E.R.S.

EFFECTS
What are the effects to achieve? (long-term)
• What is the end-state goal?
What is the intended outcome? (short-term)
• What do you want?
• What will we accept as the bottom-line?




                 For Official Use Only
              W.A.T.E.R.S.

RESPONSE
What are your responses to impasse?
• What are you willing to do if you don’t get
   what you want?




                 For Official Use Only
             W.A.T.E.R.S.

SPECIFIC MESSAGE
What specific command message needs to be
   delivered during the liaison?




               For Official Use Only
            A Tactical Operation:
      Preparation, Execution and Follow-Up




ENGAGEMENTS happen from the squad leader to
general officer level and should be treated as a
tactical operation involving: Preparation, Execution,
and Follow-Up.
-- from Engagement: A Preparation Guide, LTC William Wunderle
                        For Official Use Only
Meeting with Indigenous
  Religious Leaders:
  Preparation Phase



        For Official Use Only
    Methodology for Preparation:
              Four Keys to Success

1   Intelligence Preparation of the
    Environment (IPE) /Mission Analysis
2   Identify Intended Outcomes
3   Develop Intended Outcome Strategy
4   Leader Rehearsals

      The methodology for RST Liaison Mission
    preparation is similar to the Military Decision
              Making Process (MDMP).

                     For Official Use Only
             MDMP vs. Liaison Prep

               1. IPE/Mission Analysis

                          2. Identify Intended Outcomes
  Receive the
Mission/ Mission                     3. Develop Intended Outcome Strategy
    Analysis
      COA Development/                                 Strategy Approval
     Analysis/ Comparison
                                                           4. Leader Rehearsals
                   COA Brief / Approval
                                                                    Execution
                                   Rehearsals

                                                Execution


                               For Official Use Only
         Meeting Preparation:
  Intelligence Preparation of the Environment


Starts with…
  Religious Intelligence Preparation of the
  Environment (IPE)

   Just as Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield
 (IPB) drives a Maneuver Operation, the IPE drives the
     Religious Leader Liaison preparation process.



                    For Official Use Only
                                                         1
        Meeting Preparation:
 Intelligence Preparation of the Environment

Religious IPE Involves:
1.Data Mining: the process of analyzing data from
  different perspectives and summarizing it into useful
  information.
2.Situational Awareness (BUBs)
3.Involvement in Information Operations Working Group
  (IOWG)
4.Knowledge Management (information sharing)
5.“Religious Thinking”: religious talking points for
  leaders in the COIN environment
6.Managing Religious Priority Information Requirements
  (PIR)

                   For Official Use Only
                                                      1
               Meeting Preparation:
      Intelligence Preparation of the Environment
IPE STEPS:
1. Develop target folder review (biography, photograph, motivations,
   level of influence, family history, summary of previous engagement,
   measures of effectiveness, spheres of influence)
2. Identify and Anticipate the indigenous leader’s objectives
3. Identify personal similarities between the leaders (US and
   indigenous)
4. Review religious affiliations and influences
5. Understand higher RST & CDR’s guidance, messages and themes
6. Understand current unit Information Operations (IO) messages and
   themes
7. Determine welcoming remarks and familiarization discussion points
8. Determine transition talking points to move from social to business

     Use Mission Analysis and IPE to develop Liaison Milestones
                            For Official Use Only
                                                                    1
          Meeting Preparation:
            Sample RST IPE Products

1.   RST Liaison Outcomes Brief
2.   RST Liaison Running Estimate
3.   Religious POI Familial Links
4.   Mosque Assessment
5.   Mosque Message Trends




                  For Official Use Only
                                          1
                                   Sample Outcomes
   RST Liaison Outcomes                 Brief
   AO Warrior
   23 January 2005
23JAN05: CH liaison with Sheikh Ali Husayn.
Sheikh Ali Husayn. Imam of the East Mosque, Ramadi. An influential religious scholar
  (Masters Degree, Baghdad University) in Ramadi and member of the Provincial
  Council (Al Anbar). Says local Association of Muslim Scholars (AMS) has not met for
  “security reasons.” Mosque needs repairs.

21JAN05: CH liaison with Sheikh Ghafur.
Sheikh Ghafur. Imam of the Ibrahim Khalid Mosque, Ramadi. An influential religious
  scholar (PhD, Ramadi University) in Ramadi and member of the Provincial Council (Al
  Anbar). Says that his mosque is not the Al Faruq Mosque. Al Faruq Mosque is a few
  streets away, further from the market. Insurgents destroyed part of his mosque last
  year. He believes that US forces should be stronger against outside fighters. He says
  US should be in control of Iraq because we have tanks and planes and helicopters.
  He does not want to see US occupation indefinitely, but realizes that it is necessary for
  peace. He believes that US should train Iraqi Army and provide the same equipment
  that US forces have.




                                    For Official Use Only
                                                                                          1
                                             Sample RLL
     Name (Leader positions)                  Estimate
     Name of Mosque (City)
     Updated 28 September 2004

                           HOME:
                           RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION: Arab Sunnah
                           FAMILY/TRIBAL AFFILIATION: Al Husayni. Son of Sheikh Dr. Husayn (same
                               mosque) and possible nephew of Sheikh Dr. Ali and cousin to Umar.
                           INFLUENTIAL POWER ( out of 5): Sheikh of moderate-sized mosque in Hit.
       Insert                  Has been at the mosque since 2001. Has a master’s degree from the college
                               in Ramadi.
       Photo               INFLUENTIAL MEANS ( out of 5): Conducts prayers everyday.
        Here               RECENT OUTCOMES:

                           PAST OUTCOMES:
                           28SEP04:
                           •   His father, Sheikh Dr. Husayn, is in Baghdad all week.
                           •   No significant issues with city block and checkpoints.

         Name


Relationship Estimate
              Hostile
              Opposing
              Neutral
              Supportive
              Friendly

Contacts: 2
Most Recent: 28SEP04
                                         For Official Use Only
                                                                                                       1
                                                     Sample RLL
     Key Familial Links                             Familial Links
     Religious Spheres of Influence
     Religious Area Analysis, AO Warrior


Name of Religious Leader
Patriarchal Connection




                           Name of Religious Leader
                           Name of Mosque (Grid)
                           Affiliations (Positions)



                           Name of Religious Leader
                           Name of Mosque (Grid)
                           Affiliations (Positions)



                           Name of Religious Leader
                           Name of Mosque (Grid)
                           Affiliations (Positions)



                           Name of Religious Leader
                           Name of Mosque (Grid)
                           Affiliations (Positions)




                                                                       1
                           Known family relationship
                           Possible family relationship


                                               For Official Use Only
                             Sample Mosque
   Name of Mosque (City)      Assessment
   Map Location (Grid)
   Updated 29 August 2004

SECTOR:
MOSQUE SHEIKHS:
ATTENDANCE:
OTHER NAMES:
NEIGHBORHOOD:
KEY MEMBERS:
RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS:
TRIBAL AFFILIATIONS:
HISTORY:
INFRASTRUCTURE PROBLEMS:


                                                    EAST MOSQUE
                                                        (City)




                            For Official Use Only
                                                                  1
                                    Sample Mosque
     Mosque Monitoring             Monitoring Trends
     Trends Analysis
     (as of 23 January 2004)


25
20
15
10
 5
 0
       MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN

         Threatening
         Non-Threatening Anti-Occupation
         Non-Threatening
                                   For Official Use Only
                                                           1
                                             Sample Mosque
     Mosque Monitoring                      Monitoring Trends
     Individual Mosques
     (as of 23 January 2004)




35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
      East          Jamil      Abu Hanifa   Great Mosque Al Khadimiya   Imam Ali   Abdul Azziz   Al Askari




      Threatening
      Non-Threatening Anti-Occupation
      Non-Threatening




                                            For Official Use Only
                                                                                                             1
               Scenario Two
Your unit is has just completed the RIP/TOA for
  a small Arab Sunni city in Al Anbar, Iraq. The
  task force commander is supportive of your
  conducting RLL ops in the city.

  – What information are you looking for?
  – Who are the resources in your unit? Higher?
  – What role will your chaplain assistant play during
    the RLL? What are all his/her responsibilities?
  – How will you conduct your first RLL?



                   For Official Use Only
              Meeting Preparation:
                Identify Intended Outcomes

1. Every meeting must have an intended outcome.
   What is the purpose of this engagement? Are you trying to quell a riot?... Stand
      up a police station?...or is your intended outcome just to build a better
      relationship with your partner, whereby you can set the conditions for
      future engagements?

2. Identifying the intended outcome is initially a joint
   effort between the RST and the staff officer (S-3/S-6)
   following the IPE phase.
3. Once identified, the staff examines the suitability
   and feasibility of the intended outcomes and
   determine bottom-line.



                               For Official Use Only
                                                                                      2
           Meeting Preparation:
        Intended Outcome vs. Bottom Line

• The RST must examine the intended outcomes in
  relation to the Partner’s position and determine a
  “bottom line” the Leader is willing to accept.
• The “bottom line” is a minimum threshold that must
  be met.
• The “bottom line” serves as an acceptable alternative
  outcome to the Leader’s intended outcome
• Identifying intended outcomes and their respective
  bottom-line facilitates Liaison Strategy Development
  (similar to Course of Action development).



                      For Official Use Only
                                                          2
              Meeting Preparation:
           Intended Outcome vs. Bottom Line
Situation: A US commander is running 7 mounted patrols a day in a
relatively quiet sector. The population has been supportive of the US
occupation and understands its mission. A significant religious cleric is
very upset that US soldiers are teaching children vulgar language and
displaying pornography where the local Iraqis can see. Many citizens have
been complaining about these issues and want the soldiers out of their
town.
                                            CDR & RST Bottom Line
 CDR/RST Intended Outcome                   • Temporarily reduce
 • Maintain 7 random mounted                  patrols to 4 a day. The
   patrols per day and build                  soldiers will be trained in
   positive relations.                        cultural awareness and
                                              sensitivity.

As long as the negotiated number of patrols meets or exceeds four, the
minimum threshold will have been met and both parties will be satisfied.


                             For Official Use Only
                                                                            2
       Meeting Preparation:
           Steps 1 & 2 in Review

Step 1: IPE of Partner, Unit Campaign
        Objectives and US IO Campaign

Step 2: Identify and Understand the
        Leader’s Intended Outcome and
        Bottom Line for each issue




                For Official Use Only
                                        1 2
           Meeting Preparation:
         Strategy Development to Rehearsal


Step 3            Wargame

                     Vet the Strategy
                  (IOWG or other venue)

                                Gain Leader approval
                                   of the Strategy

                Step 4                      Rehearse




                    For Official Use Only
                                                   3 4
         Meeting Preparation:
              Strategy Development

Step 3: Strategy Development

  1. Wargame
     • Wargame the Leader’s Intended Outcome and
         the Partner’s likely response
     • Wargame the Partner’s likely requests and the
         Leader’s response
     • Wargame impasses
  2. Vet the strategy (IOWG or other venue). Examine
      and evaluate usefulness.
  3. Present the strategy to Leader for approval



                    For Official Use Only
                                                       3
              Meeting Preparation:
                  Rehearsal Considerations
Step 4: Rehearsal
1. Determine who is required at the rehearsal (Chaplain, CH
   Assistant, PSD, security elements, interpreter, etc).
2. Ensure the interpreter understands your issues, the intended
   outcome, military jargon, etc.
     • Establish leader/interpreter signals (ex. tap on arm to stop
        talking).
3. If you host the meeting:
     • Ensure facility appearance is professional
     • Rehearse pick-up of Partner at the gate
     • Sanitize the location (no operational graphics)
     • Plan snacks and drinks with cultural sensitivity (eating up front
        can lighten the Partner’s mood)
        Rehearsals are key to the success of the liaison meeting.



                             For Official Use Only
                                                                           4
                    Meeting Preparation:
              Overall Planning Methodology Review
Step 1: IPE                            Step 2: INTENDED OUTCOMES
•Partner background /
motivations
•Leader’s intended outcome /     ID each Intended             ID a “Bottom Line” for each
objectives                           Outcomes                      Intended Outcome
•Unit Campaign plan
•IO themes and messages                           What you want
                                                        vs.
                                                What you will accept




                                  Step 3: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT
                                   Wargame the leaders Intended Outcome and the
                                    Partner’s likely response
                                   Wargame the partner’s likely requests and the
                                    leader’s response
     Step 4: REHEARSE              Wargame impasses
    •Chaplain
    •Chaplain Assistant
    •Security Detail               Gain leader approval          Vet the strategy
    •Interpreter                      of the strategy         (IOWG or other venue)
                               For Official Use Only
              Scenario Three
There is a moderately large mosque just outside one of
   your unit’s combat outposts (COP). You have chosen
   to liaison the Imam at this mosque as your first RLL
   mission. The unit commander supports the mission.
   – What is the Intended Outcome for the liaison?
   – What do you expect from the Imam (eg. reactions,
       questions, responses, etc.)?
   – What is your approach to the Imam? When?
       Where?
   – How do you introduce yourself to the him (name,
       position, purpose)?
   – What are your questions for him?
   – Who are the key players at your rehearsal?

                    For Official Use Only
              Meeting Preparation:
                    Final Considerations

1. How much prep time did you have?
2. What tools did you use to prepare? (eg. TGT Folder, Bio, IO themes,
    Religious PIR, etc.)
3. Who did you incorporate? (Higher RST, Primary/Special Staff)
4. Do you use RLL Methodology?
5. What guidance did you receive from Higher? Was it sufficient?
6. Any unanswered RFIs?
7. Did you wargame entrance strategy? (Intro, Schmooze)
8. Anything to do differently?
9. Any coordination issues?
10. Any issues regarding security?



                           For Official Use Only
   Actions During a
Meeting with Indigenous
  Religious Leaders:
   Execution Phase



        For Official Use Only
           Actions During a Meeting:
    Current Tactics, Techniques, Procedures
•   Stay in your lane
•   Watch your facial expressions
•   Appearance- perceptions are everything- this applies to all those with you
•   Time management plan:
      • 25% casual, develop ‘professional relationships’
      • 50% business
      • 25% closure and ‘relationship’ time
•   Avoid slang / off-color humor / avoid jokes / avoid acronyms
•   Avoid Quid Pro Quo solutions (“This for that”)
•   Emphasize win – win solutions
•   Only shift to “win-lose” if all else fails
•   90% of all progress occurs away from the table
•   Focus on building a relationship!
•   Have prepared sound bites explaining your role as a chaplain
•   Properly prepare your team through effective rehearsals
•   Every aspect of the meeting is deliberate – even small talk
•   Stick to your agenda – do not let a confrontational person drag you all over the map
•   Watch your body language
•   Always separate the person from the problem – attack the problem not the person
•   Be a GOOD listener
•   If you can’t say “I don’t know” – you are in trouble
•   Schmooze sessions help fill in the blanks on the biographies
                                     For Official Use Only
         Actions During a Meeting:
                 Leader Do’s and Don’ts
• Don’t assume your counterpart does not know/speak English.
• Don’t have side-bar conversations. It’s very rude.
• Don’t tell jokes. They do not translate well.
• Don’t look at your interpreter. Look at your counterpart when you
  speak to them. Maintain eye-to-eye contact.
• Don’t rush off to the next meeting. Make them feel “this”
  meeting is the most important event in your day.
• Don’t promise anything beyond your ability to control.

• Do know if the partner is a decision-maker.
• Do finish on-time.
• Do stay in your lane.
• Do avoid discussion of US politics, or US ‘foreign policy’.
• Do finish with review of agreements made!.


                            For Official Use Only
        Actions During a Meeting:
              Current Interpreter TTPs
• Rehearse: Make them part of your team - Invest your time in
  them – know his religion, background, history of hostilities!
• Think before you speak and group your words in short bursts
• Speak succinctly and simply
• It takes extra time to get your message across – make sure you
  plan for it
• Interpreters get tired – plan periodic breaks
• Look at your counter-part, not at the interpreter or off in space;
  maintain eye-to-eye contact.
• Act normal – speak as if the interpreter is not there
• Consider taking a second interpreter
• Plan the placement of your interpreter (beside, behind, or
  between)
• Do not become reliant on one interpreter
• Do not let the interpreter speak one on one with the counterpart

                          For Official Use Only
        Actions During a Meeting:
               Interpreter Expectations
•   Provide an accurate translation of your message
•   Uses same tone and inflection you use
•   Speaks in first person
•   Presents a professional appearance (well groomed)
•   Speaks for approximately the same length of time as you
•   Understands military jargon and can translate
•   Is prepared, knows the general subjects / topics
•   Will be on time, at the right place




                          For Official Use Only
          Actions During a Meeting:
  Current Recorder/Process Observer TTPs
1. The recorder/process observer must be aware of all aspects of the
   meeting, including:
    • time management
    • changes in tone
    • discussion leading to an impasse
    • interpreter disposition
2. Take notes, capture issues.
3. Proven techniques for formal liaison:
    • Sit to watch the leader more than the partner, where you can provide
        signals to the leader outside of the partner’s field of view.
    • Use a template of notes to fill in the blanks.
    • Help keep the leader on the pathway to the intended outcomes
        through use of signals.
    • Schedule adequate breaks to keep the interpreter fresh as
        interpretation is a difficult task.
    • Alternates interpreters as the Liaison transitions from one phase to
        the next.
    • If the partner is a smoker, provide him a break once an hour.
    • Ensures appropriate refreshments are on-hand.
                             For Official Use Only
Actions During a Meeting:
 Sample Meeting Schematic



            Imam




 PSD
         Chaplain       Recorder
               Interpreter



        For Official Use Only
    Actions After a
Meeting with Indigenous
  Religious Leaders:
   Follow-Up Phase


        For Official Use Only
          Actions After a Meeting:
               It’s a Continuous Process
1. RST and staff/recorder must conduct an after-liaison hot-
   wash… the sooner the better!
2. Update the RST target folder
3. Develop RST briefs:
    •   Review of agreements made
    •   Outstanding issues captured
    •   Recommended next steps
4. Share results and recommendations staffed with IOWG.
    •   RST and staff officers discuss linkage to other persons of
        influence, current events, IO themes and campaign plan.
5. Determine next tasking that results from briefing.
6. Leader is provided brief, then provides clarity and guidance for
   follow-up.

        A leader’s credibility is directly linked to the
            follow-through on agreements made.

                             For Official Use Only
Meetings with Indigenous
  Religious Leaders:
      Conclusion



        For Official Use Only
                     Conclusion
1. Consider the meeting between a chaplain and
   indigenous religious leader a tactical operation with
   three phases:
   •   Preparation
   •   Execution
   •   Follow-up
2. Conduct thorough preparation (Rehearse!)
3. Rehearse your interpreter
4. Show respect to culture, religion, and the
   counterpart
5. Your actions after the meeting are just as important
   as your actions during the meeting



                      For Official Use Only
                          References
“A Relational Approach to Religious Leader Liaison Operations,” CH (CPT)
    Masaki Nakazono, US Army.
    https://www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDocument.do?doid=9854487

“Engagement: A Preparation Guide,” LTC William Wunderle, Middle East Foreign
    Affair Officer, Senior Army Research Fellow, RAND Corporation.
    https://www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDocument.do?doid=9052438

“Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in
      Stability Operations,” Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee.
      https://www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDocument.do?doid=9050479

“Religious Support Team Liaisons” PowerPoint presentation.
     https://www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDocument.do?doid=10393618




                              For Official Use Only
          Questions?
               Search AKO:
        “Religious Leader Liaison”

https://www.us.army.mil/suite/page/459688

        masaki.nakazono@us.army.mil




                For Official Use Only

				
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