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					IOSR Journal of VLSI and Signal Processing (IOSR-JVSP)
ISSN: 2319 – 4200, ISBN No. : 2319 – 4197 Volume 1, Issue 1 (Sep-Oct. 2012), PP 46-50

              CMOS Body Driven Quaternary Logic Generator
                                       Umesh Kumar1, Rajiv Kapoor2
                                     (Student, Delhi Technological University, India)
                                     (Faculty, Delhi Technological University, India)

Abstract–– This paper is about the design, simulation and study of a CMOS quaternary logic generator having a
single stage CMOS body driven design. The interest of design is that the circuit consists of only one CMOS
circuit, reducing the chip area and also only two supply rails is required to drive the complete circuitry. The
multi-valued logic generator, designed here is also demonstrated with and without enable circuitry too. The
design has been implemented with 1.8micrometer CMOS technology on Cadence virtuoso schematic Editor.
Keywords –– CMOS, body effect, decoder, multi-valued logic.

                                            I.         INTRODUCTION
          In logic a multi-valued logic [7] is a propositional calculus in which there are more than two values.
Traditionally, in Aristotle‟s [6] logical calculus, there are only two possible values (i.e. “true” and “false”) for any
proposition. Extension to classical Boolean logic is an n-valued logic for n greater than two e.g. three valued
logic[8] of “true”, “false” and “unknown” and for infinite valued “fuzzy logic”[11] and “probability logic”[12].
There have been many approaches to design multi-valued logic. Methods have also been implemented in
voltage mode [14] and current mode [13] circuits. In previous works, the number of transistor use were more than
two, which increases the chip area, also it has been seen that most of the approaches to design multi-valued
requires more than two different supply rails which causes the use of more metal in the chip increasing the
fabrication cost. This paper the is about the design of quaternary logic generator, based on body driven CMOS
circuit where binary inputs can be decoded in quaternary logic. Since the module is using single CMOS stage
the chip area is very less and also the number of supply rails required to drive the complete circuitry is two,
which is a cost efficient design.

                                     II.         DESIGN AND SIMULATION
         The design of body driven [4][5] quaternary logic generator is based on CMOS circuit[1] in which pMOS
and nMOS are connected drain to drain and their gates are common and driven by a bias potential. The driving
inputs are connected on the body (substrate) of pMOS and nMOS (fig. 1). These inputs are digital inputs with
logical high as 1.8 volts and logical low as 0 volts. Vdd is 1.8 volt.

                                      Fig. 1- Schematic of body driven quaternary logic generator

         The simulation is executed on Cadence Virtuoso Schematic Editor 180nm designed by CADENCE.
Both the inputs Vin_1 and Vin_2 are applied with pulse inputs with one having double frequency than to the
other input so as to generate all the logical combination of the inputs (fig. 2 and fig. 3).

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                                                           CMOS Body Driven Quaternary Logic Generator

                                       Fig. 2- Simulation of quaternary logic generator

         The Vg_bias is gate bias potential to control the logical levels spacing in voltage domain. These
spacing can be modulated by varying parametrically this bias potential. In special case to provide equal voltage
spacing (approximately) in the logic levels, the potential is chosen 677 mV. The nMOS body input with logical
high will be controlling the weak high and weak low output (fig. 3 and table-1). The layout of the design is also
shown in fig_4.

                      Fig. 3- Circuit response with Vin_1 for pMOS and Vin_2 nMOS inputs at their body

                                                          Table -1
          nMOS body                           pMOS body                                   OUTPUT
            „0‟ (0.0 V)                             „0‟                            Strong low „0‟(0.0 V)
                „0‟                                 „1‟                            Strong high „1‟(1.8 V)
            „1‟(1.8 V)                              „0‟                           Weak low “0’”(741 mV)
                „1‟                                 „1‟                           Weak high “1’”(1.136 V)

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                                                           CMOS Body Driven Quaternary Logic Generator

                                                 Fig.4- Layout of the module

                                III.        WORKING OF THE MODULE
          The module is producing four different and stable logical levels which is comes into possibility due to
the MOSFET second order effect[2][3] i.e. body effect, which can be explained by equation (1).
                                VT = VTO + {√|VSB +2Ø| - √|2 Ø |}           ……………. (1)
          Where                   =(tOX /Cox) √(2q εsi NA)                   ……. ………(2)
          Since four different combinations of threshold voltages are being configured (due to application of four
different combinations of the two inputs at the substrate of pMOS and nMOS), there will be four different
resistive path on applications of different inputs. Hence four different stable voltages will appear at the output

                              IV.        DECODER WITH ENABLE INPUT
         For introducing an enable input, a pMOS and nMOS are to be inserted between Vdd and source of the
input pMOS and ground and the source of the input nMOS stages respectively. Their gates must be connected
with and extra introduction of CMOS inverter and given to the enable input (fig. 5). When it is required to
disable the module a logical high is given to the enable input else wise a zero. This is an active low enable
structure. We can also design an active high enable structure shown in fig. 6.

         Fig. 5- Module with active-low enable input                   Fig. 6- Module with active-high enable input

                      V.         ISSUES WITH THE DESIGN AND SOLUTIONS
         The major drawback of the system is that the pMOS input stage constitutes a source to drain forward
biased diode which provide a path for current to flow directly from V dd to the logical input source at the body of
pMOS. This current is very high in the order of tens of milliAmps to 500 mA (fig.-7). That is why the design is
not much power efficient. To overcome the drawback the circuit input must be designed with high input
impedance. One of the possible solutions to the problem is to use SOI technology [15] to reduce the body current
in the pMOS.

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                                                          CMOS Body Driven Quaternary Logic Generator

              Fig. 7- Current at the source and substrate terminals of the pMOS and nMOS of input stages

         Since the design is new, the compatibility with the other modules is not good. So we need extra
overhead to design systems where this circuit can be applied. The compatibility issue is just a matter of
advancement of the technology. Introduction of the multi-valued logic to current technology still seeks a path of
advancement in the technical era.
          Introduction of the enable circuitry doubles the chip area required for simple decoder design (without
enable circuitry). We can reduce this extra chip area by using only pMOS at the source of the input stage pMOS
and its gate is connected to the enable input (fig. 8). If that pMOS is off, the power supply will be disconnected
and the circuit will be switched off.

                                       Fig. 8- Enable input with single pMOS stage

                                         VI.        CONCLUSION
         A new multi-value logic generator design is introduced with a less chip area and with two supply rails.
Design can be used as a 2-to-4 decoder circuitry. The design is not much power efficient and less compatible to
the other digital system. As per the future scope is considered, the inefficiencies of the circuit can be reduced
with some extra components and with the development of the design on SOI technology.

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                                                                      CMOS Body Driven Quaternary Logic Generator

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