PRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 2
Common bean ....................................................................................................................................... 2
Soya bean ............................................................................................................................................. 3
BREEDING AND SEED PRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 3
Varietal and adaptation trials .............................................................................................................. 3
Seed bulking & multiplication germplasm............................................................................................ 7
Selection for yield ................................................................................................................................. 8
Selection for disease resistance ............................................................................................................ 9
Selection for insect resistance ............................................................................................................ 10
Tissue culture ..................................................................................................................................... 10
Male sterility....................................................................................................................................... 10
Variety release .................................................................................................................................... 11
Seed storage, longevity and quality .................................................................................................... 11
CROPPING SYSTMES ................................................................................................................................ 11
Growth and physiology ...................................................................................................................... 11
Planting density .................................................................................................................................. 12
Spacing ............................................................................................................................................... 14
Planting date ...................................................................................................................................... 14
Planting Method ................................................................................................................................. 15
Tillage methods .................................................................................................................................. 15
Rotation .............................................................................................................................................. 16
Intercropping ...................................................................................................................................... 16
Alley Cropping ................................................................................................................................... 21
NUTRITION AND CHEMICAL ANALYSES .................................................................................................... 21
Quality ................................................................................................................................................ 21
Autinutritional factors ........................................................................................................................ 22
FERTILIZERS ............................................................................................................................................ 22
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 22
Fertilizers and plant nutrition ............................................................................................................ 24
Application methods ........................................................................................................................... 25
Fertilizers rates .................................................................................................................................. 27
Fertilizer and intercropping ............................................................................................................... 29
SYMBIOTIC RELATIONS ........................................................................................................................... 29
Nitrogen Fixation ............................................................................................................................... 29
Nodulation .......................................................................................................................................... 29
Inoculation ......................................................................................................................................... 31
WATER RELATIONS AND IRRIGATION ...................................................................................................... 31
Water balance..................................................................................................................................... 31
Drought .............................................................................................................................................. 33
Photosythesis ...................................................................................................................................... 34
INSECTS, DISEASES, VIRUSES, WEEDS, AND NEMATODES ...................................................................... 35
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 35
Insects and their control ..................................................................................................................... 37
Diseases and their control .................................................................................................................. 43
Viruses and their control .................................................................................................................... 45
Weeds and their control...................................................................................................................... 46
Nematodes control .............................................................................................................................. 49
FARMING SYSTEMS ................................................................................................................................. 50
Farm surveys ...................................................................................................................................... 50
On-farm trials ..................................................................................................................................... 51
PRICING AND MARKETING........................................................................................................................ 51
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 51
Economics .......................................................................................................................................... 52
Rachier (03005) noted that the major constraints to bean production in western Kenya are
diseases, insects, poor soil fertility, excessive rainfall and inappropriate cultivars.
Muigai and Ndegwa (03300) reviewed the status of bean production and research in Kenya.
The major objectives of the research were identified as increasing yields, identifying resistance
or tolerance to diseases heat drought and low soil fertility. The methods outlined and major
insects, diseases and weeds were discussed.
Rono and Shakoor (04929) reported that early maturing (60-65 days) and heat tolerant
cultivars with an average yield of 1500 kg/ha in pure stand, have been developed for the semi-
arid areas of Eastern Kenya.
Rachier (13766) reviewed bean production potential in western province.
Gridley (200183) reported the role CIAT has played for the national programmes of Uganda
and Ethiopia in making available germplasm with wide genetic variation for yield and disease
resistance. The evaluation of a regional network permitted dissemination of elite breeding
materal and strengthened bean improvement stragies in other parts of Africa.
Paul (200184) reported the importance of field beans in Rwanda, the constraints to
production and the recommended varieties. Research efforts undertaken between 1986 - 1988
included, selection of local and CIAT cultivars, sorghum/climbing beans intercropping studies
and seed multiplication.
Mohamed and Salih (200191) reported the progess of the bean breeding work in the Sudan.
The commonly grown, white-seeded, non-white seeded and navy bean types well described.
Selection for salt tolerance resulted in the release and adoption of cultivar RO/2/1.
Mmboga et al., (200204) reported that bean yields, in Arusha Tanzania range from 420-1140
kg/ha and the national yields between 200 - 700 kg/ha. Bean cultivars, Tengeru 8 and 16 were
released for export, whereas T3, Kabanuma, Uyole 84 and Lyamungu 85 cultivars were
released for the small-scale farmers.
Wortmann et al., (200943) outlined the objectives of bean research at Kawada as
development of high yielding, early maturing, and short cooking time varieties.
Calderon (202362) reviewed bean production world wide, area under cultivation, mean
yields in different sub-sharan African countries and growth rates, during the period 1981-1983.
Data also ranked beans percentage of total proten and quality among other protein sources.
Njuguna et al., (21958) reviewed the introduction and distribution of the common bean
varieties in Kenya and the agro-ecological zones in which they are grown. Njuguna et al.,
(21960) also noted the various cropping systems. Beans were commly interplanted with maize.
Pure stands of beans were planted in rows whereas in intercrops, random panting was common.
Land preparation was mostly done by hand using hoes and pangas and occasionaly ox-drawn
plonghs and tractors. Fertilizers were applied in only, one-guarter of the fields surveyed in
Eastern and Central provinces. Weeding was done by hand. Njuguna et al., (21962) estimated
that in pure stands grain yield from central and Eastern provinces to be an average of 750 kg/ha
and 375 kg/ha in intercrop.
Gichuki and Van Rheenen (22068) compared twelve bean cultivars in a randomised
complete block design of four replications at seven sites during long rains 1973. In the high
rainfall areas represented by Thika, Embu and Kabete, GLP24 was the most promising cultivar,
but was susceptible to halo bligh and bean common mosaic virus.
Singh and Agnihotri (238958) reported that only 4000 farmers cultivated beans around Lake
Koster (34590) described varieties of potato, wheat, barley, sunflower, beans and maize in a
booklet from three years data between 1977-1979 at the National Seed Quality Control Service.
Thairu (32937) suggested that soil and climate conditions in East African are conducive for
growing soya bean and that the crop is relatively a low cost one compared to other edible oil
seeds. The protein rich soy bean meal could be used as livestock feed and research could be
undertaken to popularise utilisation of whole soyabean, flour, concentrates, protein isolates and
in font food. Appropriated production technology confued be set up and on farm trials
conducted to acquaint farmers with soya bean.
NARS, Kisii (424) reported soya bean variety trials at Sotik.
Breeding and seed production
Varietal and adaptation trials
WARS, Kakamega (01366 and 01375) in 1970 evaluated ten bean varieties at three sites in
western Kenya. Several high yielding varieties were identified.
WARS, Kakamega (01375) tested dwarf bean varieties at three sites in western Kenya and
identified several high yielding ones.
WARS,Kakamega (01376) in 1970 tested various varieties of beans together with those of
other crops such as maize, kenaf, finger millet and groundnuts.
WARS, Kakamega, (01676)) tested variety Mex-142 at two sites in western Kenya, varying
in soil types and rainfall. The yields were higher in the fertile soils and high rainfall areas than
in the poor soils and low rainfall areas. Beanfly attached the crop in these areas.
WARS, Kakamega (02742) in 1968 recommended two dwarf beans, Mexican-142 and
Uganda-141 to farmers.
Smithson and Gridley (03272) tested several bean varieties for stability using Eberhart and
Russell (1966) model. Most varieties were stable and their regressions did not differ
significantly from one (bal) their deviations from regression were also small. Unstable varieties
such as G136711 and Ikinimra had regressions significantly greater than 1 while G2816 had
significant deviations from regression.
Johnston (03936) in 1912 tested seven bean varieties and showed that Flageolet was the best
GARS, Garissa (03981) tested twenty bean varieties and observed that they were poorly
KARI (04702) tested three harvesting stages and germination percentage of four velvet bean
varieties. There were no significant dry matter differences between bean varieties and the
different stages of harvesting.
Dept. of Agriculture in 1913 (04745) tested the yields of Rose Coco bean variety when
planted between rows of fruit trees.
IDRP (06030) tested twenty nine cultivars for adaptability in the lake region. Cultivar GLP2
was recommended as the most suitable for Nyanza.
Waithaka and Gathungu (06317) tested five bean varieties in a randomized complete block
design. Local variety kasongi yielded higher than mexican-142 and Rose coco cultivars.
WARS, Kakamega (06405) tested seven dwarf bean varieties at three sites. In one site, black
bean had the highest yields.
WARS, Kakamega (06420) in 1964 evaluated white haricot beans in five locations and the
highest yields were recorded at Bukura.
WARS, Kakamega (06450) evaluated five bean varieties for yield. The variety, black food
bean out-yielded the others.
NHRS, Thika (06851) tested the performance of twelve bean varieties in either pure or
mixed stands. Varieties, GLP-X-92 and GLP-X-806 performed well in both stands.
NARS, Kakamega (0931) in 1971 tested twelve dwarf bean varieties in a replicated trail.
Varieties K19 and K20 had higher yields than the rest.
Barno and Rukwaro (0014199) compared the performance of 56 lines of dry beans with two
tapery bean cultivars and two chickpea varieties at Marigat.
Except for 100 seed weight this study did not show the relationships between yield and yield
components for the different cultivars. Neither did it show the most adapted varieties within
W.A.R.S., Kakamega, Annual Report (00887) tested six varieties of dwarf beans, at two
sites. Two varieties, Bang'a and Mexican-142 outyielded the others
Wakhoya (01076) evaluated three bean cultivars, namely, GLP2, GLP-1127A, GLP-X.92
treated with DAP fertilizers at planting. GLP-X-92 gave the highest yields.
NHRS, Thika (01847) tested eight advanced breeding lines of snap beans.
NHRS, Thika (10891) conducted national bean performance trials on six varieties. Some
varieties performed better than the commercial variety GLP-24.
NHRS, Thika (10973) compared the yield and seed coat quality of white-seeded bean
varities in a non-replicated trial.
NHRS, Thika (11128) evaluated several red-hericot bean varieties under sole and
intercropping systmes at Katumani, Embu, Kisii, Thika and Kakamega.
NHRS, Thika (11172) tested twelve bean cultivars in pure stands and maize/bean
intercropping. Cultivars, GLP-X-92 and GLP-X-330 performed best in both cropping systems.
NSQCS (11324) in 1980 conducted dry beans national performance trials in pure and in
maize/bean intercrop for eleven new varieties and three commercial ones, in six sites. Variety,
F.S.44 gave the highest seed yield in both pure and mixed cropping systems.
Chesoli (11824) tested five varieties in a complete randomized block trial at Taita Hills.
Rose coco gave the highest yields.
NHRS, Thika (12123) tested the yields of twelve bean cultivars planted as sole crops or in
association with maize, in a split plot trial replicated four times at Katumani, Thika, Embu,
Kisii and Kakamega. GLP-2 gave the highest yields in the wetter sites of Kisii and Kakamega.
Sole bean crops yielded slightly more and had higher, halo blight, (BMV and angular leaf spot
scores) than the intercrops.
Department of Agriculture (12029) in 1913-1914 tested nine bean varieties at Kabete.
Canadian wonder gave the highest yields.
Department of Agriculture (12024 and 12033) in 1914 conducted trials using Rose coco,
butter, stringless and Canadian wonder beans at Kabete experimental farm. Rose coco gave the
NHRS, Thika (12137) tested fourteen varieties in a trail replicated four times in seven sites.
Three varieties, masterpiece saxa and Monel gave significantly high yields, at Thika, Lanet and
Mwea. Varieties X sites showed significant interaction.
NHRS, Thika (12141) compared three recommended methods of growing french beans with
the common farmer methods in unreplicated demonstration plots in Muranga, Nyeri, Kirinyaga
and Kiambu districts.
NHRS, Thika (12154) tested several frech beans cultivars at Katumani, Embu and Kisii.
Some sites required supplementary irrigation.
Soya bean Ehlers (12524) tested 15 varieties at Ogongo Homabay and Busia and identified,
TGX989-1E and TGX 536-02D as promising lines.
Department of Agriculture (13957) in 1964 carried out a bean variety trial at Perkerra and
observed that anthrocnose, rust and leaf spot (Isariopsis griseola) were important diseases.
Mulagoli (13521) reported the results of on-farm trails of Rose coco, Kat. B1 and Kat mm
bean varieties conducted in Laikipia district for three seasons. There was a large variation in
yields which made it difficult to interpret the results.
Kiplagat (14516) tested several elite bean varieties in long and short rains and in pure and
intercropping systems. Two year results showed that FS44 and ST92 procured the highest yield
in pure stands and in mixed stands also.
French beans NHRS, Thika (15859 and 15863) tested 14 varieties at Mwea, Meru,
Ngong, Kabarnet and Naivasha. Monel significantly outyielded other varieties at
Karbarnet and Naivasha while French type Canadian wonder was the highest yielder at
Mwe, Meru and Ngong. Of the five sites there the highest yields were obtained at Mwea
Department of Agriculture (15926) tested slections of local and exotic cultivars in a
preliminary yield trial. Varieties from Uganda (189-8.5 and 15-7-7) out-yielded local
Canadian wonder and Rose coco significantly.
NHRS, Thika (15928) evaluated the performance of climbing and bush beans
intercropped with maize and in sole cropping. Climing beans intercropped with maize
yielded higher than bush beans.
WARS, Kakamega in 1965 (16379) tested seven black varieties at Kimilili, Siriba,
Bukura and Bungoma and observed very poor yields due to unfavourable weather
Kihanda and Kamundi (16726) tested sixe maize/bean intercropping systems in UM3
(Embu) agro-ecological zone by varying inter-row spacing between the two crops. There
were no significant differences in yield between the various intercropping systems.
Ireri (17159 and 17186) evaluated twenty cultivars at Embu and observed that GLP-2
and GLP-1004 produced the highest yields.
Kiiya, Ochieng and Mwania (17202) conducted trials at Sirende, Suwerwa and
Kimondo in Trans-Nzoia using maize cultivar H614 with several bean varieties in the
intercrops. Maize intercropped with cultivars GLP2 and GLP24 had ears placed
significantly lower than maize in pure tnads. Bean cultivar GLP2 significantly outyielded
other varieties both in pure stands and in the intercrops.
Mwakha (17252 and 17253) observed that interplanting eight rows of beans rather than
four rows between coffee rows, reduced the yields of coffee.
NHRS, Thika in 1981 (17527) teted twenty five bean varieties in maize/bean mixed
and pure stands at Katumani, Thika, Embu, Kisii and Kakamega. Bean pure stands and the
yields were higher at Thika and Embu than in the other sites. Two cultivars, RH-27 and
RH-16 gave the highest yields.
Ledger (17600) in 1955 observed low yields of Candian wonder beans in short rains
1953 and long rains 1954 as a result of drought in the former and insect damage in the
Glodon (18091) tested varieties, Rose-coco, Richmond wonder, Black food bean and
Cannadian wonder of Kakamega.
French beans Warui (18374 and 18632) tested nine introduced and local vrieties in a
randomised complete block design replicated four times at Tika and fofund that Richmond
wonder gave the highest green pod yields of 19 t/ha.
WARS, Kakamega (18403) tested ten bean varieties in a randomized complete block
design replicated four times at Kimilili, Sangalo and Humakenda. The yields were lower at
Sangalo than at the other two sites.
Nyambu (18519) tested the performance of four dry beans cultivars at Wundanyi and
observed that local varieties, Kisangi and Marage significantly outyielded the others.
EARS, Embu (18718) reported a preliminry yield trial having bean varieties from
Uganda and Tanzania and observed that these varieties outyielded local Canadian wonder
and Rose coco cultivars significantly.
Department of Agriculture (18898) in 1913 tested ten bean varieties and four that
Canadian Wonder was the highest yielding.
NHRS, Thika (19211) tested 34 varieties in both sole cropping and maize/intercropping
systems at Katumani, Thika, Embu, Kisii and Kakamega.
EARS, Embu (20003) in 1968 evaluated 14 varieties in a replicated trial and reported
Mexican 142 and Ugand-189 varieties among the highest yielders.
NHRS, Thika (20229) in 1991 tested 23 advanced breeding lines and noted that seed
size ranged from 48.6-69.5 g per 100 seed and the highest grain yield was 3418 kg/ha.
Mukunya (18941) planted the 2500 germplasm lines at Katumani, Murinduko and
Karai during short rains 1981/1982 for observation. Twenty seven attained a minimum of
1 ton/ha at Katumani and Murinduko.
Gathuru (18977) in 1982 assessed the performance of 211 bean varieties at Karai a
dryland site and only 56 entries produced seed.
French beans NHRS, tested 10 French beans cultivars and observed that cultivars,
premier, long ton, cyrus and Erna gave the highest percentage of saleable pods and yields.
Department of Agriculture (20906) evaluated 10 varieties at Embu and observed that
cultivars syimeaa and white haricot had the lowest yields in the long-rains but the highest
in the short rains.
EARS, Embu (21928) tested twelve cultivars in a randomised complete block design
with four replications and observed that GLP-8 gave the highest yields of 1958 kg/ha.
Ledger (22106) in 1951 reported that no yield differences between Rose coco and
Canadian wonder beans.
Anon (300054) reported that beans cultivars in sole cropping outyielded those in mixed
cropping in Katumani, Thika, Embu, Kisii, Nakuru and Busia.
Soya bean: Geritsen, Ogombe and Kaumbali (32496) evaluated several soya bean
varieties in a replicated trial and noted that only three varieties manel, 2112, 2140 and
1404 nodulated and seed yields ranged from 353-672-7 kg/ha.
Dept of Agric. (32600) tested, Canadian wonder, Rose coco and Moldaria round white
cultivars and observed that Canadian wonder was the best yielder.
Cokings-well (32644) in 1952 tested six bean varieties at Kisii and Homabay in a
randomised complete block trial. At Kisii, variety Abundance gave higher yields than the
rest and at Homabay, Navy bean was the highest yielding.
Dept. of Agric. (33211) reported that Rose coco yileded better than three other
Dept. of Agric. (33223, 33225) in 1914, tested 10 bean varieties including Rose coco
and Canadian wonder and reported Canadian wonder as the highest yielder.
Dept. of Agric. (33367) in 1912 noted that beans planted between caera rubber plants as
catch crop yielded less than the rubber plants.
Gitau and Lung'aho (33475) reported seed yields ranging from 0.8 to 2.5 t/ha at Tigoni.
Holder (33965) in 1915 tested the performance of Canadian wonder, Rose coco and
Haricot bean varieties and noted that Canadian wonder gave the highest yield followed by
Johnston (34010, 34020) in 1915 reported the yileds four bean varieties both in the long
and short rains at Kabete and noted that short rains yields were lower than long rains due
to inadequate rainfall.
Powell (34206) in 1966 reported the yields of Canadian bean, maize and teff grams.
Teff yielded better than the others.
Seed bulking & multiplication germplasm
NHRS, Thika (01198) tested the longevity of six bean varieties stored either in paper
envelopes, in sealed container with silica get in the store or in sealed with silica get in a
refrigerator seed stored in paper bags in not more than three years had the best germination.
NHRS, Thika (04764) tested cooking time in winged beans when soaked either in tap or
distilled water cooking time was shorter when cooking tap than indistilled water.
NHRS, Thika (01880) multiplied basic seed of food and french bean varieties.
NHRS, Thika (12128) observed the performance of 100 accessions planted in one
replication with a control for every five cultivars at Katumani, Embu, Thika, Kisii and
Deut (17614) in 1956 reported bulking seed of variety Dutch Robin.
Van Rheem and Gichuhi (18827) identified from a survey that thre are 78 diseases bean
types in Kenya.
NHRS, Thika (19213) evaluated F1 prgenies under noth sole cropping and maize/bean
Department of Agriculture (19234) tested Canadian wonder, rose coco and Maldavaa round
white bean cultivars t Kibos at observed that Canadiam wonder was the highest yielding.
NHRS, (19369) tested several bean varieties and bulk populations in both sole and
3intercropping systems. GLP-1004 performed best.
Allen and Smithson (200285) reported the progess made in breeding beans for high yields in
the various southern African research institutions.
Salih, Bushara and Ali (200439) reported that the most important production constraints for
beans in the Sudan are low yields, salimity and sodicity of the soils, whitefly and curly top
virus damage. In irrigated areas, the average yield was 1300 kg/ha.
Rono and Shakoor (200440) reported that cultivars maturing within 60-65 days after
planting and yielding 1500 kg/ha in pure stand where developed for farmers in the semi-arid
areas of Eastern Kenya.
CIAT (201182 and 202363) outlined collaborative activities and networks in Eastern and
Mukunya (18936) in 1982 reported that 2500 bean accessions including local landraces and
collections from CIAT, USIDA, Cambridge, UK, Uganda and Tanzania were collected by the
Faculty of Agriculture. The accessions had a high variation in grain colour and size and most of
them were determinate.
NHRS, Thika (238508) in 1982 reported that the number of accessions at the station to be
NHRS, Thika (33473) evaluated 858 accessions from the National Gene Bank at Thika, for
growth vigour, pod set structure and texture, maturity and seed yield.
Selection for yield
NHRS, Thika (03719) in 1982 released breeders' seed of GLP-2 and GLP-X 92 bean
varieties. NHRS (03720) noted experiments and trials covering agronomy, pathology breeding
and selection conducted in 1982 long rains. NHRS (03728) tested twelve bean cultivars planted
in either in pure stand or in a maize/bean intercrop.
NHRS, Thika (03742) tested twelve bean varieties in pure stands and in maize/bean
intercropping seven sites. Five of the seven trials showed significant yields differences between
Ngure (05711) screened three hundred and thirty two bean accessions for yield potential
disease resistance, shattering and pod clearance, in unreplicated plots. A white haricot bean,
B4-35-24 introduced from the USA and having resistance to root knot nematodes gave the
highest yields, had no blight or virus symptoms but the pods were very close to the ground.
Van Rheen (06173) tested two crossing methods, with or without sucrose involving GLP-3
and GLP-12. The two crossing methods showed no significant differences but sucrose
application reduced pod set. Minimum temperature was positively significantly correlated with
NHRS, Thika (11136) evaluated the F1 bulk population of a cross between GLP-2 and GLP-
11 under both pure bean stand and maize/bean intercrop at five sites.
NHRS, Thika (12130) tested single plant progenies from a bulk population, replicated once,
in sole cropping and in maize/bean intercropping at Katumani and Kisii.
Muigai (13403 and 1375) selected several hybrid populations under both monocropping and
maize/bean intercropping systems. Selected under maize/bean intercrop, bean genotypes gave
higher grain yields selected under monocropping and intercropping were low.
Van Rheen (17931) attempted to improve crossing percentage between GLP-11 and GLP
707 by applying growth regulations in the calyx and stigma. However, removal of flower buds
not used during crossing proved to be highly successful than use of growth regulations.
NHRS, Thika (19034) tested twelve single plant selections and thirteen varieties of black
beans in a randomised complete block design replicated four times. Two single plant selection
out-yielded the others.
Kayiwa and Musaana (200441) assessed the performance of 25 varieties consisting of land
racesd cultivars and advanced lines at five locations for three seasons in Uganda. The genotype
X environment interactions were significant and the best yielders tendered to be the small-
seeded varieties not very acceptable to farmers and consumers.
Smithson and Gridley (200442) applied the stability anlaysis of Eberhart and Russel (1966)
to yield data from the African Bean Yield Adaptation Nursery and showed that for most entries,
the b values did not differ significantly from unity and the deviations from the regression were
not significantly greater than zero. Cultivars PVA 1272, Mbara local and Muhinga appeared to
be the most stable.
Kitivo (21830) selected two bean poplations, MEP-Embu for pure cropping and MEM-
Embu for intercropping with maize. Kitivo (21831 and 21837) reported that GLP4 and GLP12
gave yields of 1969 kg/ha and 1913 kg/ha respectively and did not show any yield differences
when planted in pure stands or in mixed cropping.
Van Rheneen, Muigai and Omunyin (238502) reported a mutant having dark green shiny,
thick and wrinkled leaves from GLP2 and controlled a single recessive gene.
Agwanda (32489) studied phenotypic variation in two bean populations, PAS/001 and
PAS/002. In PAS/001, significant varieation was observed for pods/plant, pods/branch and
weight of pooding nodes. In PAS/002, there was variation for podding nodes per plant as a
selection criterion, pods,/plant was impoved seed yield by 9% in PAS/002 during the first cycle
of selection and by 4% during the sencond cycle
Selection for disease resistance
NHRS, Thika (03744) crossed backcrossed either GLP-18 and GLP-20 to mwezi moja, Rose
coco, canadian wonder and Red Haricot with the aim of incorporating anthracnose resistance.
NHRS, Thika (03750) evaluated 1133 local and 1563 introduced bean varieties. Rust was
the most important disease recorded.
NHRS, Thika (03751) in 1982 crossed several bean varieties with the aim of incorporating
multiple disease resistance with high yield and acceptable seed quality.
NHRS, Thika in 1982 (03756) crossed and back-crossed, GLP-X 92, the recurrent parent to
GLPX1127 (a), the donor parent for resistance to bean common mosaic virus and arithracnose.
NHRS, Thika (03771) in 1982 tested the ration of GLP-16 variety with the dominant I gene
resistance to bean common mosaic virus and black root disease incidence. Yield differences
between resistant and susceptible cultivars were done to other factors other than presence or
absence of the dominant I gene.
NHRS, Thika (03792) crossed several GLP varieties having resistance to anthracnose to
susceptible Canadian wonder and Red haricot cultivars.
NHRS, Thika (04767) crossed GLPX 92, having resistance to halo blight, as male parent
with several single plant selections from Katumani and Kisii as the female parents.
NHRS, Thika (10892) investigated disease incidence in three new varieties crossed with
three commercial seed types and back-crossed to the commerical seed types. Further
generations were advanced through single seed descent.
French NHRS, Thika (11726) crossed a variety "monel" susceptible to rust and common
bacterial blight but with acceptable seed qualities with a resistanct one. Several selections were
NHRS, Thika (12134) tested the hypothesos that foliage and pod resistance to halo blight
was controlled by different genes. Usinging F2 population inoculated with halo blight it was
shown that foliage and pod diseas scores were positively correlated under field conditions.
NHRS, Thika (12119) screened GLP beans for resistance to common bean moisaic virus in
unreplicated trial. Two cultivars showed no symptoms and induced local new cross suggesting
the presence of the dominant I gene.
NHRS, Thika (12177) backcrossed mwezi moja, Rose coco, Canadian wonder and GLP-2 to
GLP-18 and GLP 20, carrying the resistant dominant gene for authroenose.
Kihiu (15415) evaluated F2 and F3 progenies from a dialled cross involving five bean
cultivarus susceptible to BCMV, halo blight and anthracnose and two cultivars resistanct to
these pathogenus segragation ratios for some of the crosses indicated t hat resistance to BCMV
and anthroecnose was governed by a single dominant gene, whereas that to halo blight was
governed by many polygenes.
NHRS, Thika (17529) investigated the effct of balck root nerosis on a variety GLP-16
having the dominant I gene in a homozgous condition at Katumani, Embu, Thika, Kisii and
Kakamega. In all the locations, there has vey low incidence of bean common mosaic virus and
balck root diseae and the differences in yield were therefore ddue to other factors than the
dooominant I gene.
Kinyua (18821) screened several varieties for resistance to the Thika isolate of
colletorichum lindemuthianum and showed that only GLP-16, GLP-68 and GLP-103 were
Van Rheenen and Gachui (18829) observed that their earlier findindg that resistance to hlao
blight was controlled by one or two recessive genes was incorrect. They further noted that
(18830) GLP-20 have the ave gene for resistance to authroacnose.
Sengooba (200926) noted the highlighs of the Uganda national bean programme in 1989 as
release of cultivars 913671, White Haricot and Rubana 5. hybridization for common bacterial
blight and ascochyta resistance and the cultural centrol of the two diseases.
Van Rheneen and Muigai (238457) inferred that deployment of the dominat I gene in Kenya
showed block root in GLP-16 in only 10% of the plants in the and therefore the dominat factor
was recommended by emphoasized the need to augment the resistance by adding, recessive
Muigai and Wachiuri (37193 and 31194) crossed and backcrossed rust and bacterial
blightresistant with bean common mosaic virus lines. Muigai and Wachiuri (31208) selected
TBM-3, an early maturing, drought escaping variety.
Okior (32357) used electro phoretic isozyme tecniques to determine biochemical differences
between bean lines resistant and susceptible to Anthrasnose Band internsities were higher in
susceptible than in resistant lines. Total perioxidase activity showed no consistent diffeneces
between ioculated and uninocualted reistant and susceptible lines. The change in peroxidase
activities as a result of infection were similar in reistant and susceptible lines suggesting that
they reposnded to infection in same manner. Triofoliate leaves were less responsive to infection
than primary leaves. The conclusion was that elctcrophoresis could be used to identify resistant
from susceptible lines at an early stages of development.
Mwangi (32358) cultured 36 isolates of Colletorichum lindermuthianum and inoculated 41
lines. All the popular larg seeded lines were suceptible to most isolates while the small-seed
lines showed tolerance. A small-seeded, black bean of ideterminate bushy habit, NB123 was
immune to all isolates.
Selection for insect resistance
NHRS Thika (10856) evaluated different bean cultivars for resistance to bean fly (Ophyomia
spp) and found considerable differences.
Muigai and Wachiuri (311209 and 31195) selected cultivar BF7 (ICAPIPAO) as the most
resistant to bean fly from a regional nursery with 1500 accessions established at Thika in 1991.
Mugana et al., (31511 and 31596) made ten crosses between common bacterial blight
resistant lines and susceptible ones advanced the F1 to F2 with each cross have 250 plants. The
F2 plants were inoculated by razor blade at the V3 stage and by needle at R66 stage. At the
vegetative stage, V3, it was observed that one to four genes controlled the resistance, wheas at
R56 there was probable one to three gene.
Wambugu (1988) described in vitro production of somatic embryoid from the callus of two
bean varieties. The callus was initiated from shoot tip and hypocotyl on basal medium
supplemented with kimatia. the Embryoid developed by the end of the third week.
Mahatanyta (202138) irradiated Canadian wonder at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 krad and noted
substatial reduction in seedling emergence, plant height, pod number, pod weight and seed
yield ad the dosage increased, in both M1 and M2 generations. The critical dosage seemed to be
20 krad. A positive and significant relationship in irradiated material was observed between pod
number and seed yield.
NHRS, Thika (12132) attempted to improve seed set for crosses with male sterile plants by
increasing humidity and applying potassium gibberllate and naphalene aletamide in the calyx.
Preliminary data secored to indicate that male sterility was controlled by one gene.
NHRS, Thika (04765) in 1980 supplied breeders' seed of GLP-2 GLP-24 and GLP-1004 to
hortiseed for multiplication and release. Other varieties released were, GLP-X92 GLPX 380
AND GLPX 730.
Ireri (17187) assessed the performance of twelve bean cultivars under low and high fertility
levels in Nyeri, Kirinyaga, Embu and Meru districts, for two seasons. Fertility levels had no
significant effect on grain yields and cultivar GLP-X-123 gave the highest yield.
Van Rheen, Oluoch and Muigai (18786) in 1984 described five varieties, namely, GLP-2,
GLP-24, GLP-1004, GLP-X-1127(a) and GLP-585 for release.
Njuguna et al., (21877) described varieties GLP2, GLP24 and GLP 1004 for release.
Stoetzer (238506) reported the release of one cultivar with reistance to Pseudomones
syragne pv. phaseolicala and three others with moderated resistance to BCMV Phseudomonas
syringe pr phaseolicala, colletorichum linderuthianum and rust.
Newsletter, Dar-es-Salaam (242106) reported the release of three varieties in Tanzania.
TM0216 a bush, yield of 1831 kg/ha and drought toleant WAC41, a selection from local and
races good cooking quality, yielding between 1472 - 504 kg/ha and a CIAT introduction CG104
(Uyole 90) having rust resistance and good coooking quality.
Seed storage, longevity and quality
NHRS, Thika (03793) tested of viability of six GLP bean varieties when stored in paper
envelopes, sealed container with silica gel either in the store or in the refrigerator.
NHRS, Thika (06855) tested the longerity of five bean varieties stored either in paper
envelopes or in containers sealed with silica gel and kept in the refrigerator. Seeds stored in
sealed containers had higher viability than those in envelopes.
NHRS, Thika (11528) observed the effect of storing germplasm under the effect of storing
germplasm under two environmental conditions.
Ngatia and Mbugua (13535) tested the germination of 22 bean varieties and observed that
viability decreased with age irrespective of storage methods used.
NHRS, Thika (17530) seed-dress,GLP2 and GLP 1004 with aldrin Benomyl Thioram and
the various combinations at Kisii and Thika. GLP-1004 Thiram + Benomyl at Kisii and with
Aldrin + Thiram at Thika gave the highest yields, though the differences were not significant.
Ngatia and Mbugua (32804) investigated the viability of 22 bean varieties and that
germinated percentage declined with age. Freshly stored beans cooked faster than those stored
for a longer time.
Ngugi (3284) observed that grain age, moisture, fungal infestation and physiologica in
maturity lowered bean germination rate and cookability.
Growth and physiology
Coulson (189945) assessed Canadian wonder, Mwezi moja, Rose-coco and tepary bean
varieties for leaf area, drymatter accumulation in roots, stems leaves and light interception.
Rose-coco had higher yiled than the rest particulary due to greater seeds/pod but had a lower
leaf area than Canadian wonder, resulting in a lower light compensation point.
Coulson and Akundo (227825) investigated the relatioship between transpiration control by
the stomata and water varpour concentration gradient in several bean cultivars with the aim of
idnetifying drought tolerant cultivars. The ratio between transpiration and wtarer vapur gradient
appeared to be a more sensitive screening techique.
Itulya, Coulson and D'sourza (227826) reviewed bean research work on drought and heat
tolerance carried out in Kenya.
D'Souza (32232) investigated dry matter partitioning in rose coco (NB 1122) and mwezi
moja bean varieties at various watering regimes. Dry matter production decreased with applied
water. Leaf area index and ration were reduced at lower water levesl. There were no differences
between cultivars in dry matter production or partitioning at the various levels of applied water.
Anon (32581) planted, Mwezi Moja (NB578) Small Rose Coca (NB 1122) and Canadian
Wonder (NB 26) in pure stands and in association with maize at varying nitrogen levels.
Morphological characters of both beans and maize were not affected by the competion from
intercropping or the varying nitrogen levels. Nitrogen concentration in bean leaf petioles and in
maize mid-ribs increased linelarly with nitrogen levels but was not affected by intercropping.
Itulya (1985) evaluated six cultivars for two years at different crop densities and sowing
dates. Mwezi moja and Rose coco matured earliest and yielded highest. Economic yield was
determined by percentage pad set and seed weight, at a spacing of 45x10.
Mwangi and Oduori (01000) tested the effect of intercropping either one or two rows of
beans between two rows of sorghum different densities. The yields of both beans and sorghum
were highest in the pure stands. The yields of beans were reduced when either one or two rows
were planted between two rows of sorghum.
W.A.R.S., Kakamega (00955) tested the effect of plant densities by varying the distance
between the rows on the yields of mex-142 and Rose-coco beans. The optimum population for
both varieties was between 200,000-285,714, and yields averaged at 2700 kg/ha.
Nicholas (01116) tested the correct spacing form beans. Optimum yields were obtained from
20 cm x 20 cm and 40 cm x 20 cm spacings.
NHRS, Thika (01192) evaluated time of harvesting and plant density in a maize/beans
intercrop and in pure stands of both crops. Intercropping maize at 44,444 plant/ha with beans at
177,778 plants/ha. gave the best economic returns. Mixed cropping showed on advantage over
pure stands. The yields of maize in the intercrop and in the pure stand with not significantly
different and therefore the yield of beans was an extra return.
Itulya (02032) investigated eight different spacings and two planting dates in five bean
varieties grown under semi-arid conditions. The best spacing for all cultivars was 45 cm x 10
cm and mwezi moja and Rose coco varieties matured faster than the others. The best time to
sow was before the onset of the rains. High yielding cultivars produced high number of flowers.
Macharia and Moruri (02254) investigated the effect of planting one, two, or three beans in
a hole in either pure stands of maize and beans or in their mixture. Planting two rows of beans
at 25 cm x 15 cm with two seeds per hole followed by two rows of maize at 75 cm x 30 cm with
one seed per hole gave the highest yields.
Rutto and Mburu (02418) tested the effect of planting either two rows of beans at two
different spacings between two rows of finger millet or alternating one, row of beans with row
of finger millet, at two planting dates. alternating one row of beans with one row of finger
millet gave the highest yields of beans and finger millet. Spacing beans at 60 cm between the
rows and planting two weeks after finger millet gave the highest yields for finger millet.
NHRS, Thika (03025) investigated the effect of increasing bean density in a maize/bean
intercrop at three sites. At Katumani, increasing bean population increase bean yields but
decreased maize yields. The optimum population was 44,400 maize plants/ha and 177,800 bean
NHRS, Thika (03031) tested three plant densities on Rose-coco K74, Mwezi moja and GLP-
2 varieties, at three sites. Grain yields decreased with increasing plant population.
Mwania (03541) investigated the possibilities of improving bean yields in a maize/bean
intercrop by increasing either maize within the row spacing or seedling rate. Increasing within-
the-row spacing gave higher yields of beans than increasing seed rate.
Mwania and Kiiya (03686) tested various between-the-row spacings and number of plants
per hill for maize in a maize/bean intercrop. Planting one or two plants per hill did out affect
the yields of maize but three plants did. Increasing bean population between maize rows did not
affect the maize yield.
NHRS, Thika (03896) tested five between the row spacing of beans on three varieties at five
sites. Plant density did not significantly affect number of seeds per pod or 100-seed weight but
to increasing density showed though not significantly an increase in seed yield.
Mwania and Kiiya (05297) evaluated eighteen between and within-the-row-spacings of
maize and beans in their intercrop and the effect of increasing the number of maize plants per
will, on the yield of the intercrop. The yields of maize and beans were not affected by changing
the distance between maize plants. However, the yields of maize were reduced where three
maize plants per hill were planted. Bean yields increased with increasing bean population.
Shiluli et al., (05302) demonstrated in a farmers field, the optimum spatial arrangement and
fertilizer rates in a maize/bean intercrop. Two rows of beans spaced at 25 cm, with an inter-row
distance of 30 cm, were planted between two rows of maize spaced at 75 cm and with an inter-
row of maize spaced at 75 cm. DAP fertilizer was applied at the rate of 100 kg/ha for beans and
60 kg/ha for maize. Twice as high yields were obtained from this on farm trial compared to
those under farmers practices.
EARS, Embu (06858) tested the effect of increasing bean density in a pure stand and in a
maize/bean intercrop. Land economic ratio value were higher in the mixed than in the pure
stand, and the optimum bean population was 133,333 plants/ha.
NHRS, Thika (11168) tested different densities of maize and beans in a maize/bean
NHRS, Thika (12112) evaluated three plant densities and three DAP fertilizer rates on the
yield of GLP-2 beans at Kakamega and Thika. The highest dose of DAP (200 kg/ha) reduced
plant emergence at both sites. The vairous plant densities did not show any significant effect on
NHRS, Thika (12114) tested, two plant densities, two methods of DAP fertilizer application
and three application rates on the yield of maize/bean intercrop, at Embu, Katumani and
Kakamega. Fertilizer response was highest at Katumani and at Kakamega. DAP application
affected seedling emergence.
NHRS, Thika (12142, 12146) observed that fertilizer with nitrogen and phosphorus
combination gave the best yields. Optimum bean density in a maize/bean intercrop was found to
be 175,000 plants/ha.
NHRS, Thika (15908) tested six maize/bean densities at Katumani and Kisii in a randomised
complete block trial replicated six times. Bean yields increased with increasing bean densities.
Okinyi (18487) evaluated the effect of intercropping cotton and beans at Tebere and
Wanguru. Bean yields were lower in the intercrop than in the pure stands but cotton yields were
Anou (18704) tested the performance of several maize/bean populations.
NHRS, Thika (18747) tested different populations densities of Rose coco and Mexican-142
and found no significant differences.
Soya bean ------ Muigai and Amiyo (18832) noted that the optimum spacing for soya bean
was 75 cm x 20 cm.
NHRS, Thika (19108) investigated effect of two bean densities on the yields of Rose coco
K74, GLP-24, GLP-2 and mwezi moja varieties, at Katumani, Thika, Kisii, Kakamega and
NHRS, Thika (20241) tested four plant densities, namely, 100,000, 200,000, 300,000 and
400,000 plants/ha for Mexican 142 and Rose coco K74 varieties at Embu, Lanet, Thika,
Kakamega and Kisii. In all locaitons, the optimum plant populations appeared to be between
200,00 and 300,00 plants/ha.
French beans ------- NHRS, Thika (21762) using eight different inter and intra-row either as
single or double ros, observied that pod number per plant increased with increasing inter-row
spacing and 70cm x 15cm spacing as a single row, gave the highest pod number.
Mbugua and Munene (31203) noted that the recommended maize density for UM2 and UM3
was 44,444 plants/ha and for UM4, 37,037 plants/ha. Mbugua (31204) observed that double
bnean row planting between maize did not give any yield advantage over the single row
multiple hill planting between maize.
French Beans: ----- Ndegwa (31205) tested several inter and intra-ro spacing distances and
observed that crop vigour tenderd to decreease with increasing inter-row distance.
Ndegwa (31207) also observed that crop vigour increased with increasing levels of DAP
fertilizer, but these were no significant differences between 120 kg/ha and 300 kg/ha DAP
NHRS, Thika (90) reported that in a maize/bean intercropping, the optimum density for
maize was 40,400 plants/ha and for beans, 177,800 plants/ha.
NHRS, Thika (15913) tested three different spacings in a maize/bean intercrop.
NHRS, Thika (17056) investigated the influence of three-between-the-row distances (30, 45
and 60 cm) and four within-the-row distances (5, 10, 15, 20 cm) on the yields of Mexican-142.
The higherst yields were obtained from the spacing 60 cm x 15 cm.
NHRS, Thika (22134) tested four bean sapcing maely 40cm x 12.5, 40 cm x 10 cm giving
200,00, 250,00 350 and 400,000 plants/ha at Thika and Njoro. The lowest population of
200,000 produced the highest yield at Thika and at Njoro 250,000 plants/ha was the highest
Thairu and Ariithi (34187) observed at Katumani that intercropping maize and beans as
single alternate rows at a distance of 45 emor 60cm was most suitable during dry season
whereas double alternate rows of both crops at the row spacing of 45 cm or 65 cm was
appropriated in wet seasons.
W.A.R.S, Kakamega, Annual Report (00952) tested the effect of varying planting dates in
two seasons on the yield of two bean varieties. Varying planting dates in the long-rain rather
than in the short-rains produced significant yield responses. Planting early at the onset of the
rains gave higher yields than subsequent late planting.
W.A.R.S., Kakamega, Annual Report (00843) tested the effect of five planting dates for
beans on the yield of two maize/bean intercrop. Two maize and two bean varieties were used
for intercropping. Bean yields decreased with delayed planting of maize yields were not
WARS, Kakamega (03996) tested two cropping systems and two planting dates on the
yields of beans and finger millet. In one system, of beans was planted after one row of finger
millet and in the other two rows were planted between two rows of finger millet. In the first
planting date, beans were planted at the same time with finger millet and in the second, two
weeks after the millet. Beans planted two weeks after the millet did not produce pods.
MoA (108) tested seven planting dates, with a two-weeks interval from one to the other, of
K20 bean variety for two seasons. The first and second planting dates produced the highest
Embu, (12101) tested four planting dates for Mexican-142 in the long rains at Embu. Early
planting dates outyielded all later ones.
Department of agriculture (14426) tested different planting dates for Mexican-142 and black
food beans at Kakamega and observed that the yields declined with late planting.
Department of Agriculture (14486) in 1962 tested the effects of planting beans in short and
Fisher and Hassel bach (15963) tested the effect of planting beans at differnt dates in a
maize/bean intercrop. Planting beans at the same time with maixe in the intercrop showed land
use advantage over pure stands.
NHRS, Thika (16296) investigated four polanting dates of Rose coco K74 and Mexican-142
varieties in seven sites in both long and short rain seasons. At high rainfal sites reresented by
Kisii and Kakamega delaying planting by one week in the long rains decreased yields by over
EARS, Embu (18383) tested four planting dates at weekly intervals for Mexican-142
cultivar in long rains 1970 at Embu. Beans planted one week after rainfall onset gave the
WARS, Kakamega (18401) tested the effect of five planting dates in Sangalo, Kakamega
and Maseno and observed that beans should be sown immediately after the end of the long
NHRS, Thika (19063) tested four planting dates and two levels of manure on the yield of
Rose coco K74, variety at Embu and Katumani mwezi moja variety at Katumani. At Katumani,
farm yard manure increase yields in all planting dates but at Embu, the yields decreased with
NHRS, Thika (19070 and 19092) evaluated the effect of flour planting dates on GLP-2 and
Rose coco K74 bean cultivars at Kisii and Kakamega. At Kakamega, there were signifcant
differences in the time of planting as well as in the planting time x cultivar interaction.
Workayehu (200199) tested five sowing dates at ten days interval and two DAP fertilizer
rates (0 and 100 kg/ha) on the yield of two local haricot and B-933 cultivars seed size and grain
yield decreased with delayed planting but gertilizer did not have any effect on the characters
than in gram yields were greater and seed size smaller in B-933 the local.
Hasselback and Ndegwa (201778) studied the effect of five planting dates on the yield of
two bean cultivars.
Auma (17241 and 18016) compared the different depths of sowing and their effect on
seedling emergence in maize, wheat and beans at Njoro. The correlations between seedling
emervence and depth of sowing were not significant for all the crops.
NHRS, Thika (01195) evaluated planting maize and beans pure stand and their intercrop on
flat beds and ridges. Ridge planting did not give a higher yield that flat bed planting.
Kilewe and Mbuvi (100543) evaluated the effect of crop cover and mulching on
maize/beans intercrops and their pure stands under both conventional and mimum tillage
Kilewe et al., (21857) investigated the role of vegetative cover in the erosion process in bare
fallow, beans and maize pure stands, maize/bean intercrops in the same row and same hill,
maize/bean intercrop on same row but fifferent hills. The percentage cover for beans in pure
stand was higher than in all other treatment during long-rains 1992.
Olang'o (32332) compared bean production under minimum and conventions/tillage
systems. Glyphosate was used to kill weeds in minimum tillage plots and the conventional
tillage plant were cultivated once and harrowed. Bean yields were higher in the conventional
tillage plots than in the minimum, though the profit margin was not significantly different.
Hinga (33066) investigated the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, farm yard
manure, stover mulch and tie-ridging on the yield of maize and beans at Katumani.
RRC, Embu (33594) assessed the use of leucaena lencocephala and caliandra calothrysus
tree pruning as source of nutrients in a maize/bean intercrop and the competiotion betwenion
the tree and the intercrop. Addtion of mulch increased maize yields but the presence of the
leugeroced did not affect yields.
Makariani (02558) observed the effect of rotating maize and bean crops, for 12 years.
WARS, Kakamega (02739) tested the time of planting in two dwarf beans. Planting at the
onset of the rains gave the best yields.
Muthamia (02959) tested the performance of beans in Zero and conventional tillage trials.
Conventional tillage produced higher seed yields than zero tillage.
Embu Agricultural Research Station (065960) tested four rotational systems, one in which
maize and beans were continually intercropped. There were no significant differences between
the treatments. However, maize cropped alone continuously, gave lower yields than the
continuous intercropping of maize and beans.
Gathecha (11337 and 11690) evaluated the effect of cropping maize and beans continuoulsly
and that of rotating maize/bean with irish potatoes or grass. Continuous cropping maize and
beans without appling fertilizers, reduced greatly the yields of maize.
Gathecha (11354) observed that maize planted after fallow gave significantly higher yields
than after sorghum, beans and zeff.
Department of Agriculture (14470) tested the effects of contionous maize and beans
cropping and rotating maize and beans with irish potatoes at Embu.
Embu (16559) compared maize bean intercropping with maize sole cropping.
Soya beans Moberly (18177) tested the effect of rotaating sunflower with soyabean on
maize. These were significantly high yields in the sunflower/soyabean/maize rotation than in
the continous maize cropping system.
Gathecha (33580) tested the effect of applying N, P fertilizers and farm yard manure in a
continous maize/bean intercropping and in a maize, potato sweet potato and grass rotational
Macharia and Moruri (001401 tested at four sites the planting of maize and beans in the
same hole against bean planted in to rows between the maize. Beans planted in rows between
the maize gave higher yields than beans planted in the same hole with maize. Maize yields were
not significantly affected in either case.
Mwakha and Ngugi (1988) observed that dry beans intercropped under three coffee canopy
densities and grown either with mulch or no mulch, showed no significant effects on coffee and
dry bean yields.
Navar (00176) compared the yields of Katumani maize, composite B sown at three spacings
(60 x 30 cm, 75x30cm and 90x30cm) and grown alone or intercropped with mwezi moja beans.
The beans were sown as a relay crop within the maturity maize or after harvesting. Sowing
maize at 75cm between rows and 30cm between parts, gave the highest yields. The yields of
maize were higher when the beans were sown after harvesting than when they were relay
planted. Nevertheless, relay planting gave higher yields of both maize and beans, than planting
after harvesting maize.
Stewart et al., (00416) studied the effect of intercropping three maize varieties (Katumani
Composite B, H512 and local variety) with mwezi moja beans. The grain yields of the three
maize varieties did not differ significantly and the land equivalency rations in all the
maize/beans intercrops were similar.
W.A.R.S., Kakamega, Annual Report. (00906) tested several intercropping patterns of maize
and beans. Planting beans between maize rows gave the highest yields. The yields of beans in
the pure stand was much higher than in the intercrop.
W.A.R.S., Kakamega, Annual Report (00917) tested the yield of beans in a pure stand and
in a maize/bean intercrop.
Mwakha (00940) tested single row or double row cropping of beans between coffee plants.
Double row planting significantly outyielded sing-row planting.
Mwakha (02846) tested three nitrogen rates and four plant densities of beans between 2 m
rows of coffee. There was significant response to fertilizer and two rows of beans performed
better than either four or eight.
NHRS, Annual Report (01001) tested twenty bean cultivars intercropped with maize at four
W.A.R.S., Kakamega (01006) investigated four maize/bean intercropping treatments.
Intercropped plots gave higher than pure stands.
NHRS, Thika Annual Report (01008) intercropped twelve beans cultivars with maize and
noted that pure stand beans had a slightly higher 100 seed weight, common bean mosaic virus
and halo blight scores and plant height that the intercrop.
Mwangi and Oduori (00997) KARI, Kakamega, Annual Report tested two rows of beans
intercropped with sorghum at two different dates. Sorghum yields were higher when the two
rows of beans were planted three weeks after sorghum than when planted at the same time as
sorghum. Bean yields were higher when intercropped as one row and planted at the same time
as sorghum than when intercropped as two rows and planted three weeks after sorghum.
Bhuong, Wakanya and Odongo (00284) in 1984-1988 examined the different patterns of
planting maize and beans in order to determine the most compatible. Maize yields in sole maze
crop and in maize intercropped with beans did not differ significantly. Bean yields in both
cropping patterns were highly variable depending on the plant population. Economic analyses
showed that certain maize/beans spatial arrangements were consistently profitable.
Amolo (01234) evaluated sugarcane intercropped with either maize or beans. Cane
germination was not affected by intercropping. However a significant interaction between the
intercrop and tillering resulted into delayed tillering in the intercrop. Beans and maize yields in
the intercrop although lower than in the pure stands, was not significant.
Leka (03596) evaluated beans intercropped with plum trees.
NHRS, Thika (03736) investigated the influence of seed source and cropping system on
yield and disease incidence. The origin of the seed and the cropping system did not affect yield.
NHRS, Thika (03755), bulk-selected F1 germination of crosses under either pure stand or
NHRS, Thika (03759) tested 25 varieties in pure stand and in maize/bean intercropping in
five sites. Several varieties such as RH-27, and RH-16 gave similar yields as to the control
Mwania (03846) noted similar results as in Mwania (0386) and in addition observed the
advantages of using prolific maize varieties in a maize/beans intercrop.
NHRS, Thika (03862) tested four different maize/bean intercropping combinations using
GLP2 and H511 bean and maize varieties under semi-arid conditions. Under drought,
intercropping four rows of beans to one row of maize gave the best results.
NHRS, Thika (03868) investigated the effect shading in a maize/bean mixture on yield and
yield components. Grain yields were affected when beans were exposed to maize shading for
more than five weeks. Number of pods per plant decreased with increasing competition.
Department of Agriculture (106996) tested the performance of rhodes and molasses grasses
in a bean intercrop. Mollasses grass established better than rhodes.
MoA (10750) in 1957 at Katumani evaluated beans intercropped at two different
populations with maize in two seasons. Beans planted at l.5 ft by 1.5 ft by 1.5 ft yielded higher
than at 3 ft by 1.5 ft in both seasons.
MoA (10752) tested the effect of intercropping one or two rows of beans between maize
rows of three different within-the-row spacings. The best yields for both crops were obtained
from their pure stands.
Kusewa (11129) tested various pure and intercropping systems of maize and beans. Maize
reduced the yields of beans in the intercrops there were not differences.
Mbagaya, and Nzambi (11237) evaluated two planting dates of beans with and without
phosphate fertilizer and three within-the-row spacings in a maize/bean intercrop. The latter
planting date gave lower bean yields and fertilizer applied to beans only did not affect the yield
of both crops. Within-the-row spacing of 15 cm significantly improved yields.
WARS, Kakamega (11662) evaluated the yields of K20 bean and H613C maize varieties, in
both pure stands and in the intercrops. The bean yields were highest in the pure stands.
NHRS, Thika (11331) tested two maize varieties, H511 and Katumani composite
interplanted with beans at two densities during fertilized with DAP at showing and flowering in
three locations. Beans intercropped with Katumani composite yielded more than those
interplanted with H511.
NPBRC, Njoro (11732) evaluated four bean spatial arrangements intercropped in two
sunflower densities. Two bean rows interplanted between sunflower rows spaced at 75 x 60 cm
gave the highest land equivalent rations.
Mbagaya (11864) evaluated several maize/bean cropping systems. Maize/bean cropping
systems. Maize yeilds were higher, when beans were broadcast between the maize than when
planted in rows.
NHRS, Thika (12126) tested in a split plot design the yields of twenty different cultivars as
sole crops and as intercrops with maize at Katumani, Embu, Kisii, Kakamega and Thika.
Significant yield differences were observed in all sites except, Thika and Kakamega. The
following varieties were recommended for he various sites. GLP-1004 Katumani, GLP - Embu
and Thika, GLP2 - Kisii and Kakamega.
NHRS, Thika (11993) conducted maize/beans trials in Embu, Kisii, Kakamega, Thika,
Katumani. In some sites, mono cropping gave higher yields than intercropping.
Department of Agriculture (12435) in 1961 assessed the economic returns of intercropping
maize with beans and found no real differences.
NHRS, Thika (13071) investigated the input cosh and the economic returns of intercropping
maize and beans. Fertilizer application by ros was more labour intensive than broadcasting.
Kimani (13767) comapred the yields of potato/maize and potato/bean intercrops.
Potato/bean intercrop had higher land equivalent rations that potato/maize intercrop, suggesting
that intercropping potato with maize resulted into better efficient use of avaialbe land.
Owour (13770) intercropped maize at a population of 44,444 plants per hectare with beans
at different densities, arrangements and dtaes at Kakamega and Sang'alo. Total yields of
maize/bean intercrop per unit area of land was considerably higher than that in pure stands.
Intercropping increased maize yields slightly but reduced bean yields. Bean yields were
influenced by the time of planting but not by planting arrangement.
MOA, Kakamega (138) tested seven maize/bean intercrop at different spacings.
Intercropping yielded more than pure cropping.
Njeru (14441) tested the effect of sowing one, two, or three hills of maize at three different
intra-row distances using two hybrids intercropped with beans. There were no differences in
maize yields between the different planting arrangements but bean yields were lower in the
intercrops than in the pure stands.
Mwakha (15330) observed the yield of mwezi moja beans when intercropped in closely
Mwania and Kiiya (15873) observed the effect of varying inter-row and intra-row spacing
and the number of maize plants per hilll in a maize/bean intercrop. bean yields were
significantly reduced at higher number of maize plants per hill but increase at closer than at
Department of Agriculture (15951) comapred maize/bean intercropping in alternate rows
and in random planting. No significant differences were found.
Odongo and Ochieng (16570) evaluated four maize genetypes in intercropping systems with
Rose coco bean variety. Maize yields were higher in the intercropping than in sole cropping.
Mwania (16576) observed relay cropping maize, beans and potatoes.
Mwakha (16266) evaluated three nitrogen rates and four bean densities intercropped with
coffee at Kisii, Koru and Meru. Twelve bean rows yielded significantly four bean ros at 160
kg/ha nitrogen levels. The highest yields were recorded at Kisii.
Mwahkha (16268) demonstrated the yield potential of field beans when intercropped with
coffee at various densities at Yatta and Ruiru.
Okongo 16763, 16764, 16821,16822 and 16823) investigated the shading effect in
maize/bean mixtures planted in twelve different densities, at Kisii, Embu, Thika and Katumani.
At the threee sites, beans were serious affected six weeks after planting.
NHRS, Thika (17044) investigated effect on beans cutting maize four, five, six and eight
after emergence in a maize/bean intercrop.
NARS, Kakamega (17929) tested the following intercropping systems; pure maize, maize
with one bean row, maize with two bean rows, two beans plants per maize hill, three bean
plants per maize hhill, and pure bean stand. There were no significant maize yield differences
between pure and intercropped systems. Beans yields were lower where planted either two or
two plants in a maize hill than where planted in rows.
MOA, Kakamega (17942) evaluated sixteen maize/bean intercropping systems using maize
variety H625 and bean cultivar, GLP-24. Significantly differences among treatments were
reported only for maize.
De Groot and Hassel Back (18794 and 18866) carried out a series maize/bean trials in
Central Kenya and also in Embu and Kisii incorporating local cultural practices. Bean pure
stands gave higher yields than mixed stands and planting beans one week after maize
significantly reduced yields.
NHRS (19077) tested 36 bean cultivars in sole cropping and intercropping with maize at
Katumani, Embu, Thika and Kakamega.
NHRS, Thika (19080) tested twelve bean cultivars in sole cropping and intercropping with
maize at Katumani, Thika, Kisii and Kakamega. GLP-2 was the highest yielding variety in the
wetter areas of Kisii and Kakamega whereas GLP-1004 performed well in the drier areas of
Katumani. Cultivar x cropping systems interaction was significant in three out of the five sites.
NHRS, Thika (19366) tested two bean types, bushy and indetermidiate upright in
amaize/bean intercrop, two bean spatial arrangements and two plating dates at Kisii and Thika.
Otieno et al., (19476 and 19479) compared the performance of fertilizers with alley
crooping leucaena leucocaphala in maize and maize/bean cropping systems. Alley cropped
maize/beans yielded highest.
RRC, Kakamega (19678) evaluated the effects of interplanting one and two rows of beans
with sorghum at the same time with sorghum and three weeks after. Bean yields were lower
when planted at the same time with sorghum than when planted three weeks later.
NASRS, Kisii (19707) tested two planting dates, two fertilizer tratments and three within the
row spacing of beans maize and beans were interccopeed in alternate rows.
Ismael and govinden (200396) intercropped beans and maize alone or together between
sugarcan spaced at 1.6 m between rows. Neither maize nor beans yields were affected by the
presence of sugarcane. However the most productive cropping system was sugarcan in
association with beans.
Wortmann and Adrogu (200397) conducted trials in three seasons at Kawanda Research
Station in Uganda to determine how to manage maize/climing bean, such that maize supported
climbing bean without affecting yields.
rweyemanu (200411) tested maize and bean sole crops, maize/bean intercrop in the same
hole one row of maize alternated with one row of beans and maize/bean intercropped within the
ame row at Sokoine, Tanzania. Maize/bean intercrop in the same hole gave the highest
Owuor (20062) in 1973 tested seven spatial arrangements of intercropped maize with K20
bean variety and observed that intercropping had advantanges over sole cropping.
Osiru (201773) using three bean varieties, namely, mwezi moja, Canadian wonder, black
and Katumani maize, carried out experiments to determine whether the best genotypes selected
for sole cropping systems were likely to be the best when grown in association.
WARS, Kakamega (20224) evaluated two sorghum densities, 89,000 and 110,000 plants/ha
and two beans densities, 160,000 and 196,000 plants/ha in sole cropping and when intercropped
as laternate double rows, at Alupe Research Station.
Fisher et al., (20280) observed that delaying planting beans until the first weeding in a
maize/bean intercrop greatly reduced bean yields.
Fisher (20294) compared maize/bean mixtures with pure stands at three densiteis and
observed that mixtures gave an apparent yield advantage over pure stands.
Fisher (20298) assessed the productivity of maize/bean and maize/potato mixtures in
alternate rows compared with their pure stands for four seasons. In seasons with low rainfall,
the yield from the misxtures was lower than that in pure stands but in wet seasons, maize/bean
mixtures had an yield advantage over pure stands.
NHRS, Thika (21730) observed that intercropping passion fruit with beans gave a yeld of
9.63 ton/ha of passion fruit and 0.49 ton/ha of beans.
ICRISAT/SAFGRAD (21748) compared the effect of intercropping either a single row and
double rows of Rosecoco bean intercropped between two rows of seredo sorghum spaced at 75
cm between rows and 30 cm between plants. Beans rows were spaced at 25 cm and plants of 15
cm. Sorghum and bean yields were higher when sorghum was intercropped with a single bean
row than when intercropped with double bean rows.
Kimani (301052 and 301087) evaluated the productivity of an irish potato/bean intercrop in
both short and long rains and found that land equivalent rations were greater than unity,
suggesting that intercropping was more efficient than sole cropping.
Fisher (31151) used data from maize/bean mixtures to illustrate the design of agronomic
experiemtns with mixed crops.
Kangangi, Auko and Ochwang (31355) intercropped Rose coco in a four year old
macadamia and harvested 136.5 kg of beans per acre.
Fisher (31365) suggested that maize/bean mixtures showed yield advantage beause of the
high population pressure and competiteness in the mixture rather than beacuse of intrinsic
values of mixing the species.
De Groot (31641) noted that intercropping maize/bean gave higher land equivalent ratio
than growing pure stands.
Njaimwe (32168) noted that sorghum fields were higher in sorghum/cowpea intercrops than
in the sole crop.
Mwakha (32547) observed that compared to mulch, dry bean plants interplanted in a low
density coffee dessicated the top soil resulting in lower quality coffee beans. Bean plants grown
under dense coffee canopy were etiolated and produced fewer seeds than those between wider
spaced coffee trees.
Mwangi (33424) noted that late planted beans in sorghum/bean intercrop had ligheter seeds
than early platned ones and the yields of beans were reduced when planted at the same time as
Achieng, Mwania and Kiiya (33457) intercropped beans in double rows at 25 cm between
rows and 15 cm between plants between maize rows of H625 and H613 varieties and did not
find any significant yield differences between the two maize varieties.
RRC , Kakamega (33526) tested different planting arrangments of sole cropped maize and
maize intercropped with beans and observed no diffeences in maize years from three year
NDFRC, Katumani (335441) noted that intercropping sorghum with beans influenced the
grain size of both crops.
Okongo (412 413) conducted experiments at Katumani and Thika to investigate the effects
of shading on yield and yield components in a maize/bean intercrop. Bean yields were
significantly affected six weeks after planting.
Omolo et al., (422) observed that maize growth and yield were not affected by interplanting
Rutto, Wanjohi and Mburu (771) reported that the presence of beans in a bean/fingermillet
intercropping reduced the yields of finger millet.
Otieno et al., (15478) compared the effects of applying Leucaena leucocephala mulch and
different levels of DAP and CAN fertilizers as usch or in combination with the mulch, on the
yields of maize/bean intercrop.
Nutrition and chemical analyses
Ochetim, Bogere and Katongole (00043) analysed nutrient content and feeding value of four
different bean types. Mwezi moja gave slightly protein content than the rest (21.00%) whereas
Mexican-142 gave the highest fibre content (9.08%). Gross energy values were similar for all
the beans (447 K cal/g). As observed in a similar study on pigeonpea (00040), the limiting
amino acids were the sulphur containing ones particularly methionine at cystine. In a trial
where the four different beans types were fed to mate wistar rats either as raw, antoclaves or
antoclaved supplemented with 0.3% DL-methionine and a control contain casein, it was
observed that rats fed on raw or antoclaved beans died or lost weight and those supplemented
with methionine gained weight.
Kiwiwa (200844) reviewed the need to correct imblances of protein supply in the diets of
Ugandas by expliting fishereis, wild game and grain legumes.
Imungi and Kabira (234199) analyed proximate composition and nine minerals of six
commnon varieites. There was little variation in proximate compsition but considerable
variration in mineral compsition. Beans were found to be a good source of calsium, iron,
phosphrous and potassium.
Ochetim and Bogere (01332) determined the activities of trypsin inhibitors and
phytohaemagglutinin of four bean varieties and one cowpea and pigeonpea cultivar in raw and
autoclaves form. Although all the legumes contain both antinutrion factors, beans had higher
values than the other two. autoclaring destroyed phytohaemagghitinin activity but not that of
Sserunjogi (200839) observed that protein qulaity of beans was better utilized if they were
soaked for about 18-24 hours, dehulled, autoclaved for 10 minutes at 121oC or cooked normally
at 97oC. Trypsin inhibitors tanmiuns and other phenolic substances were higher in the dark
skinned beans than in t he light skinned ones. Dehulling to allow protein utilization was
therefore necessary in the dark skinned beans.
Chui (00081) investigated how in a maize/bean intercrop application of nitrogen fertilizer
affected bean performance. and nutrient uptake and also how bean spatial arrangements
affected competition between the two crops. There was less competition bean responded less to
applied and nutrient uptake reduce. When maize and beans were sown in the same row,
whereas when beans were sown between two maize row, there was increased interspecific
competition resulting into reduced maize total dry matter and seed yield
Navar and Faught (00176) compared the effect of growing Katumani maize (Composite B)
without nitrogen or rotation with maize/legume intercropping and rotational systems. The maize
legume intercropping and rotations systems consisted of Katumani Composite B and beans
(mwezi moja), Katumani Composite B and cowpeas (Machakos 68), Katumani Composite B
and tepary beans, Katumani Composite B and a local pigeonpea cultivar. Maize grain yields
were higher when maize was rotated with beans or cowpeas than when rotation was not
practiced. Cowpeas and dry beans contributed 12.5 and 80 kg N/ha respectively when rotated,
but pigeon peas contributed most nitrogen when intercropped with maize. However these
figures differ significantly from those of other similar studies. The authors conclude that when
rainfall is limiting maize/legume rotations are more productive than intercropping systems.
Chui et al., (00398) studied the effects of population density and phosphorus on growth and
yield of beans. The beans were planted at three densities of 9, 18 and 27 plants/m2 whereas
triple superphosphate was applied at 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg/ha. Treatment did not affect number
of branches, number of nodes or total dry matter. However, population density significantly
increase plant height
Chui et al., (00399) investigated the effect of nitrogen and cropping systems on the dry
matter yields and mineral content of maize and beans. The cropping systems consisted of pure
stands of maize and beans and an intercrop of the two. Nitrogen was applied as calcium nitrate
at 0, 26, 52, 78, 104 and 130 kg/ha with 40 kg/ha of phosphorus in all treatments. Nitrogen
application and the different cropping systems did not significantly affect the dry matter and
maize during vegetative and silking stages. Intercropping significantly reduced bean yields but
various nitrogen levels produced similar responses. Cropping system influenced the content of
nitrogen in maize at silking stage and of beans 42 days after planting. Nitrogen application
significantly increased the content of N and Mg. in beans 42 days after planting and the content
of Mg and Ca were higher the intercropped beans than in the sole crop.
Chui et al., (00408) tested the effect of the different levels of nitrogen on four cropping
systems of maize and beans. The cropping systems consisted of maize pure stand, beans pure
stand, maize/bean intercrop in the same row and one bean row planted between two maize
rows. Nitrogen was applied in each cropping system at 0, 26, 52, 78, 104 and 130 kg/N/ha in
form of calcium ammonium nitrate. Maize stover dry weight at vegetative and silking stages
was significantly affected by nitrogen level and cropping system. Maize seed yield was also
significantly affected by these two factors. However, bean seed yields were not affected by the
level of nitrogen applied but top dry weight was reduced by intercropping. Beans intercropped
between two maize rows responded better to nitrogen application than beans intercropped
within the same row as maize.
W.A.R.S., Kakamega, Annual Report (00832) tested the effect of three fertilizers, namely,
urea, TSP and DAP on bean yields in farmers' fields at Kimilili and Machakos. The fertilizers
did not show any significant yield differences though they performed better at Kimilili than at
W.A.R.S., Kakamega, Annual Report (00833) tested the effect of different applications
methods of DAP fertilizer during two growth stages on bean yields. Applying fertilizer in the
same hle with the seed the only method that was significant, reduced yield.
W.A.R.S., Kakamega, Annual Report (00837) tested three levels of farm yard manure, two
methods of application on GLP2 bean variety. None of the treatment produced significant effect
on yield, although placing farm yard manure in furrows gave higher yields than broadcasting.
Mahatanya (00845) observed the response of bean yields when grown under three levels of
phosphorus and two levels of plant density plant height, leaf area index (LAI) pod number, pod
weight and seed yield increased with the levels of phosphorus. Leaf area index and pod number
were positively significantly correlated to seed yield. At high plant density, seed yield was
higher than at low plant density and this was further enhanced at the higher phosphorus levels.
NHRS, Thika, Annual Report (0085) tested four planting dates and DAP fertilizer
application on Rose coco variety.
Varying the time of planting did not affect grain yield but applying DAP fertilizer increased
yield by 71%. Leaf analysis revealed no nitrogen or phosphorus increase.
Faught, Nadar and Waweru (00183) conducted a series of verification trials starting in short
rains 1981 for three consecutive seasons in Machakos district on farms averaging 16.3 acres.
The objective was to assess the repeatability of intercropping and fertilizer application on-
station trials on farmers fields.
In one trial reflecting farmers' management practices, the local maize cultivar on Katumani
Composite B was intercropped in a random manner with beans and the density of maize was
kept at 20,000 plants/ha, and no fertilizer was applied. In another trial, maize and beans were
planted in rows and the density of maize was raised to 60,000.00 - 70,000.00 plants/ha and
fertilizer was applied. In yet another trial partly reflecting researcher's recommendations, maize
was sown on the same row with beans but at double the density with and without fertilizer.
Fertilizer application was 65 kg N/ha and 20 kg P205/ha for maize but 20 kg P205/ha for beans.
Planting in rows and increasing plant density raised the yields of the local maize cultivar
without even fertilizer application. Sowing improved maize cultivar in 4 rows, at the
appropriate plant density and applying fertilizer also increased yields.
Wamocho and scoonman (04553) investigated the effect of four varying planting dates on
mexican-142 and Rose coco K74 varieties at seven sites. Planting six weeks after onset of the
rains gave the lowest yields.
NARS, Kisii (06305) investigated the effect of five planting dates on the yield of beans, in
two locations. In Kisii, the second and third planting dates during end of August and start of
September respectively, gave the highest yields.
Mbagaya (06357) in 1975 tested five planting dates and two rates of nitrogen fertilizer on
beans. Delayed planting and fertilizer application gave the lowest yields.
WARS, Kakamega (06419) tested various planting dates on mexican-142 and black bean
varieties. The best planting time was the beginning of the rains.
Oduor (16635) examined 16 fertilizer treatments involving DAP, TSP fertilizers, lime and
manure in a maize (H512) bean (mwezi moja) intercrop. Application of TSP with line
depressed yields, whereas application of lime alone improved yields. There were no significant
yields differences between control and lime plus namure treated plots.
Qureshi (16636) tested the effect nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, fram yard manure and
crop residues on the yield of maize (H512)/bean (mwezi moja) intercrop. Although the
combination of nitrogen phosphate fertilizers increased maize yields more than N or P alone,
farm yard manure gave higher yields than all commercial fertilizers.
EARS, Embu (17909) tested two bean densities, three rates of DAP fertilizer and two
methods of application on the yields of maize/bean intercrop. Bean yields increased with
increasing rates though not significantly. The higher bean population also resulted into slightly
higher yields than the lower density but the difference was not significant. Again, broadcasting
fertilizer did not produce significantly different responses from furrow application.
NHRS, Thika (19073) tested one two, three rows of beans interplanted between maize rows
and DAP fertilizer application rates.
Kornegay (200189) described the backcross breeding systems used at CIAT to transfer the
dominant (I) gene and the recessive genes (bc), which confer resistance to Bean Common
Mosaic Virus, to adapted susceptible East African materials. Mosaic occured only in genotypes
lacking the dominant I gene and black root only in genotypes carrying the gene. In some
genotypes, a local lesion signified the presence of the I gene protected by the recessive gene.
NHRC, Thika (20188) tested three plant arrangements of a maize/bean intercrop and four
fertilizer application rates.
Okalebo et al., (21957) tested five forms of phosphate fertilizers including, diammonium
phosphate, monoammianium phosphate, triple super phosphate, single super phosphate and
rock phosphate in a maize/bean intercrop. All forms of fertilizers significantly increased the dry
matter yields compared to the control. All forms of fertilizers gave similar maize yields except
rock phosphate fertilizer which showed lower yields than the rest.
Okalebo (21959) tested DAP, SPP and TSP fertilizers as sub plots in main plots of
inoculated and non-inoculated beans at Muguga and Katumani. Inoculation with rhizobia did
not have any significant effect on dry matter yield. Phosphate fertilizers increased dry matter
compared to the control but at Katumani both SSP and TSP gave higher yields than DAP.
Mbugua (32635) tested four bean densities, namely, 160,000, 250,000, 444,444 and
1,000,000 plants/ha and four phosphate levels, 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg P/ha on the yield of beans.
There were no significant yield differences between the different phosphate levels. Phosphate
fertilizer increased leaf area indix growth rate, senesence rate and weight of nodules. Density x
fertilizer interaction were not significant.
Odour (32840) observed no significant effects on etiher the bean on maize yield when DAP
fertilizer was applied.
RRC, Kakamega (33613) tested the effect of fertilizer maize/bean intercrop and sole crop
maize and found no significant diffeences.
Fertilizers and plant nutrition
Ssali and Keya (00042) reported that application of a higher dose of on beans reduced
nodulation. These results comes with those reported by the same authors (00027, 00035)
working with cowpea. However, in this particular study, a higher dose of N did not increase dry
matter or seed yield.
Ssali (00082) compared performance of four beans treatments; inoculated with hizobium
phaseoli, fertilizer with DAP (200 kg/ha), inoculated with some phosphorous not inoculated in
three seasons. There were no significant differences in yield between inoculated and DAP
treated beans. However, these two treatment gave higher yields compared to the control and to
inoculation with phosphorus in at least two seasons. In the two seasons when rainfall was
adequate, inoculation, DAP application and inoculation plus P increased inodulation and
resulted into higher grain yields.
Ssali and Keya (00102) evaluated three bean maturity groups for nodulation, growth and di-
nitrogen fixation. At 35 days after planting, the medium maturing lines had higher nodule
number and vegetative dry matter than their early or late maturing ones. there were significant
seed yields, dry matter yield and total nitrogen between the three maturing lines giving the
highest values. These were no significant differences in di-nitrogen fixation between the
Kulkerri, Waindi and Wamagata in 1970 (00468) tested seven bean varieties for virus
concentration and susceptibility in the green house. Six isolates in the mechanically inoculated
to ten seedlings of each variety. Varieties showing severe symptoms also contained high
concentrations of the virus. Three varieties were observed to be immune to infection and all the
virus isolates appeared to have similar morphology and behavior.
Kulkarri, Waindi and wamagata (00469) isolated 49 bean viruses from East Africa, and
inoculated them to a bean variety. Six distinct groups, namely B1, B6 B26, B28 (from central
Kenya) B7 and B10 (from northern Tanzania) were differentiated on the basis of t he symptoms
induced. Electron microscopy revealed that all the six had filamentous viral particles of
Wallace (00530) noted diseases and pests responsible for poor growth and low yields of
French beans in East Africa. Diseases such as Italo blight, rust, common beans mosaic,
anthracnose, yeast spot in addition to the bean fly were discussed.
W.A.R.S., Kakamega, Annual Report (00912) tested the response of four rates of phosphate
fertilizer on bean yields. Beans yields were higher in the treatment without phosphate than in
treatments where phosphate was applied.
Ngundo and Othieno (00538) in 1970 observed the effect of controlling nematodes by
fumigation on the yield of three bean varieties at two sites. Fuminagtion with D-D did not affect
nematode numbers and neither did it increase bean seed yields. However, this treatment
increased bean fresh yield.
Kahumbura, Mutua and Mugumu (00545) examined the effectiveness of foliar herbicides on
the control of various weed species in a maize/bean intercrop. a single application of glycolate
formulation at a dose of 1.2 kg/ha four days before sowing suppressed the growth of digitaria
scalarun, Scalarun Cynodom dactylon, Amaranthus sp and Cyperus sp.
NHRS, Thika (04674) tested three rates of farm yard manure applied in four different
methods on Rose coco K74 bean. Farm yard manure at a rate of 20 ton/ha but not higher, raised
bean yields by 55% but there were no differences between broadcasting manure and placing it
in a hole.
Okango (06836) tested three values of farm yard manure, and two methods of application on
bean yields. The different rates of manure showed significant yield differences but the methods
of application did not.
NHRS, Thika (11151) intestigated the effect of three phosphorus tertilizers at different rates
on the yield of beans. No significant differences were obnserved between signly
superphosphate and triple supper phosphate fertilizers.
Njage (11222) tested three rates of nitrogen, three of DAP fertilizers and three of farm yard
manaure in a potato/maize/bean intercrop.
NHRS, Thika (11491) tested three plant densities and four levels of DAP fertilizer on Rose
coco bean and H511 maize varieties. There were no significasnt differences between the
different treatment combinations.
Embu (11252) tested three nitrogen phosphate and potassium fertilizer rates on the yield of
beans. There were no significant diffeences between treatments.
NHRS, Thika (11299) tested four rates of DAP, two of double-superphospahte and two
combined rates of CAN plus double-supersphote fertiliczers on the yield of GLP-2 bean. DAP
treatments yielded more than the others. There was no response to double super phosphate and
CAN raised yields when applied at sowing and during flowering.
French NHRS, Thika (11750) tested three levels of N1P1K fertilizer on the yield of frechn
beans. Nitrogen and phosphate significantly increased yields bu totasium did not.
NHRS, Thika (11752) examined t he effect of several rates manure on the yield of frech and
dry beans. There was a significant response in the dry bean yield with application up to 24
tons/ha but there was no effect on the yield of french beans.
NHRS, Thika (12106) tested eight DAP fertilizer application methods on GLP2 beans.
Applying ferilizer in one dose during planting gave better yields than split application.
NHRS, Thika (12014) assessed several fertilizer rates and application methods against a
check on the yield of dry beans.
Gitau (12589) tested several phosphatic fertilizers associated with time application
differential on potencial bean plants as indications. The test plant died when fertilized with
diammonium phosphate alone on soils with no trace of calcium. Best results were obtained
where the fertilizers were rich in calcium and had showed alkaline reaction.
Gitau (12712) tested several rations of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on a maize/bean
intercrop at Embu and NARL, Kabete. At Embu, the highest bean yields were ontained with
20kg N/ha and 80kg P2O5/ha wheasa at Kabete, they were obtained with 27 kg N/ha and 80 kg
Embu (13497) tested different rates of phosphate fertilizers on the yield of Mexican-142 and
observedf sig ificant yield increases up to 120kg/ha level.
NHRS, Thika (15917) tested four methods of applying DAP fertilizer in a stand of GLP-2
bean. Applying DAP by the side of the row after emergence gave the highest yields.
Brownfield et al., (15993) comapred rock phosphate, rock phosphate sulphur mixture and
single and superphosphate in maize/bean intercropping system t Kagumo, Kerugoya, Embu,
Matuga and Kwale.
NHRS, Thika (16138) tested two fertilizer application methods and three rates on two
maize/bean densities at Embu and Kakamega. At Kakamega there was no significant response
to fertilizers by both crops but maize responded significantly at Embu. Though both
broadcasting and band application methods did not show any significant differences at both
sites, broadcasting showed better responses.
Njage (16735) tested at Embu eight treatments of farm yard manure involving methods of
application and frequency in a maize/bean intercropping system. The highest yields for both
crops were obntained where manure was applied in two split doses.
NHRS, Thika (17032) tested at Thika, Katumani, Embu and Kakamega two rates of DAP
fertilizer and seven methods of application on the yield of beans. bean yields were significantly
higher when DAP was applied in split doeses than in a single dose.
Floor and Okongo (17217) compared the yields of beans of sulphur containing single-
superphospate and non- sulphur containing triple super phosphate fertilizer trials in ten sites.
There were no significant differens in all the trials an indication that sulphur was not limiting
and that the two phosphate fertilizers had a similar response.
NHRS, Thika (19219) evaluated two methods of applying farm yard manure, namely furrow
and boradcast, two dates of manure application at three rates. Farm yard manure placed in the
furrow gave significantly higher yield than broadcast manure and when applied two weeks
before sowing gave more pods per plants than when applied at sowing time.
NHRS, Thika (33260) noted that DAP fertilizer increased bean yields when placed away
from the seed rather than on the seed.
NHRS, Kisii (16384) studied the effect of three rates of nitrogen fertilizer on five bean
varieties. The nitrogen response was not significant and Mexican-142 was the highest yielding
Okongo and Gathee (16752 and 16753) tested on the yield of beans, 14 levels of p hosphate
fertilizers applied in the furrow in one single dose, in replicated trials at Kisii Research Station.
Okongo and Gathee (16848 and 16849) tested 14 levels of phosphate fertilizers in a
replicated rial on the yield of beans at Katumani and Embu.
Chui (16935) tested the effects of four levesl of phosphours (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg/ha) and
three plant densities (90,000, 180,000, 270,000) in both long and short rains at Muguga.
Irrespective of plant densities, two levels of fertilizers, 160 kg P/ha during long-rains and 240
kg/ha during short rains gave the highest yields.
NHRS, Thika (17033) tested the response of beans to three different fertilizers at different
rates (urea - 80 kg/ha, TSP - 200 kg/ha and NP-DAP - 200 kg/ha) at Kimilili and Machakos.
There were no significant differences in yield.
Kanampiu et al., (17133) investigated the effects of 200 kg/ha DAP fertilizer, 960 kg/ha of
cafuna, an organic gymus and 20 t/ha of farm yard manure on bean yield at Embu. There were
no significant differences in yield between the treatments and the control.
Soya bean FAO (17986) tested eight NPK fertilizer treatments and their combinations
including a control on the yield of soya beans at Busia and Bukwa, Farmer training centres.
Combinations of N,P,K produced significantly higher yields than treatments having any of the
two elements or their combinations.
Boswinkle (18452) observed that beans did not respond to the residual effects of double
super phosphate fertilizers and farm yard manure.
Gachoka (18500) tested the effect of sulphur in nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on the
yield of beans. Application of sulphur in the presence of the two fertilizers increased dry bean
yields and drymatter.
NHRS, Thika (18753) investigated the effect of combining different levels of potassium and
phosphorus fertilizers on Rose coco and Mexican-142 beans at Embu, Nyeri, Kirinyaga , Njoro
and Meru. High levels of potassium significantly increased Rose coco yields.
NHRS, Thika (19039) applied seven treatments of trace elements in four sprays with two
weeks interval. There were no significant differences between treatments.
NHRS, Thika (19216) tested three phosphate fertilizers, namely, single-supper phosphate,
triple super phosphate and diammonium phosphate (DAP) to determine the most economical
source of phosphorus for bean production at five sites. No significant differences were found.
Ochwoh and Zake (200389) tested the effectiveness of phosphate rock and time in
alleviating soil acidity levels using three local cultivars in Uganda. In a green house
experiment, pets treated with phosphate rock and lime showed promising growth and increased
yields. There were significant increases in availabel P with application of phosphate rock but
application o lime alone did no increase avialble P.
Wortmann and Zake (200432) reviewed the results of research work carried out in Africa on
the response of beans to NPK fertilizers organic manures, application methods and fertilizer
management in multiple cropping systems. They observed that more response to fetilizers could
be expected with high levels of managment and intercropping beans with other crops,
complicated the determination of optimal soil fertility management practices.
Kamoni (200908) listed the physical-chemical properties of the major soil types
constraining bean productivity in Kenya. Nitorgen and phosphorus were considered the major
soil constraints for bean productivity. New fertilizer recommendations for monocropped beans
were given on the basis of on-farm trials conducted in Machakos, Embu, Kisii, Kakamega and
Muthamia (200934) argued that because beans do not respond well to N, P, K application
and the cost of the inputs are higher than the nenefits in maize/bean intercropping systems,
fertilizer could be applied to the cereal crop only.
French beans NHRS, Thika (20192) tested ten fertiizer levels using cultivar monel for two
season in a replicated trial, and observed that 150-250 kg/ha of DAP was the optimum.
NHRS, Thika (20334) observed that applying puntry namrue together with 40 kg/ha of DAP
gave similar yield as applying 120 kg/ha of DAP.
Anon (20726) tested the response of beans in a replicated trial to seven trace elelments. The
highest yields were obtained in treatments where all the trace elements were present.
Potter, Okella and Mbuja (21053) tested calcium ammoniaum nitrate and single super
phosphate fertilizers on two sorghum varieties, E1291 and E6518) and two bean varieties.
NHRS, Thika (21080) tested the effects of six phosphate fertilizer rates on the yields of
canadian woder bean and capsicurris.
Njeru (22121, 22123 and 22124) tested four levels of nitrogen (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha) and
four of phosphate (20, 4,0 60, and 80 kg/ha) on Mexican-142 at Murinduko in Kirinyaga
district, in a randomised complete block design. The highest yield was obtained from a
combination of 80 kg/ha N and 60 kg/ha P.
Njeru (22127) also tested 0, 20, 40 kg/ha nitrogen levels of which half was applied at
planting and the other half, three weeks later, found that the highest yield was ontained from a
combination of 20 kg/ha N and 40 kg/ha P.
Njeru (22126, 22128) working with four densities, namely, 20, 25, 30 and 35 plants/m
showed that 30 plants/m produced the highest yield.
NHRS, Thika (22129 and 22130) evaluated four levels of nitrogen and five of phosphate
fertilizers and did not find any significant differences between the treatments.
Workmann, Kisakye and Edge (242433) tested two methods, Diagnosis and
Recommendation Intergrated System (DRIS) and Critical Nutrietn Levels (CNL) of predicting
responses to applied N, P, and K from field data collected in Columbia, Rwanda and Uganda.
DRIS was more acenrate than either set of CNL values.
Fustorer (300469) in 1971 observed that fields that received a higher rate of nitrogen
fertilizer during they ley phase gave lower yields of bean than the control.
Muriuki and Gateri (3197) tested the effectiveness of nitromax as a partial replacement for
itrogen fertilizers partial replacemnt for nitrogen fertilizers in maize bean intercrop at Mwea
and Kabete. For maize, there were significant yields comapred to the contjrol but for beans
there was a yield reduction.
Ambrose (33519) noted that farm yard manure and NPK fertilizers had a significant residual
effect on bean yields at Embu.
Mahotanya (33578) studied the effect of two phosphate rates and two spacing distances on
Canadian wonder and Leakey 138.139 bean varieties. Phosphorous increased seed yield by
increasing pod number.
Kusewa (33633) observed no significant differences in bean yields when 40, 80 and 120
kg/ha of TSP, 0, 30, and 60 kg/ha of muriata of potash and three rates of nitrogen were applied
on beans at Embu.
Gitonga (33664) noted that N, P fertilizers and farm yard manure increased maize yields and
had a significant resolve effect on the yield of beans at Katumani.
Hinga (43) noted that bean yields were not affected by the application of compund fertilizer
at 60 and 120 kg/ha or naure at 10 and 20 tons/ha.
Fertilizer and intercropping
Mwania (16684) compared five planting methods and fertilizer rates and their economic
implications in maize/bean intercropping. Bean yields were not significantly affected by either
broadcasting fertilizer or incorporating it into the soil.
Kanampiu and Micheni (17134) tested three levels of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers 0,
40 and 80 kg/ha in agroecological zones UM3 and UM4 to determine the optimum levels for a
maize/bean intercrop. Beans did not respond to both nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in both
sites but maize yields increased with nitrogen levels up to 40 kg/ha.
Ireri and Micheni (17162) tested the two spatial arrangements of maize and beans and the
fertilizer application methods in an intercrop. Spacing maize at 75 x 100 cm and beans at 75 x
50 cm gave the highest yields. Fertilizer application methods did not affect the yields of beans
but breadcasting rather than furrow placement, lowered the yields of maize.
Qureshi (17328) assessed the effect of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus fertrilizers, farm
yard manure and crop residues on the yield of intercropped H512 maize hybrid with mwezi
moja beans. Fertilization with inorganic fertilizers or manure increase maize grain yields
Mbugua (18838) tested the effect of four levels of triple phosphate fertilizer, 0, 50, 100 and
150 kg/ha on four bean densities, 160,000, 250,000, 444,444 and 1,000,000 plants/ha. There
were no differences in yield between the different phosphate levels and increasing plant
population beyond 160,000 plants/ha did not result into any yield benefit.
Nyabyenda et al., (200155) reported the four stages of bean nitrogen fixation research
undertaken by CIAT in Rwanda, Burudi, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Malawi, Uganda and Ethiopia.
They involved rhizobium strain isolation and characterisation, imporvemtn of the symbiosis
through plant breeding, management of agronomic and environmental factors affecting
inoculation and inoculant production methods.
Hornetz (21514) conducted experiments at Kiboko between 1988 to test the drought
tolerance/resistance of tepary bean and its effectiveness in nitrogen fixation. Two strains R578
and R579 were effective in increasing plant available nitrogen.
Chui and Navar (00133) investigated the effects of inoculating three strains of rhizobium on
the dry matter and grain yield of two bean varieties. Inoculation with strain Nu 405 for cv
mwezi moja and with 3 strain mixture for zebra gave the highest total dry matter. There were no
significant seed yields between inoculated and untreated plants for both cultivars.
Karanja, Mugane and Njango (00406) evaluated the effect of two fungicides two
insecticides and one nematicide on the nodulation and yield of mwezi moja beans. The two
rhizobiacs strains used were S1 and S2, rom the Department of Soil Science, University of
Nairobi. The two fungicides and one nemoticids did not show any significant differences for
nodule mass and dry matter yield between inoculated and uninoculated treatments 40 days after
planting. However seed dressing affected nodule mass significantly. Capton and Furadan
reduced pioness. Although grain yields though not significantly different between inoculated
and uninoculated treatments improved in the treatment inoculated with S1 rhizobium strain.
Chui, Waweru and Kungu (00407) investigated in 1983 the effects of inoculating two bean
varieties with two rhizobium strains under unsterilized soil conditions. Two local strains,
num.405 and num.439, their combination 2 num. and exotic strain, 3 ns from Hawaii were
treated. Inoculation reduced nodule member at post-filling stage in mwezi moja variety but had
no effect on zebra beans. Nodule dry weight in both varieties was not affected by inoculation.
At pod-filling stage, nodule dry weight was negatively correlated with seed yield but positively
correlated with nodule number. Strain num.439 significantly increased shoot dry weight of
zebra beans. The strain 2 num gave the highest haulon total N content. Mwezi moja responded
effectively to num. 439 whereas zebra beans responded to 3 - Ns.
Okaleba (03035) tested the effect of two rhizobia strains and three phosphate fertilizers on
beans. Phosphorus application increased dry matter of beans but inoculation had no effect.
However, in combination, phosphorus and inoculation gave significant bean yields.
Karanja, Mugane and Njonjo (05723) investigated the effect of three fungicide seed
dressing treatments inoculated with the yield of mwezi moja beans. Treating seed with aldrin,
lindane and captafol and inoculating with strain num.406 or num.412, increased nodule dry
weight and shoot weight. But then when furadan was applied the two strains did not cause any
Karanja (06193) investigated the effect of phosphorus from three soil types on the
nodulation of cowpea, soya bean and drybeans cultivars when inoculated with two strains of
Gitonga (12226) tested the performance of six locally isolated rhizobium strains on mwezi
moja, Rose coco and Canadiam wonder beans. There was significant differences in nodule
weight between mwezi moja and Canadian wonder plants. Early maturing mwezi moja cultivar
showed nitrogen fixaton when incoculated with all the six strains than the late maturing
Canadian wonder and Rose coco varieties.
Souza (12766) in 1964) conducted a survey in Embu and Nyeri districts to establish the
amount of niotrogen fixed and also isolated and tested several rhizobium strains. Forty eight
isolates showed a wide range of strain effetiveness.
Gerroh (13383) studied the effect of alumimium and pH on root growth and nodule
formation of Rose coco beans. A high negative correlation was found between taproot length
and aluminium amounts. Both, pH of 5.00 and aluminium concentration of 10 ppm significantly
reduced nodule formation.
Mukunya (18981) assessed the perfromance of 161 lines when inoculated and uninoculated
in a s;oit plot desgin replicated three times at Katumani, Murinduko, Karai and Kabete.
although nodule counts were higher in the inocualted plots than in uninoculated ones at two
sites, there was no yield benefit arising from inoculation.
NHRS, Thika (20409) studied the bean response to phosphate fertilizer application and
inoculation with Phizobium strains in the green house. Plants that received phosphorus
fertilizers had significantly more nodules than those that received nitrogen or no fertilizer at all.
Ssali (229773) investigated the effect of calcium carbonate, inoculation and line pelleting on
the noduation, dry matter yield and percentage nitrogen of beans grown in five acid soils in the
greenhouse. In soils with low organic matter and low exhangeeable Al and Mn, inoculation
increased nodule weight drylmatter yield and %N, especially at lowest pH level. Where seeds
were not inoculated, nodule weight and dry matter yield increased with soil pH. No such
increases were observed where seeds were inocualted. There was no advantage in lime pelliting
in such soils.
Nuwamuanya (237491) studied the effect of lime on dry matter yield maize and beans and
noduation of beans, grown in three tropical acid soils, in the geenhouse. In all the soils,
drymatter of maize and beans and nodule dry weight of beans increased significatnly with
increasing lime levels up to pH value of 6.0 but decreased progressively with increasing lime
levels beyond that value.
Karanja and Wood (237538) screened 41 strains of Rhizobium phaseoli for their ability to
multiply at high temperatures on yest extract - mannitor agar. For most of the strains the rate of
multiplication was reduced of 45-47o. High temperature tolerant strains were isolated from
Kenyan soils. Four strains tolerant to 40o remained infective after incubation at that
temperature. Eight strains were resistant to antibiotics, straptomycin sulphate and
strephtomycin diydrochloside at 200 mu g super (-1). Twenty eight strains (237539) were
infective on common bean and showed a cultivar x Rhizobium interation. Some strains showed
tolerance to acidity at pH 4.5 and aluminium at 20 mu M Al.
Floor (238961) reported no response to inoculation on 22 soil types due to the presence of
native strains of Rhizobium. Nodulation was impaired by phosphorus and water stress.
Ssali and Keya (239138) compared the effects of applying 0 or 150 kg P/ha and 10 or 100 kg
N/ha on noduation drymatter yield and dinitrogen fixation. Phosphorus increased noduation,
drymatter yield, puptake, dinitrogen fixation and seed yield at the two nitrogen levels.
Karanja (240099) noted that in field trials at two medium altitude sites acid and
aluminiumium tolerant Rhpzobium strain, 9C sup (8 pctr) improved noduation and seed yields
but failed to effect noduation at Katumani, a site.
Gitonga, Widdowson and Keya (242267) isolated tow thermotolerant strains of Rhizobium
leguminosarum biovar phaseoli 17 amd 29B, able to grow at 42oC/ The strains nodulated three
bean cultivars at temperatu4es between 36-40%oC but their effectiveness varied according to
Anyango (32244) showed that filtermud was a good carrier for inoculant production of
Rhizobium phaeoli as peat.
Keya and Mukunya (34618) observed that intercopping maize and beans did not influence
NHRS, Thika (10964) tested the effect of inoculating mexican-142 bean variety with
rhizobium at different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. No significant interaction was found between
fertilizer and inoculum.
Department of Agriculture (14418) used three methods to inoculate beans but observed no
Soya beans Department of Agriculture (14449) tested the responses of inoculated and
uninoculated soya beans at Kisii but found no significant differences.
Ssali and Mureria (16898) investigated the effect of three pH levels, four inoculation
treatments on nodulation and yield of three bean varieties. Applying time increase nodulation
when beans were not inoculated. There was no significant responses between rhizobial strains
num 406 and nitrogen.
Omar (18890) inoculated bean plants with three local and three introduced strains of
Rhizobium phaseoli and obseved that nodule wieght was related to the shoot dry weight or the
shoot nitrogen content.
Mitiku (200348) tested in Ethiopia 19 rhizoabial strains in beans pure stands and in
Association with sorghum and found significants differences in nodule number and plant fresh
weight. Application of nitrogen depressed nodulation.
Water Relations and Irrigation
Stewart and Faught (00125) described a simple rainfall analysis for Katumani based on
gross rainfall early in the season for predicting the type of growing season expected, the
cultural practices to be undertaken and the resultant crop yields. They suggested that rainfall
prediction and adjusted management practices could reduce maize crop failures from about
50% to 11-14% and doubled the yields of maize and bean.
Omunyin and Rukwaro (001452) compared the performance of various Haricot Dean
varieties under irrigation. All varieties yielded below average due to rust infection.
Navar and Faught (00127) in 1980-81 investigated weeding labour requirements and the
effect on yield of Katumani Composite B when grown alone when grown alone or intercropped
with mwezi moja beans. Maize when grown alone or intercropped with beans was sown as one
or two plants per hill. Sowing was done in late October before the rains without ploughing and
in Mid-November, after the rains following ploughing. Labour requirement for weeding was
80% higher when sowing was done before than after the rains in maize sole crop and in
maize/beans intercrop. Maize/beans intercrop at a density of 2 plants per hill gave higher yields
than maize alone when grown before or after the rains.
Muga, Lenga and Stewart (00131) in 1980) at Muguga calculated water requirements
measuring at Maturity for Mwezi moja beans. They used peunam, radiation and the pan A
evaporation formulae, in addition to lysimeter measurement to calculate seasonal water
Although Perman formula gave higher readings than the other three, the four methods were
not significantly different from each other.
Stewart et al., (00415) investigated the water requirements of pure stands of maize and
beans and the intercrop. Drainage and changes in soil water storage were measured from a
weighing lysimeter and rainfall from a raingauge. Evaporations piration was also calculated.
these parameters were used to develop crop co-efficient which could be used to describe
phonologically the physiological status of pure stands and the intercrop.
Stewart et al., (00413) measured moisture extraction of three bean types when irrigated by a
line sauce sprinkler. Applied water was measured by catch cans located at various levels and
moisture extraction was measured by a newton probe. Tepary bean extracted the greatest
amount of water (260 mm) and mwezi moja the least (230 mm). Tepary bean having a longer
roots than the other two beans was able to extract water even up to a depth of 105-135 cm.
Stewart et al., (00473) developed in 1980-81, production functions relating the yields of sole
maize and bean crops and also the intercrop to the total seasonal evapo-transpiration. The
regressions equations developed at Muguga and at Katumani for ether beans sole crops or
intercrop were all significant at 1% level.
Muturi (00926) in 1968 evaluated the relative turgidity of leaf tissue and transpiration of
field beans in the greenhouse. The effects of varying leaf area and stomatal opening were also
measured. Relative turgidity decreased with an increase in soil moisture tension. The rate of
transpiration decreased with increasing soil moisture tension.
Wangati (02524) studied evapotranspiration of maize and beans using hydraulic lysimeters.
Beans gave a lower EX/EO than maize. Wetting the canopy by rain or irrigation during periods
of maximum ground cover was important in determining seasonal water use.
Quereshi (03691) evaluated the water use in a pure stand of mwezi moja beans and in a
maize/bean intercrop. The maize/bean intercrop used slightly more water the pure stands of
each crop. Beans used more water from the surface zones that maize.
Masumba (12203) measured stomatoal conductance and leaf water potential of tepary, pinto
and mwezi moja beans from flowering to pod filling stage at three levewls of overhead sprinker
irrigation. At all levels tepary bean showed the lowest stomatal conductance and produced the
highest grain yield.
Anon (12925) measured the amount of water used by maize, sunflower, beans and
maize/bean intercrop. Sunflower extrated twice as much water from the top two meters of soil
as maize and nearby three times as much as beans. Maize/bean intercrop used slightly more
water than either maize or bean sole crops.
Evans and Robertson (17824) determined the available moisture remaining in the soil profile
after harvesting local maize. Taboran maize, sillage maize, beans and on land left fallow. The
silage maize and beans drained water up to 2 ft whereas taboran maize had drained wtater up to
a depth of 4 ft.
Wangati (18510) investigated the water use patterns of maize hybrid H511 and Canadian
wonder beans and observed that water use efficiency of maize and beans could not be defined
quantitatively without reference to the environment.
Lenga and Stewart (21808) tested water requirments of Katumani Composite B maize and
mwezi moja beans when intercropped in three different arrangements. In the first arrangements
both crops were planted on the same row, 75cm apart, in the second, maize and beans were in
atternate rows but a inter-row spacing of 75cm and in the third, the crops were in alternate rows
but the inter-row spacing was halved to 37.5cm. The latter intercropping pattern was superior to
the first. In the first arrangement, the harvest indices of maize and beans were 0.55 and 0.51
respectively. 270mm ET was required to bring maize to grain production. Below 320mm ET,
bean yields were superior to maize.
Stewart (237721) noted that the yields of intercropped maize and beans increased linealy
with applied water up to 250 mm for beans and 589 mm for maize intercropping was only
advantegeous when rainfall was more than 325 mm with an early onset of rains.
National Horticultural Research Station (003783) reported the response of bean seedlings to
moisture stress soon after germination by stressing and watering potted plants. There was a
strong correlation between a measurable stress index and complete milting. Three genotypes
proved to be the most drought tolerant. The report did not indicate the intensity of drought
measured. Non did it consider measuring the amount of water lost through transpiration. The
report should have considered an appropriated measure of drought tolerant that involves water
use efficiency. The index used was not a reliable measure of drought tolerance. Then
conclusion that drought tolerance at one level means total plant drought tolerance is highly
inaccurate.Floor Drees (03760) investigated the effect of two irrigation regimes on the yield of
16 cultivars. There were significant differences between cultivars in the moisture stressed
treatment but none in the two irrigation treatments.
NHRS, Thika (03763) noted that yield components such as number of seeds/pod 100 seed
weight, number of pods per plant were influenced by stress and cultivar while number of plants
per plot was influenced by cultivar only.
Floor Drees (03798) investigated the effect of irrigating and stressing 16 bean cultivars.
Floor Drees (03801) noted that indeterminate bean cultivars under both irrigated and
moisture stress conditions flowered later than determinate ones. Indeterminate cultivars
matured later than determinate ones.
Floor Drees (03803) noted that in the moisture stressed treatment GLP-X-1133, GLP-288,
and GLP-X-1127 showed the signs of wilting.
Floor Drees (03805) noted that indeterminate cultivars wilted less than determinate ones and
that phaseolus acutifoius, GLP X 1133 and GLP-X-1130 showed the last signs of wilting due to
Floor Drees (03806) noted that three varieties, namely GLP-S 806, GLP-X 1130 and
Phaseolus acutifolius had significantly reduced flowering periods under moisture stress
Floor Drees (03808) noted a positive correlation between percentage ground cover (leaf area
index) and yield in both irrigated and moisture stressed treatments.
Floor Drees (03812) observed that the regression equation estimating the amount of water
applied was note significantly different in irrigated and moisture stressed treatments.
Floor Drees (03814) calculated a moisture stress index called yield that correlated well with
observed yields per plot.
Floor Drees (03816) compared the yields from the National bean performance trial with
those from the irrigated moisture stressed experiment. The ranking was the same in either pure
or mixed cropping systems.
Floor Drees (03818) noted similar results as in (03816).
Mwangi and Munyi (03944) observed drainage improvement measures their effectiveness
and the crops grown in Kibingori irrigation scheme. French beans were grown in the
moderately drained farms.
Floor Drees (04262) observed a linear relationship between yield and applied water.
Lengse and Stewart (0554) investigated water requirements of three different intercropping
systems. These were Katumani Composite B maize and mwezi moja beans grown in the same
row; beans grown half way between maize rows; maize and beans grown in alternate rows at
normal spacing. Water was applied in overhead sprinkler irrigation system and crop water
uptake monitored by neutron probe access tubes. A highly significant correlation was obtained
between yield and evapo transpiration in the first intercropping system. Bean yields were higher
than maize was at 310 mm and below.
Lenga and Stewart (0555) measured the water requirement of mwezi moja beans using a
hydraulic pressure lysimeter. The crop used 36 mm in 86 days and yielded 1949 kg/ha. The
harvest index was 0.26 and water use efficiency was 5.14 kg/ha/mm.
Kindani and Amare (200360) examined the drought tolerance characteristics of 25 bean
cultivars during 1988 and 1989 seasons in Ethiopia and Kenya. Some of the stable cultivars
were G 4830, A 422, P 133 and G 5201.
Coulso et al., (201915) measured the differences between leaf and air temperatures using
different equipments of three field bean cultivars and one tepary cultivar as an indocator of the
plants response th drought stress. The measurements made with the various equipments were
varieable rendering the interpretation difficult.
D'siyza abd /ciyksib (202020) measured dry matter production and prtitioning of two bean
cultivars at 600, 300, 150 mm watering regimes. As watering decreased there was a preferential
distribution of dry matter to the roots before and after flowering. A major source of assimilates
to the developing seed appeared to be those re-translocated from the leaves, roots, stem and pod
NHRS, Thika (20339) investigated yield, growth and morphological differences of pure
GLP2 and GLP2 off types under both moisture stress and well-watered conditions. Pure GLP2
lines had thicker palisade mesophyll cells than spongy cells whereas GLP2 off types had
thicker spongy cells than palisade cells. There were no differences between the plant types in
the number of stomata.
Harnetz (240083) observed the response of tepary bean (Phaseolus ocutifolius) and
Bambarra nuts, (Vigna Substerranca) to different water stress intensities under controlled
conditions. The ecophysiologica data were transformed into a model which was used to test the
possibility of growing the two crops in the semi-arid and arid areas of Kenya. Tepary bean
could be grown in all the 12 sites tested while Bambarra not required 75 days of adequate
whater supply to produce a substantial yield. Phaseolis vulgaris, variety GLP 1004, showed no
morpholical adaptation to water stress but upper leaves osmotic adjustment.
Tabu (31027) using a herbnicide treatment infestigated the depth of root penetration of
GLPI, GLPX-92 and GLP-1004 at three different irrigation levels. In both field and green house
experiments, GLP-1004 had the highest root penetration rate.
Ogalo (13397) measured varietal differences in photosynthesis, growth and yield of four
bean varieties from dry areas, four from high rainfall zones and two imporved ones, in the field
under two different watering regimes. Varieti3s from dry marginal areas had higher yields and
photosynthetic values under both watering regimes than varieties from high rainfall areas.
Ouma (13429) measured stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, net photosynthesis rate
and biomass accumulation of GLP-1004 and GLP-2 beans in the field. GLP-2 had higher
stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, net photsynthetic rate and grain yield than GLP-1004.
Insects, Diseases, Viruses, Weeds, And Nematodes
Terry (00791) recommended various herbicides and how to apply them in controlling weeds
in dwarf beans. Most of the recommended herbicides were soil-acting residuals whose activity
depended on soil type and climate. The lowest doses were recommended for light soils. In areas
with heavy rainfall the least soluble pre-emergence herbicides were recommended.
NHRS, Thika (01194) tested maize/bean intercrop and a pure stand of beans at four levels of
DAP fertilizer. The yields of beans decreased by 30% in the intercrop. Application of DAP
fertilizer increased bean yields in both cropping systems by 70% at the highest fertilizer level.
NHRS, Thika (01199) tested the effect of two methods of fertilizer application at four
frequencies on the yield of Rose coco K74 variety yield and yield components were not
affected by the number of fertilizer applications but by the method. Split application produced
significantly yield components compared to broadcasting.
Okongo (01475) tested two fertilizer levels applied in seven different methods on beans.
Fertilizer applied to the side of the row at a depth of 3.5 cm after emergence gave the highest
grain-yields placing fertilizer in furrows under the seed produced the lowest yields.
De Groot and Hasselbach (01485) evaluated the effect four plant densities and three DAP
fertilizer rates on the yield of GLP2 bean variety. The fertilizer and density treatments were not
significant and wither the fertilizer/density interactions.
Banda, Sibunga and Chepkorom (01510) investigated the presentence and effectiveness of
pre-emergence herbicide in weed control. Herbicide Alanchor performed best and
WARS, Kakamega (01814) tested four phosphate rates and three seed dressing treatments.
All the treatments did not show any significant differences.
Qureshi (02139) investigated the critical values of nitrogen, phosphorus trace elements in
mwezi moja leaves, during flowering and harvesting. The critical leeks could not be established
due to a fungal infection.
02604 tested three fertilizer treatments consisting of phosphorus, nitrogen and phosphorus,
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in beans at Taita Hills. All the treatments were better than
the control but were not significantly different from each other.
NHRS, Thika (03028) tested the effect of diammonium phosphate on beans in farmers'
fields at Katumani, Thika, Embu and Kakamega. although there was a significant response in
yield, the economic returns could not justify use of fertilizer.
NHRS, Thika (03029) tested the effect of four planting dates and two DAP fertilizer rates on
Rose coco K74 bean
variety. The planting dates did show any differences in yield but DAP increased yields by
NHRS, Thika (03030) tested four different methods of applying DAP fertilizer and two rate
on Rose coco K74 bean variety. Split application produced significant 100-seed weight.
Quereshi, Gachuiri and Sijali (03147) reported fertility results of a long-term trial under
continuous maize and bean cropping . Crop residue manure gave higher yields of both maize
and beans than organic fertilizers.
Lekasi et al., (03237) tested the effect of foliar fertilizer and diammonium phosphate on
Okalebo (03240) tested four phosphate fertilizer rates in a maize/bean intercrop.
Phosphorous increased maize grain yields but had no effect on beans.
Okalebo (03240) tested four phosphate fertilizer rates in a maize/bean intercrop. Phosphorus
increased maize grain yields but had no effect on-beans.
Lekasi et al., (03252) tested the effect of two foliar fertilizers, DAP and various levels of
NPK on beans and finger millet. Dry matter yield and phosphorus concentration was
proportioned to the applied DAP.
Odour et al., (03308) tested the effectiveness of the minjingu phosphated and the locally
manufactured Kelphos single super phosphate on the yield of maize/bean intercrop. Minjingu
phosphate performed increased the yields of maize and beans more than TSP and SSP, at high
rates of application.
Wamocho and Schoonmand (03601) tested, calcium ammonium nitrate, double super
phosphate and nitrate potash each at three levels on Rose coco K74 variety at five sites. Highest
yields were obtained in Kisii and lowest in Katumani.
NHRS, Thika (03766) tested four fertilizer treatments on several bean cultivars in various
agro-ecological zones. In
Machakos, there was a clean response to nitrogen and addition of DAP gave the highest
economic returns. In Embu, TSP and DAP treatments gave significantly higher yields than
NHRS, Thika (03796) tested DAP and CAN fertilizers in beans in farmers' fields in
Machakos and Embu districts. DAP (200 kg/ha) gave the highest yields in Machakos while
CAN (138 kg/ha) was the best in Embu.
NHRS, Thika (03892) tested the economical methods of applying farm yard manure in a
bean pure stand and in maize/bean mixture, at five sites. The results were complicated by the
considerable variation of nutrient content in the farm yard manure.
Chamberlain (04102) analysed the mineral composition including major and trace elements
of beans in addition to other foods. Various analytical methods for the different elements were
Esilaba et al., (05215) tested four reates of sulphur and four of nitrogen on Katumani
Composite B maize variety, mwezi moja bean variety and locally cultivated groundnut. Sulphur
application did not affect either maize bean or groundnut yields significantly but there was a
linean response when nitrogen was applied. There were no significant interactions between
nitrogen and sulphur.
Omunyin and Michieka (05316) tested the effect three nitrogen fertilizer rates on pure
stands of maize hybrid 512 and mwezi moja bean variety and their intercrop.
Mureria, Mugane and Njango (0551) investigated the effect of liming and unliming soils and
inoculating with rhizobia on Rose coco, mwezi moja and canadian wonder varieties. Plants
growing in lined soils were greener than those in unlimed soils. Liming significantly increased
nodule weight, dry matter yield, tissue nitrogen and nitrogen yield. Inoculation did not affect
any of these factors
Perkerra Agricultural Research Station (05517) tested four nitrogen levels on pure stand of
maize and beans and there intercrop.
Wakhkonbya (06304) investigated how beans responded to nitrogen, phosphate, potassium,
calcium and magnesium fertilizers in ten farms in Kisii district. Phosphorus appeared to be the
limiting element and adding phosphorus resulted in large yield increases.
EARS,(06703) tested two rates of form yard manure, applied either once twice or four times
a year and one fertilizer treatment consisting of nitrogen and phosphorus on maize and bean
crops. The fertilizer treatment (50 kg/N and 50kg P205) gave highly significant yields than of
the highest level of nature, 50 ton/ha. Applying 50 tons/ha of manure once per year gave higher
beans yield twice or four times.
NHRS, Thika (12102) tested tow levels of phosphate, and nitrogen fertilizer, and two-
between-the-row and three-between-the-plants spacings on the yield of Mexican-142 beans.
There was no response to either level of nitrogen or phosphate. The chosen spacing of 30 cm
between the rows and 8 cm between plants gave higher yields than the rest.
Department of Agriculture (12987, 13055) observed the response of saxa, double Dutch
brincess, Mexican-142 varieties to phosphorus and inoculation. There was no marked response
to either phosphorus or inoculation.
Onyango et al., (15210) tested yield response to nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers of
maize/bean intercrop in a randomised complete block trial replicated three times in eight
farmers fields. Beans showed a significant responses to phosphate fertilizer at rates below 40
French beans Department of Agriculture (15798) assessed yield response of french beans to
fertilizers at varying plant populations. Nitrogen fertilizers increas yiilds at closer than wider
Okongo (15829) conducted fertilizer trials in various bean growing areas of the country to
assess their response and the different mehtods of application in pure and mixed cropping
systems. In maize/bean cropping systems, DAP, fertilizer applied at the rate of 100 kg/ha,
during planting, produced substantial bean yields. In another study (15833) investigating the
effect of four bean densities on three rates of DAP fertilizer. DAP at high rates of 200 kg/ha
caused decline in yields and there sas no significant interaction between fertilizer rates and
Insects and their control
Khalmba and Latiga (00033) observed black bean aphid transmitted the common bean
mosaic virus more effectively during the early and late vegetative stages of the bean, and to a
less extent during authesis higher aphid density and the stage of bean development determined
the magnitude of damage caused.
Ogecha and Magenya (02568) tested the effect of three maize/bean intercrops on maize stalk
borer and bean fly. There were no differences in the number of plants attacked, beanfly pupae
or beanfly pupae parasitize by the Braconid wasp, in the three intercrops and in the pure stands.
Kibata (02617) investigated the effectiveness of foliar inseticids on the control of the bean
fly, melanogramy phaseoli. Diazinon Fenthron and Fenitrothian gave the best results.
Kibata (02621) assessed seasonal beanfly infestation. The highest beanfly infestation
occurred during the dry months of the year with peaks in January - March and June -
Kibata (02684) tested 30 beans lines for susceptibility to beanfly. Seven lines showed less
than 50% mortality.
Kibata (03745) investigated the possibility of controlling the beanfly Ophiomyia spp by
applying several insecticides in the soil before planting or as seed dressings. The effective
chemicals applied in the soil were cabofuran, oxyamyl and Thinfanox and those applied as seed
dressings included Dichlafenthian + Thiran, carbodulfan and Thiodicants.
Nderitu (03947) in 1989 sampled bean insect pests by hand picking and sweep nets in 14
districts. Leaf beatle (Ootheca bennigsemi) were prevalent in Loitokitok and Taita Taveta and
thrips, while flies and mits were important pests when beans were grown off-season
Ngatia and Nderitu (03959) reported the results of a survey in five districts to find out the
effect of bean storage practices on bruchid infestation. Between 78-87% of the farmers in
Laikipia, Nyandarua and Embu used chemical dusts whereas 27-60% in Kirinyaga and Nyeri
used this method of control. Ash, was used in Kirinyaga and Laikipia but in Embu it was mixed
with chemicals. Debris, was used in Nyandarua only. Only the chemical duets controlled
Malinga (10638) tested three insecticides, dimethoate, authic and metasystox for the control
of the back bean aphid (Alphis fabae). Authic treated plots yielded higher than the others.
Githure (10660) carried a survey of pathogenic nematodess affecting hamones. One species
Pratylamelus sp was also found to infest beans, a crop nomally interplanted with paranas.
Embu (11254) compared dfferent manual weeding dates at different weeding frequencies in
eans. The highest yield was obtained when manual weeding was done ten days ater planting and
continued for forty days.
Embu (118) evaluated the efficiency of six fungicides on the control of anthracnose and leaf
spot in canadian wonder, Rose coco and mwitemania bean varieities.
NPBRC, Njoro (11939) evaluated four cropping systmes, sunflower/maize, sunflower/bean,
maize/bean, sunflower/maize/beans for insect pest. Maize/bean intercrop had a significantly
reduced busscola fusca population compared to maize pure stand. Sunflower/maize/bean
intercrop showed a higher abundance predators and parasitic hymenopterans than their
respective pure stands.
NHRS, Thika (1217), 12150) investigated the growth stages of the bean plant that are
susceptible to halo blight (Pseudominas phaseolicala). Growth stage I (two leaf stage) and VIII
(grain filling stage) were very susceptible to race-2 of P. phaseolicala.
NHRS, Thika (12121) tested six herbices for the control of bean rust, in a trial replicated
four times. Herbicide, Baycor 200 EC was the most effective.
NHRS, Thika (12153) screened 500 bean cultivars for bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)
rust and halo blight, at Kisii, Embu and Thika. Halo blight and bean mosaic virus showed
reduced scores where beans were intercropped with maize.
Hasselback (12157) evaluated seed as a source of Authracnose, common blight, halo blight
and bean common mosaic virus diseases at Katumani, Kisii, Embu, Thika and Kakamega.
Groot (12164) tested various weeding routines of beans and observed that a first weeding,
two weeks ofter emergence was vital and one week delay resulted into 10% yield loss. In
medium and high rainfall areas, a second weeding, three weeks after the first was required but
in the dry areas it was not necessary unless highly exceptional rains were received.
NHRS, Thika (12167) tested several herbicides, at Thika, Embu and Katumani for the
control of weeds in beans. Pre-emergence herbicides, Flourodifan and Phenoxalin controlled
Groot (12168) observed weed control in several maize/bean densities using several
Groot (12171) for two seasons tested twelve weeding dates in a randomized block design
trial replicated four times for mwezi moja and Rose coco K74 varities at Thika and Katumani.
Omunyin (12174) inoculated hundred bean cultivars with bean common mosaic viurs in a
greenhouse. Eighteen cultivars were resistant and three showed local discolouration.
Katubbah (12196) tested three insecticides, namely, fenithothian, Dimecron and Gammalin
for the control of beans pests during the plants reproductive stage. Insect infestration was
significantly reduced by using three sprays of each the insecticides.
NHRS, Thika (122) tested various nematicides at different rates in a randomized complete
block design trial replicated four times using Rose coco 74 variety. The yield differences
between treated and control plots were not significant.
Wanjama (12218) tested the effectivenss of nime insecticides in the control of red spider
mites. Four of these including Dimecron combi gave better control than the rest.
Michieka (12262) valuated pre-emergence herbicides in maize/bean intercropping replicated
four times. Most of the herbicides gave good weed control with varying degree of bean injury.
Mulamula, Kamidi and Ogemma (12264) screened several herbicides for their control of
Brome grass, rye grass and wild outs first in the green house and later in the field. Lasso and
Ramrod effectively controlled snowdemia polystacha in beans and was less phytotoxic to beans
than to wheat.
Wanjala and Michieka (12265) evaluated linuron, metalachlor, Alachlor and pendimethalin
for weed control and phytoxicity in beans. Pendamethalim and Alachlor gave the best weed
control. Limuron showed some injury which disappeared later in the season.
Njoroge and Ngugi (12271) tested the reidual effects of metribuzin, linuron 50% W.P and
Galex 500 on tagetes minuta and oxalis latifolia in maize and bean crops under both
greenhouse and filed condition at Tigoni. Metribizin at rates above 104 kg/a.i./ha suppressed
Olango and Michieka (12334) tested three herbicides, namely, alachlor, metachlor and
metribuzin for the control of weeds in beans under minumn and convetional tillage systems.
The first two gave the highest bean yields and metribuzin cxaused bean injuries at 0.5/a.i./ha.
Howland and Storley (12405, 12467 and 13469) in 1966 reviewed the diversity of the races
of bean rust in East Africa and indicated the reistance shown by the various races. Isolates from
Arusha gave similar reactions to those from Muguga.
Taylor, Ngundo and Othieno (12645) compared treated and untreated plots using two bean
varieties in a trial replicated six times. The treated plots yielded more than untreated ones and
Mexican-142 gave higher yields than Kikwara cultivar in the treated plots.
Soya bean Bock et al., (12663) isolated two viruses, one having 650 mm rod shaped
particles and the other 750 mm filamentons particles which caused a serious disease of soya
bean in Kilosa, Tanzania. Preliminary studies of two cowpea viruses were also reported.
Mkalama (12729) conducted surveys from farmers' stores to assess the level of pest
infestration and observed that farmers do not normally use insecticide dusts to protect their
Nutai (12738) assessed redidue levels of three insccticides, namely, dimethoate, fenitrollion
and DDT when sprayed on green beans. Only fenitrothion showed low levels of 0.2 ppm the
second day after spraying.
Anon (12844) tested give weeding treatments using Mexican 142 bean variety.
Department of Agriculture (12920) used three insecticides, namely meanazon, dimeothate
and pyrethiss to control infestation by bean aphid in farmers fields. All the insecticides were
effective in reducing the aphid population and there were no significant differences between
Embu Research Station (13482) tested four hand weeding tratments in Mexican-142 beans
and observed that all were better than control.
Buruchara (13525) tested 26 bean samples from Kisii, Kakamega, Embu and Kiambu
districts for seed borne fungi using the standard blotter methods. Eighteen species of fungi were
Kanyagia (13527) tested 47 bean cultivars for their reactions to meladogyne javanica and
melisdoigyne incognita in a screen house at Thika.
Whitehead (13528) reported five species of melaidogyne from Kikuyu division of Kiambu
Nderitu, Kaymbo and Mueke (13529) investigated the population patterns of ophymia
specerella in form of eggs larvae and pupae during cropping and non-cropping seasons at two
sites. Beans grown during non-cropping season attracted unsually high beanfly populations and
had more leaf punctures, eggs, larvae and pupae than beans grown during normal cropping
Auyango et al., (13552) tested the efficacy of 12 insecticides against bean thrips in french
bean variety, monel. The best results were obtained with othene, karate, and massahl insectides.
Bock, Guthrie and Kulkari (13613) reviewed work on two inportant and widespread viruses
of beans in East Africa, one idientified as bean common mosaic virus and the other as virus B1.
Oryokot (137537) determined the degree of weed control and herbicide injures of
pendimethalin herbicide in pure and intercrop stands of maize and beans. Higher rates of
pendimethalin of 1.5 kg/a.i./ha caused stunting and deformation but low rates of 0.5 and 1.0
kg/a.i./ha did not control any of the prevalent weed species.
Njeru and Kihumba (13888) tested 16 herbicideds in a randomised complete block design
trial at Kitale and Sabwani for weed control in tercropped maize and beans.
Taylor, Ngundo and Othieno (14229) compared larval penetration of melaoidogyne
incognita and meloidyne javanica on six bean varieties. Penetration occured when young larvae
were used and the inoculum level raised from 100 to 300. The top part of the roots system was
the most penetrable.
Ngundo, Monatta and Gatimu (14237) screened 23 bean cultivars for root-knut nematude
resistance at Thika. Eleven cultivars showed tolerance.
Nderitu and Kabira (14285) observed that bean leaf bettle was an important pest in
Loitoktok and Taita-Taveta.
Ngundo (142298 and 14309) inoculated six bean varieties with meloidogyne incognita and
melaodogyne favanica and onserved that after 20 days sixnol differentiation had occured in all
bean varieties. Between 30-40 days, 55% of the adults were egg-laying females.
Okinda (14313) noted infestation intensities of ophiomyia phaseoli and ophiomyia
spenceralla in short and long rains seasons. There were indication that rainfall intensity
considerably increase infestation. Of the chemicals tested furadan wa the most effective.
Kinyua (14356) isolated strains of Halo blight, phseudomonas phaseolicola from twelve
bean growing districts and inocuated GLP-16 and GLPX92 bean varieties with them. Out of 30
isolates, seven belonged to race-1 while 23 belonged to race-2. resistance to race-2 in GLP-16
and GLPX92 was governed by one single recessive gene.
Ngaah (1407) tested six vegetable oils for their effectiveness against bean bruchids
acanthoscelides onbtectus. All the vegeable oil caused high adult mortality but clove oil gave
the best protection.
Nderitu (16622) evaluated six bean cultivars for resistance to ohpiomyia phaseoli by scoring
number of leaf punctures efs, larvae, pupae and percentage of infested plants. GLPX92 and
Mexican-142 showed higher maena numbers of leaf punctures by ohpiomyia phaseoli than the
Nyaga (16623) tested dimulin, a cuticle formation inhiniting insecticide on bean bruchid
acanthoseclide obtectus. Compared to Malathion dimulin caused 100% in 5 days but malathion
caused less than 22%.
Nderitu (16625) investigated the incidence of bean flies in maize/bean intercropping
insecticide treated and intreated bean pure stands. The number oflarvae and pupae in untreatd
bean plots was not significantly different, than in t he maize/bean intercrop. Beans treated with
thiodiam had significantly lower numbers oflarvae and pupae than both the maize/bean
intercrop and the untreated pure bean stand.
French beans Anyango and Kibata (17583) observed the boll warm is a minar pest of french
beans, in Central, Eastern, Western, Rift valley and Nyanza provinces of Kenya.
Gitonga et al., (17867) tested several insecticides for the control of termites as main plots in
a maize/bean intercrop. Maize and bean varieties as sub-plots at Embu. There were signifcantly
less damaged plants in ambush + maize/bean and in neem + maize/bean intercrops than in the
Masyanga and Moruri (17899) tested the effects of farm yard manure, fertilizers and banana
mulching on the yield of several bean varieties. There were significant response to manure and
fertilizers for all varieties.
Muigai and Pere (18789) reported that Ophiomyia spencerella has a much higher occurence
than ophiomyia phoseoli.
Nderitu (18808) observed that the major bean pests both in the ficed and the store in Kenya
are, bean flies Ohpiomyia phaseoli, Ohphiamyia spencerella, bean aphids and Acauthoscelides
Kibata (18835) tested several seed dressing insecticides for their control of beanfly
(melanogromyza pheseoli) insecticides birlane/mercury and birlane/thuram at 13.5 gm /kg gave
Latigo, Ampogo and Balidawa (200026) reported the influence ofmaize row spacing on
infestation and damage of intercropping beans by the bean aphids.
Kyamanywa (200161) determined the effects of three concentrations of ash, namely 0, 1 and
5% by weight applied to three bean cultivars, Haricot, Nambate and Kanyebwer on the
population density of bean bruchids and their damage. The greater ash concentration of 5%
showed less number of bruchids per 20g of beans and had a shorter time to peak population
density than the lesser concentration of 0 and 1%. Kanyebew appeared to be the most
susceptible variety. There was a significant interaction betwen ash concentrations and cultivars.
Oree, Slumpa, ampofo (200172) studied beanfly (Ohhiomyia spp) species composition and
population termporal long rains of 1988 and 1989. Ophiomyia spencerella was the predominant
species in all locaitons, particularly at high altitude.
Ampoyo (200173) reported networks in Africa involved in the study of the biolgy and
ecology of bean flies, aphids, bruchids.
Silim (200175) reported that bean bruchid, Acanthoscelides obtectus was commonly fofund
in rural areas of agro-ecological zones, I, II, and IV in Uganda and Zabrotes subfasciatus
dominated urban centres and agroecological zone III. Z. subfasciatus appears to have beeen
introduced through commercial been introduced through commercial trade much later than A.
Farah and Abikar (200185) reported the performance of introduced CIAT material, resistant
to Empoasea, in Somalia.
Crowe (20025) in 1958 observed that seed dressing insecticide aldrin, controlled beanfliers
better than B.H.C. and dialdrin.
Wale (200374) reported from trials in two locations in Ethiopia, that beanfly infestation and
dmage increase with increasing plant population. Among fifty lines screened for resistance
DOR 62, A114, Cariocca and G 3844 showed less infestation.
Lukando (20262) reviewed factors that contribute to grain susceptibility during storage, such
as hardness and roughness, size, chemical composition, moisture content at harvesting or during
storage, temperature and relative humidity.
Mueka (21739) found no significant differences in beanfly numbers between bean pure
stand and maize/bean intercrop. However in the maize/bean intercrop these were very few
beanflies during flowering period. cultivars, GLP3 and GLP24 were least preferred by the
beanfly either for oviposition or feeding. Aldrin, Furedan and Diazinon controlled beanflies
Van Rheenen, Pere and Magoya (237672) in 1980 reported that maize germ oil or sunflower
oil applied at 2 ml/kg of seed effectively prltected beans from Acanthoselides obtectus. Ash did
not give suffcient protection.
Latiago and Khaemba (235803) evaluated the performance of Aphis fabae on two bean
varieties, mwezi moja and red haricot. The mean developmental period of the aphid was 7.8
days at 26.5oC and the reproductive life averaged 15.3 days. Most nymphs were born during
Muriuki (240787) tested five insectices against been flower thrips and found that permethris
at 1 litre/ha gave the best control.
Triana and Roca (241389) used SPS - PAGE electrophorises to determine the phaseolin
composition of 238 accesions from East and Southern African The centres of origin of 69% of
the accession was in southern Audes.
Tegecho, Coulson and Sjonza (242015) studied the distribution of pupria of Ophiomyia
phaseoli and Ophiomyia spencerella on eight cultivars. Tepary bean had the least puparia
wheas GLP 806 and GLP 1131 the most.
Credland and Dendy (242052) observed that two popualtions of Zabrotes subfasciatus one
from Uganda and the other from Colombia differed in fecundity, pattens of eff distribution
times of development and adult sizes when kept under the same conditions. Each population
showed a distrinct response to different bean cultivars.
Padgman et al., (242056) comapred cultivar RZA-2 developed at CIAT Columbia and
reistant to Zabrotes subfasciatus with susceptible cultivars from Colombia and Uganda. RAZ-2
was also reistant to the Ugandan Zabrotes subfasciantus strain. an antimetobolite, arcelin I was
responsible for the resistance.
Cardona et al., (242057) further tested cultivar RAZ-2 on beans stored for 4 months in
Uganda and 8 months in Colombia. comapred to local cultivars, significantly lower nbumbers
of insect emerged from RAZ-2.
Latigo (30944) monitored the infestation of bean aphid on beans grown either as sole crop
or intercropped with maize at two growth stages with maize planted at four different inter-row
distances. Aphid infestation was lower when the maize inter-row spacings were smaller. Beans
intercropped with old maize suffered less aphid infestation. There was a linear relationship
between the percentage of beans infested by aaphids and the spacing of intercropped maize for
both old and young maize crops. Reducing the spacing of intercropped maize therefore
increased protection for beans against aphid infestation.
Singh, Mukunya and Musyimi (31210) noted that insecticides, Thiram, Captan Dieldrin, and
Thiram plus Dieldrin were effective against most pests.
French beans: Kambo (31298) screened ten insecticides for the control of beanfly in a
randomised complete block design with four replications.
Mukunya and Gathuru (31534) noted that disease development in maize/bean mixed stands
was not significantly different from that in beans pure stand. However, reducing maize
population in the mixed stands planted with Rose coco and mwezi moja beans increased the
incidence of Authracnose and halo blight, but decrease that of rust. Sclerotaonia wilt was
particularly severe in maize/bean mixed stands than in pure stands.
Ogenga - Latigo (32294) found significant variation for the black bean aphid found in the
duration of nymphat development mortality of nymplus build-up of populations and field
colonisation between ten bean varieties. The varieties, Canadian wonder, Pink Rose coco,
Zebra beans and Red haricot apeared to be more harmful to the aphids than mwitemania, small
Rose coco and mwezi moja.
Kayitare and Ampong - Nyarko (32522) investigated five cultural practices in managment of
beanfly infestation. Applying nitrogen fertilizer increase beanfly infestation by 12-66%. The
infested plants, however overcame the insect by growing faster. In unfertilized plants beanfly
reduced yield by 48%. Intercropped beans had higher infestation than sole crops. Increased
beanfly infestation was also noiticed in wider spaced than in closer spaced beans. Early
planting reduced beanfly infestation while rainfall and temprature accounted for different rates
of beanfly populaccessive planting. These strategies could constitute the basis of IPM in the
contjrol of the beanfly.
Nderitu (32923) did not find any significant diffences in the number of larvae and puparia
between pure cropped beans and maize/bean intercrop.
French beans: Amango et al., (32929) observed that Taeriothrips and Caliothrips spp. were
most economically important thrips on French beans.
Anyango (32930) tested the efficicacy of 12 insecticides agains thrips and observed that
orthene and karate were the best.
French beans: NHRS, Thika (33446) repoprted that Diazionon at the rate of 1.0 l/ha gave the
best contjrol of thrips for the variety monel.
NHRS, Thika (33449) also reported that line J12 was fairly free from rust and angular leaf
Diseases and their control
Sengoona and Male Kayiwa (03004) reported resistance to phone blight in several climbing
bushy beans. Phoma blight was more severe in beans intercropped with maize than 1 pure
NHRS, Thika (03027) tested five herbicides on mwezi moja and Rose coco K74 bean
varieties in a replicated trial at three sites. None of the treatments had any significant effect on
yield but hand weeding gave the best results in all the sites.
Omunyin (0313) tested several fungicides for the control of bean rust (Uromyces
appendianlatus). Fungicide, auvil (Hexaconazole) gave the best control.
Ngatia and Nderitu (03266) reported the distribution of bean bruchids, the cultural practices
undertaken by farmers and the extent of damage in five districts. Insecticides and bebris were
used to protect bans from bruchids. Chemicals were effective in 68% of the farmers
interviewed and debris in 73%. The mean weight loss of beans protected with debris was
slightly higher than of beans protected with insecticide.
Mburu (03376) tested four herbicides for weed control in a maize/bean intercrop. Herbicide
Acctochlor gave the best weed control.
Ngamau and Njuguna (03383) conducted a survey in farmers' fields to identify nematode
related problems. Beans were infested with melaidogyne spp.
NHRS, Thika (03722) noted the major diseases and insects attacking beans in Kenya and
their occurrence. Angular leaf spot was severe in Embu and Kakamega while bean common
mosaic virus and halo blight were prevalent in Kisii.
NHRS, Thika (03726) observed disease development in beans pure stand and in maize/beans
intercrop. Angular leaf spot, the major disease in the season was more severe in the pure stand
than in the intercrop.
NHRS, Thika (03727) observed the development of bean diseases in a maize/bean intercrop.
Major diseases were rust, angular leaf spot white mould, halo blight and bean common mosaic
NHRS, Thika (03732) observed the disease incidence in GLP2 beans. Angular leaf spot
showed the highest incidence.
NHRS, Thika (03789) investigated the influence of five seed dressing treatments on the
yield of GLP2 and GLP-1004 varieties. There were no differences between treatments for both
NHRS, Thika (03785) observed that Angular leaf spot, black root, BCMV and halo blight
were the most important bean diseases whereas aphids were the commonest insects. Angular
leaf spot and rust were likely to be of different pathotypes.
French beans NHRS, Thika (16294) investigated the effect of fungal dressing with different
chemicals on the control of rust. There were no significant differences in yield between the
different fungal treatments, though Lindason proved to have the most effective fngal treatment.
Muriithi (17169 17193) evaluated three fungicides, namely, Baytan, Raxil and Benlate for
the control scherotinia wilt, florry leafspot and brown rust at Embu. Benlate showed
condierable effect on sclerothinia wilt. A combination Benlate and the other two, controlled
floury leaf spots effectively.
Department of Agriculture (17470 and 17474) observed that the bcterial blight affectin field
beans was caused by the same organism as the blight affecting cowpea and dolichos lab lab and
it was carried in the seed.
Patel and Gatumbi (18420) in 1972 reported that Authracnose (Colletotrichum
lindemutheanum) and leaf spot (Isariopsis grineda) caused serious bean losses during wet and
Mukunya (18822) reported that yellow mottle disease was a serious disease at Katumani,
whereas cercospora leaf spot, cowpea mosaic and bacterial pustule were the most severe diseses
at Mtwapa. Yellow mottle virus appeared to be a different virus from those reported before in
Kinyua (18824) reported from a survey that halo blight was the most wide spread disease of
Omunyin, Gatheru and Mukunya (18834) inoculated varieties GLP2, GLP24 GLP1-1004
with three strains of BCMV, NCH 2 (KN4) , 510 (KN3) and N(KN1) and assessed the effect on
pod production plant height, dry matter weight and grain yield. Infected plants had significantly
shorter stems, fewer pods, less dry matter and lower yields than the control plants.
Gathuru (18887) screened several bean varieties for resistance to five strains of BCMV,
namely, BK BK2, BK3, BK4 and BK5. No variety was found to be resistant to any of the
Repeated NHRS, Thika (19695) used two techniques of inoculating beans with halo blight.
They observed that inoculating 10 day old seedlings with the bactrium mixed with
carborundrum and inocualting half grown pods with a needle dipped into the bacterial
suspension, produced simiolar results.
NHRS, Thika (19699) observed that GLP-3, GLP 337 and GLP 352 bean accessions were
resistant to authrocnose, colletotrichum lindemutheanum strain 58 (i).
NHRS, Thika (19931) observed that Benomyl furngicide arrested the spread of
Opio, Teri and Allen (200016) observed yield losses caused by common bacterial blight in
Omunyin (200260) noted that herbicide anvil (hexaconazale) was effective in the control of
bean rust, uromyces appendicualtus, in the cultivar monel. Evaluation or rust reistance showed
cultivars Grofy and Metriot to be less susceptible than Monel and in the dry beans, Canadian
wonder (TBC-21)d and Rose coco (TBR-11) were rolerant bu mwezi moja (TMB-31) was
Autrey and Saumtally (200261) observed that of the bacterial diseases encountered in East
Africa, common bllight (Xauthomonas compestri pr. phaseoli) was the most frequent with high
incidences in hot and dry areas. In the cool wet locatlities, halo blight (Pseudomonas syringue
pr. phaseolicata) was predominant. Both diseases were seed transmitted.
Saumfally and autrey (200263) monitored the incidence of bean rust by sowing monthly
from March to December in 1986 using a highly suceptible cultivar. The disease was more
severe in the cold month of July. Of the seven fungicides evaluated for the control of the
disease, Bitertanol (Bycor 300 EC) at 400 ml/ha increase yields significantly.
Musaana and Opio (200287) described methodologies for screening for resistance to
common bacterial blight and the formation of the East African Regional Common Bacterial
Blight Nursery. Sources of resistance well also noted.
Assefa (200365) studied the epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia both in the green house
and in the field. Three rust populations showed a high degree of variability among and within
regions. Bean rust senderoty under farmers' conditions where low.
NHRS, Thika (20314) used GLP 69 a susceptible line to bean rust as sprender rows in
screening for resistance.
Singh and Musyimi (21814) reported effective bean rust control in Mexican-142 cultivar by
using Baycor at the rate of 1.75 litres/ha or Bayleton at the rate of 500 g/ha.
Mutitu and Musyimi (21909) conducted a survey in 1980 in Central and Eastern provinces
to find out the common bean diseases during the growing season. The diseases were discussed
Howland and Macartney (22006) identified eight races of rust from a 128 isolates collected
throughout East Africa and inoculated several local varieties. Varieties from Tangeru, Tanzania
were found to be resistant.
Stoetzer and Waite (238520) studied the incidence of bean disease on a large nbumber of
germplasm for 14 seasons in trials at the National dryland Farming Research Station, Katumani
and indicated the resistant germplasm.
Taylor et al., screened more than 300 isolates of Pseudomonas syringal pr phaseolical from
Africa and Latin America and designated them to races 1, 2, 3, or 4. Race I was present in both
continents and had a wider natural host range than the other races. Race 2 was widely
distributed in Kenya, Northern Tanzaina and Zambia. Race 3 was the most wiedley distributed
race in Africa and was not found elsewhere. Race 4, identified for the first time in 1985, was
present on soyabean in Rwanda and Zaire. Raxe specific reactions were most common with
acfessions reistant to races 1 and 3.
Mutitu, Mukunya and Keya (240200) observed that coffe hulls gave good control of
Fusarium oxysporum f sp. phaseoli on beans when applied at the ration of 2:1 (soil:hulls)
Boudreau (242666) evaluated the effect of intercropping maize and beans on angular leaf
spot incidence at Kabete and Thika between 1986-87. Intercropping reduced the disease by 23-
33% when beans and maize were at a ratio of 2:1.
Mutitu (32530) studied the etiology, epidemiology and control of bean scars, Elsinoe
phaseoli and showed that the pathogen attached all parts of the foliage and was effectively
spread through contact and by wind. Benlate and copper oxychloride were effective in the
control of the pathogen.
Mutitu (32540) studied the effects of pH, different soils and inoculation density on
Fusarium, oxysporum f. sp. hpaseoli and possible control methods. The growth of fusarium
oxysporum was reduced at a pH of 3 but increase at pH of 7 and 9. The sisease increased when
soil moisture level was baout 20% but decreased at higher levels of 120%. Rice husks with a
C/N voganic content of 90% and farm yard manure with a C/N of 12% effectively contjrolled
Makini and Makelo (34038) noted that bean varieties, N29, G24, M30, M16 and M19 were
moderately resistant to rust at Kisii.
NHRS, Thika (404) evaluated bean for resistance to BCMV. NHRS, Thika (405) tabulated
the incidence of bean disease at Katumani, Kisii, Embu, Thika and Kakamega.
Viruses and their control
NHRS, Thika (03769) screened 252 accessions for resistance to bean common mosaic virus
by mechanically inoculating the virus at the primary leaf stage. Seventy one lines showed
tolerance to the virus.
Back and Perry in 1967 (03955) observed the viruses that cause bean mosaic in Kenya. The
symptoms and host range of one isolate that caused stunting were described.
Kulkaui (16705) isolated the bean common mosaic virus from Kenyan highlands.
Bock, Guthrie and Kulkarni (16706) reported that the East African pea mosaic virus (PMV)
was similar to the European strain of bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV).
Omunyin, Gatheru and Mukunya (202018) inoculated 451 bean cultivars with 14 BCMV
viral isolates using phosphate buffer and carborundum. Only 68 showed resistance and 77
expressed systemic re-croses.
Buruchara (32471) identified a new severe strain of Bean Common Mosaic virus designated
as Kenya, BCMV (K-BCMV). The virus was limited to the families of leguminoseae and
chenopodiaceae, was seed borne in mwezi moja, Long Tom and Canadian wonder cultivars and
successively transmitted non-persistently by aphids. It was serologically related to the East
African strain of BMCV (18) and the Egyptian isolate of BYMV.
Weeds and their control
Macharia and Moruri (001403) in 1980 evaluated at three sites six herbicides for the control
of weeds in a maize bean mixture. Lassa and Galex applied at pre-emergence gave excellent
Kalumbura, Michobo and Mugunu (00393) applied methabenzethazuron herbicide to control
weeds in a maize/bean intercrop. Compared to the conventionally cultivated plots, the treated
plots gave less harvest under grain and total dry matter yield. The study do not explain why this
is so and whether there are economic benefits in using the herbicide. Neither did it explain how
bean yields are affected by the herbicide.
Kalumbura and Michobo (00396) applied paraquat to control weeds in a maize/bean
intercrop. The density of maize was 44,000 plants per hectare while that of beans was 178,00.
Competition with weeds reduced maize grain yields by 4% and bean yields by 21%. The grain
and dry matter yields of maize in the unweeded plots were not significantly different from those
in the weeded plots but those of beans were.
Kalumbura and Michobo (00397) applied metobromuron and metalachlor pre-emergence
herbicides to control weeds in a maize/bean intercrop. The herbicides were effective in
controlling most of the broad-leaved and grass weeds but not Tagetes erecta and setaria
gracilis. Weed competition significant reduced bean and maize yields by 18 and 17%
respectively. Economic returns showed that hand weeding was more expensive than herbicide
NARS, Kisii (0145) noted that the most serious bean disease was halo blight (Pseudomonas
Banda, Sibunga and Chepkorom (01570) investigated the persistence and effectiveness of
pre-emergence herbicide in weed control. Herbicide alanchor performed best and pendimethalin
NHRS, Thika Annual Report (0086) compared efficiency of five herbicides with hand
weeding in the control of beans weeds. Two herbicides phenoxalin and fluorodigen affected
seedling vigour and germination was highest in hand weeded treatments.
Muthamia (01604) tested several herbicides for weed control in dry beans. Some herbicides
such as lasso, lasso-linnuron, stamp and Banthen effectively controlled beds while other such as
Fusilave, Limuron and Focus did not. The herbicides were more successful than hand-weeding.
Owour, Omwalo and Moruri (01698) tested several herbicides in a maize/bean intercrop. A
number of herbicides were effective in weed control while others such as Bladex/Basag-an
De Groot (01852) in 1980 tested seven herbicides on mwezi moja and rose coco K74
varieties of beans at Katumani and Embu. The most effective herbicides at both sites were
Propaction and Linuron Alachlor. Hand weeding gave the highest grain yields whereas
Trifralin treatment the lowest.
Macharia and Motum (02280) in 1980 evaluated several herbicides on maize/bean intercrop.
Herbicides blave and faddock damaged beans but not maize.
02454 noted the development of meloidogyne incognita and meloidogyne jaranica in the
roots of six bean varieties. Maleidogyne incognita larvas developed into adults faster in Mex-
142 variety whereas meloidoygyne javanica developed faster in masterpiece variety.
02456 compared the histopathology of meloidogne incognita and melaidogyne javanica in
six bean varieties. In all the varieties large multinucleate cells were observed in the vascular
system of the infection. Abnormal xylem was associated with the giant cells.
NHRS, Thika (03078) tested three nematicide at different rates on beans, in a randomized
block design trial. The treatments did not show significant effect on yield and yield
Mburu (11) investigated the efficacy of three herbicides for weed control in beans.
Herbicide, pursuit at 1.5-2 lt/ha achieved 85% weed control.
NHRS, Thika (11077) evaluated varius herbicides for weed control in beans pure stand and
in a maize/bean intercropping. Bean yields in the treaed plots did not differ significantly from
the control, in both pure stand and intercrop.
Onyango, Shululi and Kiiya (15215) assessed the effectivenss of different herbicides and
namual weeding for weed control in maize/bean intercrop. There were no significant maize and
bean yield differences among treatments. However bean yields in plot treated with
peudimethasim were lower than in other treatments.
Groot et al., (15812) evaluated the frequency of handweeding at several locations in three
seasons to determine the optimum weeding operations required for growing beans. In all areas,
the first weeding, was necessary before 20 days after emergence and in wetter areas the second
weeding was required within 20 days after the first.
NHRS, Thika (15902) observed that in maize/bean intercrops, the critical period for
weeding was between 20 and 30 days after emergence.
NHRS, Thika (15924) evaluated hand weeding and three herbicides for the control of weeds
in a maize/bean cropping system. Though weeds were effectively controlled in the hand weeded
plots then in the herbicide treated ones. Bean yields were low.
NHRS, Thika (16141) tested several herbicide treatments in mwezi moja and Rosecoco K74
beans at Embu. bentazon gave better weed control than the other herbicides but was not as
effective as hand weeding.
Okongo (16754 and 16755) assessed seven w eed control treatments including chemical and
hand weeding in bean sole cropping and maize/bean intercropping systems. Herbicides did not
effectively suppress weeds as much as hand-weeding. However, of the chemical used
metrobromuron metalachlor mixture performed better than the other weed killers.
NHRS, Thika (17046) tested the effectivenss sunflower and maixe germ oils in the control
of bean bruchids.
Mwangi, Maina and Ngesaa (17576) investigated the ability of eight bean cultivars to
establish ground cover necessary in the smother of weeds. The highest ground cover was
observed in cultivar GLP2 which also gave the highest yields.
NHRS, Thika (19032) tested nine herbicides and hand weedidng in the weed control of a
crop of Mexican-142. Hand weeding gave the best effective weed control.
KARI (19300) tested three weeding frequencies at a population density of 200,000 plants/ha
in randomised complete block design at Katumani. There were significant grain yield
differences between weeding beans once and weeding twice but differences were observed
between weeding one or three times.
NHRS, Thika (19372) observed the effect of weeding in sole crop a maize/bean intercrop
10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days after emergence.
NHRS, Thika (19677) observed from trials conducted at Thika, Kisii, Kakamega, Embu and
Katumani that the amount of yields present in a bean field at the time of harvest was highly
correlated with grain yield.
Kikoba (200163) surveyed six most widely distributed weed populations in on-station and
on-farm cropping systems and observed that their infestation was high in on-station than in on-
farm cropping systems.
Kidane (200164) tested the effect of two weeding frequencies, not weeded and weeded once
and three seeding rates, 60, 100 and 140 kg/ha on three bean cultivars. High seeding rates of
100-140 kg/ha suppressed weeds and increased seed yield. Cultivars with vigorous growth gave
reasonable yeilds with weeding.
NHRS, Thika (20233) tested the efficacy of fungicides Dunter 19% W.P. at 1.2 g/l zinet at
3.5 g/l and balate W. P. at 0.5 g/l on cultivars, kenseed 74 kenseed 10 and Mexican 142 in their
control of anthracnose. Fungicide, Zinet performed better than the others.
Oryokot and Michieka (20707) reported that low rates of pendimethalin plus one
supplementary hand weeding gave similar economic returns as two conventional hand
weedings. Hand weeding plots produced higher yields than herbicide treated ones at Thika,
Njoro, Embu and Tigoni (20723).
Aruga and Michieka (20839) observed that pendimetholin when applied at the same rate as
Alachlor, gave better weed control. Organic manure when applied at 5-3 tonnes/ha at planting
before spraying significantly reduced the injury to beans by pendimethasin.
Selley (20950) reported that herbicide Eradicane was more effective in controlling Cyperus
spp weeds in maize than in beans.
Njoroge and Ngugi (21207) assessed the residue effects of Metribuzin Linuron at 50% WP
and Golex 500 on maize and beans and their control of tagetes minutes at Tigoni. The
herbicides apeared to have no residue effect on succeding crops of maize and beans but
metribuzin and Linoror if applied immediately after planting, scotched the two crops.
Dept of Agric. (22093) noted that herbicide TCA used to control courch grass produced
phytotoxicity on beans.
Ariga (31113) noted that Metalachlor at 2.0 kg a.i/ha was effective in controlling weeds as
one manual weeding done after 14 days and two weedings done at 14 and 15 days after
Mburu (31122) noted that herbicide pursuit (Imazethapyr) controlled both grass and broad
leaved weeds whears Flex (Fomesafen) controlled only bradleaved weeds.
Kimotho (32166) found no significant yield differneces between beans weeded once or three
times but there were differences between beans weeded once and twice.
Balah (32237) observed that the critical time of weeding beans was upto four weeks after
emergence. The number of pods per plant was the most severly affected yield component by the
present of weeds.
Sibuga (32509) evaluated the effects of pre-emergence herbicides, Pendimethalin, Linuron,
Alachlor and Galex on weed control of mwezi moja beans at Kabete and Perkerra. Under field
conditions, the herbicides reduced shoot dry weights and root dry weight compared to hoe
weeding. Increaseing concentrations of herbicides reduced nodule number at both sites in the
field, but linuron increase nodule number in the greenhouse at Kabete. Herbicides treatment did
not change total nitrogen content and crude proten under both field and green house conditions.
Mburu (3292) evaluated three herbicides namely, Pursuit plus, Flex and Stjomp at three
rates for weed contjrol in beans in a randomised complete block design. Herbicides pursuit plus
and flex controoled 85% of the weeds but could not kill oxalis latifolia. Stomp and Flex showed
some bean injuries.
Kamidi and Mose (33453) tested seven hercides and handweeding in bean intercropped with
maize H625 varieties.
De Groot et al., (34629) noted that the first hand weeding in beans was necessary after 20
days and the second 20 days after the first.
Neunso (17884) screened twenty three local and exotic bean cultivars for resistance to
meloidogyne incognita and meloidogyne favanica. Of the seven varieties found to be resistant
to both neumatodes, P1 165 426 was highly resistant to m-incognited.
Bafokozara (200922) used melacdogynse incognita race I from tomatoes to screen beans for
resistance in a randomised complete block design experiment carried out in Uganda. Of the
local bean cultivars only Khaki showed slight tolerance.
French Beans: Ogallo (240739) noted that application of either Fenamiphos or carbo furan
to plots infested by root knot nmeatodes, significantly infested by root knot nematodes,
significantly increased survival of seedlings and pod yields.
Ondieki (34033) compared four granular nematicides for the control of Meloidoy=gyne spp
and observed that Mocap and Nemacur were the most promising.
French Beans: Anyango (04201) tested the effectiveness of 16 insecticides in the control of
bean thrips. The best control was obtained by using Karate and Canital insecticides, but this
was influenced by the dates of sampling the pest.
Omunyiu et al., (04920) reported the results of bean diagnostic surveys carried out in two
districts, Muranga andKisii, Rose coco was predominantly grown whereas in Muranga, in
addition, to Rose coco, canadian wander, mwitemania and red haricot were common. Most
farmers in the two districts used their own seed or purchased it locally. The main bean
production constraints were, diseases and insects, poor labour availability, poor soils and
drought especially in the short rains.
Nderitu, Kanymbo and Mueke (05002) investigated the population patterns of adult bean fly
(Ophimyia spencerella), eggs, larvae and puae and le of punctures on bean plants during
cropping seasons have more leaf punctures, eggs, larvae and pupae and subsequently high bean
fly populations than beans grown in the cropping season.
Kanyagia (05004) tested forty seven bean cultivars for reaction to two root-knot nematodes,
meloidogyne javanica and
melaidogyne incognita controlled conditions. Seventeen cultivars showed low root-knot gall
indices compared to the others, implying they could have bean moderately resistant to the two
RRC, Embu (05072) reported the results of a disease survey of beans in Central Province.
Dry beans were found to be infested by beans anthracnose, angular leaf spot, sclertina wilt and
Kori and Okech (05490) investigated the effect of five fungicidal seed treatments on the
control of bean rust (uromyces phaeoli). Fungicive lindasan (lindane and thirum) was the next
effective whereas dithane a non-systemic fungicide was the least effective. No significant
differences in green pod yields were observed between the five treatments.
French: Achwanya (05598) tested the effectiveness of five fungicides in the control of
anthracnose (colletotricum lindermuthianum) on three french beans varieties. Fungicide, Duter
(19% WP) plus captafol (50% WP) was the most effective.
Wamocho and Schoonman (05602) tested twelve different manure weeding dates after
planting, on Rose coco K74 bean variety in five locations. The different weeding frequencies
did not show any significant yield differences in Embu, Thika, Kisii and Kakamega. At
Katumani, weeding was not done early enough, the yields were reduced drastically.
Acgwabta (05627) studied the reaction of several bean varieties to halo blight
(Psewdomanas phaseolicola) using two seedling inoculation methods. Applying the bacterium
when mixed with carborundum or by a needle produced similar results.
Wamocho and Schoonman (05629) tested seventeen herbicides for weed control in a
randomized complete block design
replicated four lines. Herbicides, Tribunal and Lasso + A falon provided excellent control
for Amaranthus Bidens pilosa and Galinsoga.
Macharia and Moruri (06310) tested five herbicides and hand-weeding in maize/bean
intercrops at two locations. At Kisii, the treatments did not give any significant yield
differences but in Homabay, hand weeding gave the best yields.
EARS (06702) evaluated the efficacy of seven herbicides, and two hand weeding on t he
control of weeds in a Rose coco bean stand. Hand weeding was significantly more efficient
than the herbicides.
Muriuki (06823) tested seven insecticides for the control of pod borers in bean. All were
effective except thuncide.
Stoetzer (06827) observed the incidence discase in replicated pure stands of GLP-2 and
GLP-1004 and in their intercrops with maize. Angular leaf spot was the commonest disease
escaped attack by this disease. By maturing late, GLP-2 escaped angular leaf spot attack. This
was more pronounced in mixed than in the sole stands.
EARS, Embu (06859) tested five herbicides on a maize/bean intercrop. Maize stand count
and yield were not significantly affected by the various herbicide treatments but the
cynanazine/bentazon treatment affected bean stand.
NHRS, Thika (05379) reported the results of a survey carried out in all the districts of
cen0tral and easternprovinces of Kenya in areas where beans are grown. It was observed that
farmers used the previous crop as seed and the varieties commonly grown were, Rose coco,
mwezi moja and canadian wonder. Weeding was done twice and very few farmers used
NHRS, Thika (11998) conducted surveys in Kisii, Meru, Muranga and Kiambu distircts to
assess the level of adoption of the latest dry bean recommedations and determine the place of
dry bean production in these farming systems. The most prevalent intercropping systems were
maize/beans, irish potato/bean and banan/beans. There was need to carryou out further stategic
research in mosture stress, adaptability, yields loss due to insect diseases.
NHRS, Thika (16406) in 1975 conducted a survey in Eastern and Central provinces to
identify bean production constraints and set priorities for future research. Farmers grew mwezi
moja, Rose coco and Candaian varieties using their own seeds. beans were interplanted
randomly with other corps and fertilizers were rarely used. The commonest diseas were
authracnose, common blight, angualr leaf spot and aphids, cutwarms, beanfly and flower
beetles were the most prevalent insects. Farmers stover beans for a mazimum period of six
months and rarely used chemicals for protection.
RRC, Embu (21702) carried an informal survey in Gachoka Division of Embu District and
identified low fertility, low plant populations as the major constraints to production of beans.
Some fine potential solutions suggested to overcome these problems were use of inorganic
nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers, farm yard manure and crop residues and introdution of
multipurpose legume trees.
Van Eijnatten (31381) described the bean growing in Kirinyaga district including area,
weeding, fertilizers, disease, insect, harvesting and marketing.
Muthangya (32476, 31530) in 1980 carried out farm surveys on bacteria blight disease in
Kakamega, Kirinyaga, Embu, Mueru, Transoia, Kiambu, Kitui, Muranga and Machakos and
obnserved that blights caused by Phsudonomas phaeolicola and Xanthromones pheseoli var
fuscaus were widely distributed in all the districts.
Schohners and Mbugua (34321) discussed the economics of bean production as well as
basic constraints in production in both high rainfall central province and low rall Eastern
Mwania et al., (15228) laid out at Kitale. Maize/bean demonstration trials in farmers fields
consisting of the following packages improved seeds, early planting of both maize and beans at
the onset of rains, recommended spacing, fertilizer rates and application methods and pest
control methods. although the trials were poor due to erratic rainfall and striga attack, farmers
tendered to adopt only some of the packages. cost of inputs such as seeds and fertilizer were
some of the factores that hindered farmers from adopting some the packages.
Kisakye and Adrogu (200186) tested on-farm the performance of nine cultivars in Kabete,
Luweru, Mpigi and Rakai distircts of Uganda to evaluate acceptability under farmers'
conditions. The cultivars were replicated twice in a randomised block design on eavh farm and
seed colour, cooking time, seed size, growth habit, disease reaction, tasted and yield assessed.
Sieber (200196) compared traditional cropping practices with mulched minimum tillage on
sole and intercropped Katumani composite B maize and Katumani bean I at Matanya in
Laikipia district for two seasons. In the first season the two seasons, bean yields were greater
than maize yields in both pure and mixed cropping systems but bean yields in mixed stands
were lesser than in pure stands. However, there was no no significant differences between
traditional cropping practices and mulched minimum tillage.
Kisakya and Adrogu (200262) investigated the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus
application, beanfly control by using Edhdo sulphur and fungal control by seed dressing with
thiram and benlate on the yield of recommended variety K20, in five Ugandan districts.
Fertilizer application, seed dressing with fungicides resulted in increased yields though the
differences were not statistically significant. Cultivar, K20 did not give significantly higher
yields than farmers' cultivars.
Kikoba (201501) conducted on-farm and on-station trials in Uganda to investigate shilfts in
weed population in bean sole cropping and intercropping systmes in eight locations. Mean
weed infestation levels were higher for the on-farm trials than on-station.
Macharia and Opondo, (34361) tested cotton/bean intercropping system in two farms from
Kirinyaga, Embu, Machakos and Meru districts. Pure stands of beans and cotton gave the
highest yields and thre was an apparent manentary advantage if intercropping in Kirinyaga and
Pricing and marketing
Gridley (200197) examined the bean seed marketing systems in the major producing areas
of sub-saharan Africa. The author rightly inferred that the market for bean seed in sub-saharan
Africa is dominated by the small-scale farmer who is both the supplier and consumer. However
a major seed supply problems is experienced when new cultivars are released. Neither
government nor private seed firms have been able to produce and distribute seed to the many
potential end users. Whereas a marketing mechanism for the newly released varieties.
Schulter (238035) suggested that Kenya needed to expand its agricultureal exports rather
than pursure the goal of self sufficiency and noted that the international prices for beans during
1971-81 period were double the domestic and border prices.
French beans Mbatia (238215) assessed the production costs including irrigations, fertilizer
weed insect and diseases control, harvesting, tractor hire, transport, labour and estimated the
profit for the majority of growers to be about 25%.
Ayako et al., (240862 and 240863) compared the performance of small holder out grower
schemes for sugarcane, ten tobaccoo, sunflower, sugarcane and French beans schemes
performed better than the others. Constraits and prostpects for each schme were discussed.
Nadar, Chui, Waweru, Bendera and Faught (00261) reported details of agronomy research
carried out between 1977-1980 involving the development of profitable cropping systems for
dry areas in Machakos district. Preliminary studies including farm surveys, rainfall and maize
phenology were conducted. They showed the socio-economic status of the small-scale farmer,
the rainfall pattern, the critical growth of the principal maize crop and the degree of
manipulating planting dates. Cultural practices including the effects row spacing, plant
population, tillage, weed control, intercropping, relay cropping, fertilizer application and
rotation on maize and accompanying legume crops were investigated.
Owuor, Ommalo and Moruri (04148) tested sixteen maize/bean mixtures with various
between and within the row spacings of two sites. Two rows of beans between two rows of
maize gave similar bean yields as the pure stand.
Soya Beans: Nzabi (04176) tested the yields of pure stands of maize, dry beans and soya
beans and those in maize/dry bean, maize/soya bean mixtures. Maize/dry bean intercrop gave
the highest yields. Pure stands of either soya beans or drybeans gave higher yields than their
intercrops with maize.
Wamocho and Scoonman (04551) in 1975 investigated the effect of varying between the
row spacing on mexican-142 and Rose coco K74 beans at five sites. Yields increased with
increasing population of up to 300,000 plants/ha but decreased above this figure.
Wamocho and Scoonman (04533) investigated the effect of four varying planting dates on
mexican-142 and Rose coco K74 varieties at seven sites. Planting six weeks after onset of the
rains gave the lowest yields.
NHRS, Thika (04671) tested two plant densities, low and high on four bean cultivars at flour
sites. The effect density was insignificant except for one site and GLP 2 performed slightly
better than the other three varieties.
Onchoke and Nyoro (04802) evaluated the effect of beans between the conventionally
spaced rows of coffee. Although t he yields of coffee were higher in the plots without beans, in
the crop an yield of 2031 kg/ha of beans was realized. The plots with beans gave an extra
income of Kshs.4800 but incurred variable costs on fertilizers and labour.
NHRS, Thika (04925) tested two maize/beans intercops using either H511 or Katumani
Composite maize at two different bean spacings with or without two DAP fertilizer at
Katumani and Embu. Increased bean density and application of DAP increased bean yields.
Maize yields in the intercrop and at increased bean density, were lower than in the pure stand.
Mwania and Kiiya (04950) investigated the effect of relay cropping beans and potatoes in
maize/bean and maize/potato intercrops. Maize/potato intercrop, having maize rows spaced at
120 cm, plants at 18.8 cm and potatoes rows spaced at 20 cm, plants at 37.5 cm gave the best
results between intercrops there were no significant differences in cobs per plant, grain weight
per cob and bare tips.
Mwania and Kiiya (05298) repeated the evaluation of relay cropping maize, beans and
potatoes in their intercrops. Maize yields were not affected intercropping but beans and
potatoes were. Relay crop performed poorly than the first crop.
Mwania et al., (05303) evaluated improved certified maize and bean varieties and their
production packages at the farm level. Researcher managed bean plots gave double yields
compared to farmers' plots. Farmers were much more aware of improved packages for maize
than for beans.
Odthiambo and Amolo (05498) intercropped sugar cane with beans maize and sorghum and
studied the effect of phosphorus on the yield cane, maize, sorghum and beans. Two rows of
beans were sown between rows of cane and in case of sorghum and maize, one row was planted
between two rows of cane. Phosphorus was applied at 0, 50, and 100 kg/ha. Tiller number in
the pure stand of can were significantly higher than in the intercrops.
Michieka and Omunyiu (0564) tested four rates of nitrogen fertilizer on a maize/bean
intercrop. Treatment, 20 kg/ha gave the best yields.
Mwakha (06144) evaluated the effect of intercropping beans under varying coffee canopy
densities. coffee spaced at 75-125 cm between rows produced an economically viable crops of
Mwhakha (06147) investigated the effect in three bean populations at four nitrogen fertilizer
levels interplanted between coffee rows, on the yield of both crops. The four levels of fertilizer
and the three bean population did not affect the yield of coffee, in two seasons.
Mbagaya (06360) investigated the effect o several bean planting dates in a maize/bean
intercrop. Beans yields were low with delayed planting and the best yields were obtained when
maize and beans were planted at the same time.
Amolo and Odhiambo (06383) tested the effect of four levels of phosphated fertilizer on
maize/bean, sorghum/bean and sugarcane/bean intercrops.
Macharia and Moruri (06406) tested in a maize/bean intercrop, the effect of two between-
the-row and four between-the-plant spacings. Spacing maize and bean rows at 75 cm , and
maize plants within the maize row at either 60 or 90 cm gave the highest yields for both maize
and beans saving. Two rows of beans between maize rows was recommended as the best
Bhuong Wakonya and Odongo (06707) tested different spatial arrangements in a maize/bean
intercrop to determine the most compatible one. Results of combined analysis indicated that the
different spatial arrangements in maize yields either in sole or in the intercrop. However, bean
yields were influenced by the resulting various plant populations.
Chui Waweru and Kungu (06839) tested six levels of nitrogen fertilizer on sole crops of
maize and bean and on two different maize/bean intercrops. Neither the application of nitrogen
not the cropping system influenced the top dry weight and seed yield of either maize or beans.
However, there was an indication that beans intercropped between maize rows responded to
nitrogen better than beans intercropped within the same row as maize.
Ikitoo, onfere and Karani (06880) evaluated eight bean/cotton intercropping treatments.
Intercropping cotton and beans reduced the yields of both crops compared to that in pure
Njeru (14102) compared labour inputs and yields of the various planting patterns used in
maize/bean intercropping. Higher economic returns were ontained from intercropped
maize/beans than in pure stands.
WARS, Kakamega (14162) compared various spatial arrangements in maize/bean intercrop.
Intercropping drastically rediced the yields of beans.
Mwania (14371) comapre labour inputs and yields of various planting pattens used in
maize/bean intercropping. Intercropping gave gross margin returns than sole cropping.
Department of Agriculture (15937) evalauted the econimic retursn of maize/bean intercrop
at different plant densities. Gros income from a pure stand of maize was significantly greater
than that from beans. Economic returns from a maize/bean intercrop were better when the
maize density was higher than that of beans.
Onyango (16695) compared the yields and economic returns of intercropping two rows of
beans with an inter-row distance of 25 cm, intra-row distance of 30cm between two maize ros
spaced at 75 cm and one row of beans with an intra-row distance of 15 cm, between two rows
of maize spaced at 75 cm and farmers intrcropping practice. The yields economic returns of two
densities did not differ significantly from each other but those were significantly higher than
the farmers practice. The gross margin nalysis showed that production costs were higher than
Muriithi, Kanampiu and Muriithi (17177) evaluated on-station, different maize/bean
cropping systmes to determine the most economical one for agro-ecological zone UM2 in
Embu. Intercropping maize and beans with beans planted at random between the maize rows
had the highest net benefit and the most profitable.
Njage (17231) tested the relative productivity and economic relative productivity and
economic benefits maize/bean intercropped and pure stands at Embu in a replicated trial. It was
observed tha maize spaced at 80 cm between rows, 50 cm between plants with beans spaced at
40 cm between rows, 20 cm between plants govare the highest economic benefits.
Njeru (18015) compared labour, farm inputs and yields in the various maize/bean cropping
patterns. Labour was least required in sole maize cropping and planting maize and beans in the
same hole reduced the yields of both crops.
Zoebl (18908) assessted labour requiremnts from 30 farms in Eastern and Central provinces.
Planting the optimum bean density of 250,000 plants/ha required 5-7 mandays/ha using a panga
and weedidng required 12-43 mondays/ha. Planting and at the same applying fertilizer in the
furrow required 32 mandays when done with a hoe.
NARC, Muguga (20064) assessed, economic benefits several production packages,
including fertilizer, depterex use and minimum tillage of maize/bean intercroppkng systems in
the Central Highlands of Kenya.
Kohler (240307) from a survey of 80 huouselholds in Laikipia district, noted that beans
were always intercropped with maize and irish potatoes.