Assisted Living by xiaopangnv


Living                         report on Institutional Support
                               directed to homeless people in
                               Home@Work Partnership

Jana Kupkova
Silesian Diacony; Assistence

Piotr Olech
Pomeranian Forum
in Aid of Getting Out                    Report prepared in
of Homelessness;                        ESF/EQUAL projects
Agenda of Homelessness

Peter Zuidam
CvD; Home Sweet Home
Assisted Living
report on Institutional Support directed to
homeless people in Home@Work Partnership

Draft of the report

Part 1
Enter words ………………………………….….……………………. 3

Part 2
Diagnosis ……………………………………………….……………... 5

   @   Scale and characteristics of homelessness
       at national and regional level ……………………………………. 5

   @   System diagnosis ………………………………….………………... 12

   @   Description of our organisations ……………………………….. 18

Part 3
Assisted Living ………….………………………………………….. 22

   Part 3.1. Complex system ……………………………………………… 22

   Part 3.2. Assisted Living ……………………………………………….. 27

Part 4
Conclusions ……………………………………………………….… 46
               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Part 1. Enter words
The consortium Home@Work comprising of              and social fields. Another area is “Assisted
Partnerships for Development within the             Working”. The occupational activisation of
EFS/EQUAL projects from Holland, Poland             the homeless as an element of their occu-
and Czech works on elaborating and intro-           pational inclusion is aimed at obtaining and
ducing innovative methods of supporting             preserving employment enabling independ-
the socially excluded, mainly the homeless.         ent living and functioning. An integrated
In the consortium there are the following           and key part of the reintegration and social
Partnerships: “Home Sweet Home” adminis-            integration are activities aimed at work with
tered by the Dutch CvD from Rotterdam,              a view to final coming back to the labour
“Assistance” administered by the Czech              market. Education and psychological help
Silesian Diacony and “Agenda for Home-              must be supported with a practical training
lessness” administered by the Polish St.            of a given job or skill, especially in cases
Brother Albert Aid Society in Gdańsk.               when somebody has been outside the la-
                                                    bour market for a longer time.
With a view to realizing its goals, the con-
sortium has appointed a group of experts            Another area is “Assisted Living”, in other
whose role is to work out a number of               words supported housing based on accom-
analyses packages of both system solutions          panying and assisting a homeless person in
and individual solutions. The group of ex-          an independent flat outside institutions
perts hold a meeting twice a year when              providing shelter to numbers of homeless
they share experience in the field of the           people. What is more, the assistance is
issue they are dealing with and the experi-         offered in the environment, which means
ence and knowledge gained during the                that the chances for independent living and
meetings is then summed up in a special             functioning increase. “Assisted Living” is
report. The first of the problems discussed         a certain kind of a stage leading to full liv-
from the package is reflected in the report         ing independence. At this stage a homeless
you are holding in your hands now and it            person acquires or regains social skills
refers to “Assisted Living”.                        which are necessary for independent func-
Before we present the report, we would
first like to explain a few terms we are go-        “Assisted Living” is a kind of institutional
ing to use in the report. The consortium            support, which is embraced by a wider
Home@Work concentrates on several sig-              process of creating a system supporting the
nificant spheres in which the help should be        homeless in their getting out of homeless-
provided to the homeless. The areas are             ness and gaining living independence.
connected with social and occupational              Hence, the H@W consortium plans a cer-
integration of the homeless; they aim at            tain kind of specialization of institutions
gaining independence by the homeless in             with a view to adjusting the services to the
many dimensions (economic, psychical,               needs and capacity of the homeless. Owing
administrative, social and housing).                to the complex and multiplicity character of
                                                    homelessness, aggravated by many other
One of the spheres is “Assisted Learn-              problems, the assistance delivered to this
ing”. Supported education for the home-             social group must be diversified and inte-
less in the light of their tremendous educa-        grated. Institutional help should be carried
tional shortcomings leads to increasing their       out on various levels. The H@W Partnership
social competences, which in turn leads to          assumes that there will be a hierarchisation
their coping with the modern world in               of institutions providing shelter to the
a better way. Education calls for elaborating       homeless, in brief presenting itself in a
suitable methodology and didactics adjust-          formula: “from living rough through a night
ed to the potential and limitations of the          shelter and shelter to Assisted Living lead-
homeless who have been unemployed for               ing to independence”. The institutional
a longer period. Moreover, education                ‘ladder’ being a path to independent living,
should be realized both in the occupational

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

created by various specialist institutions,         tions in the sphere of institutional assis-
will be presented in this report.                   tance for the homeless. The reality in Po-
The task of the hereby report is to present         land, Holland and Czech is different and it
three separate concepts of providing insti-         should be treated respectively. Apart from
tutional help, presented by the individual          this, the aim of the authors of the report
partners as well as to find common ele-             was to present the methods of activities of
ments of the concepts and the differences           individual institutions and to indicate a con-
between the presented attitudes. The re-            sistent direction of activities providing shel-
port, apart from a direct presentation of the       ter to the homeless. Special attention was
institutional way of coming out of home-            paid to the common elements of the select-
lessness and gaining independence, is to            ed system solutions with a view to provid-
a great extent devoted to presenting the            ing guidelines for possible joint recommen-
issue of homelessness itself and presenting         dations
system solutions functioning in the three           for institutions providing shelter and solu-
European countries. A wide scope of the             tions in the sphere of independent housing.
problem of homelessness makes it possible
to place the “Assisted Living” solution in          The report was created on the basis of the
a wider perspective. The element is indis-          experiences of the Partners collected on an
pensable in deeper understanding of the             H@W meeting in Rotterdam held on 20th
subject of the hereby report.                       and 21st October 2005. The experiences
                                                    and comments were collected and extended
Finally, it should be said that is has not          in national reports prepared by individual
been the intention of the authors of the            partners. The final report was coordinated,
report to create, within the scope of this          collected and prepared by the “Agenda for
publication, a homogenous system of solu-           Homelessness” Partnership.

                 Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Part 2. Diagnosis

@ Scale and characteristics of homelessness
        at national and regional level
To a smaller or bigger extent the problem            It is impossible to estimate the material and
of homelessness refers to all the European           non-material effects of homelessness.
countries. The issue, however, has many
faces and its sources are various and spe-           If we treated the issue of homelessness
cific in case of individual countries. Never-        from a wider perspective and took into
theless, homelessness almost always is               account also the situation of people threat-
a demonstration of the most visible and              ened with homelessness (a situation of
clear social exclusion.1 Homelessness is in          housing deprivation), then undoubtedly
fact, the most outraging examples of exclu-          even statistically the problem rises to
sion from social life, though obviously the          a fundamental and key social issue beside
fact that somebody does not possess a flat           other significant social issues like unem-
does not necessarily mean being excluded.            ployment, disability, alcohol addiction.

It is also obvious that the size of the popu-        The reality shows that homelessness is
lation of the homeless in statistically not          a process, a kind of a continuum within
high when compared to the total number of            which a person often and fluently changes
inhabitants of a given country. However, as          his or her place of living; once staying at
we said before, the problem of not having a          friends’, acquaintances’ or family’s, then
home, i.e. the problem of homelessness, is           sleeping rough or staying at garden sheds,
the extreme and radical exemplification of           then staying at a shelter for the homeless,
social exclusion. When analyzed from a               later renting a room or a flat and or ending
‘quality’ perspective, we must admit that            up living in basements of blocks of flats.
the problem is one of the most significant           Homelessness in its nature a dynamic phe-
and most difficult social problems concern-          nomenon; few are there cases when
ing many countries in the whole world.               a homeless person has in his history only
                                                     one place of permanent staying. Usually,
From an ethical and humanitarian point of            homelessness in the strict sense of the
view, the problem of homelessness is unac-           word overlaps with situations of being
ceptable for modern democratic societies,            threatened with homelessness.
cherishing social justice and sustainable
development. The issue gain additional               Since after having analyzed the phenome-
significance in the context of economic              non of homelessness in an individual and
process of societies stratification. The prob-       structural context, we have drawn a con-
lem of homelessness is correlated with               clusion that in fact the problem of home-
other social issues such as alcoholism, un-          lessness is a fundamental issue for the
employment, poverty, family violence and             European social policy, then one should ask
family breakdown. The problems might be              whether the issue has been well-diagnosed.
either the factors determining homeless-
ness or equally well they might be the re-           And so, the key and fundamental element
sults of it. The aftermath of the problem of         of each relation of helping and supporting,
homelessness, both on an individual level            be it medical or social, is preparing a relia-
and a structural level; in the social, eco-          ble empirical diagnosis. It is hard to imag-
nomic and political spheres, is tremendous.          ine a doctor who is treating a patient with
                                                     medicines without prior examining and
                                                     diagnosing him. Applying inadequate meth-
  Bill Edgar, Henk Mert, Joe Doherty Third Re-       ods of treatment may result in a disaster.
view of Statistics on Homelessness in Europe,
FEANTSA, Brussels 2004.

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Individual help offered to the homeless,              of layers. On the administrative and legal
without a wider diagnosis referring to the            level, it means no legal title to an abode; in
scale and character of homelessness on                a physical sense it means lack of a home;
a given territory, is in a way obvious and            in social terms it means an inability to es-
we are able to understand that it is realized         tablish and maintain proper social relation-
on the basis of an individual diagnosis of            ships e.g. within a family or neighborhood 3,
a client. However, creating structural help           whereas in psychological terms it means
without a context of empirical examination            isolation and exclusion and a whole compi-
and research seems an irrational and neck-            lation of individual problems resulting from
breaking task. Defining the scale and char-           it (alcohol addiction, homelessness syn-
acter of homelessness appears to be an                drome, acquired helplessness, etc). We
indispensable condition of a proper pro-              might go as far as to say that homeless-
gramming and planning help and support                ness, owing to its impact on various
even within the framework of activity of              spheres of human life – physical, psychical,
several organizations and institutions. It            social and administrative – is one of the
should be remembered that well-planned                most difficult problems to solve as it is one
help will bring definite effects. 2                   of the most complex social issues. 4

Still, on the level of many European coun-            Homelessness in European countries has
tries there is no agreement as to what the            got various aspects, which to much extent
problem homelessness is. What is more, in             makes it difficult to define its scale. On the
several European countries (e.g. in Czech)            one hand it concerns young people, on the
there are no system definitions of the phe-           other middle-aged people and the elderly,
nomenon of homelessness. There is also no             still on the other mothers with children. We
binding definition functioning in Europe.             encounter long term homelessness and
                                                      short term homelessness; hidden and obvi-
There are many scientific theories and vari-          ous homelessness.
ous definitions of homelessness – especially
in Europe – resulting in distorting the issue         We encounter homelessness in public plac-
by addressing it in a compartmentalized or            es not meant for living ( the so called rough
partial way. There are definitions referring          sleeping); homelessness in institutions such
to the legal and administrative regulations           as shelters and overnight shelters or sup-
concerning the problem (lack of abode);               ported flats; we also have a kind of hidden
common sense definitions, referring to                homelessness in which case people stay
a physical lack of a house or flat; there are         temporarily and not out of their own will, at
a number of definitions treating homeless-            friends’ or acquaintances’, or stay in sub-
ness from an individualistic and psychologi-          standard accommodation. The problem is
cal point of view. However, each definition,          clearly visualized in an innovative European
to a lesser or bigger extent, misses the              Typology on Homelessness and Housing
point and does not reflect the reality which          Exclusion ETHOS5, constituting an opera-
is extremely complex. Definitions, owing to           tional definition of the issue of homeless-
their abstract nature, have such a feature            ness, presented below.
that they only reflect the defined phenome-
na like in a mirror. We are familiar with
such a situation in physics, where an object          3
                                                        Piotr Olech; Aktywizacja zawodowa osób
examined by us is no longer the same ob-              bezdomnych; Bezrobocie – co robić? (Occupa-
ject due to the very fact that it is being            tional Activisation of the Homeless People; Un-
examined. A certain solution, though only             employment – What to do?) FISE; Warszawa
half measure, is conducting a synthesis.              2006
                                                        Bill Edgar, Henk Mert, Joe Doherty Third Re-
Homelessness manifests itself on a number
                                                      view of Statistics on Homelessness in Europe,
                                                      FEANTSA, Brussels 2004.
2                                                     5
 Maciej Dębski, Piotr Olech; Socjodemograficzny         ETHOS worked out by the European Observa-
Portret Zbiorowości Ludzi Bezdomnych                  tory of Homelessness and Data Collection Work-
Województwa Pomorskiego – raport z badań              ing Group with the FEANTSA. FEANTSA is an
(Sociodemographic Portrayal of the Population         international organisation associating over 90
of the Homeless in the Pomeranian Region – a          non-governmental organisations dealing with the
survey); Pomost; Gdańsk 2005                          issue of homelessness in whole Europe.

                 Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

European Typology on Homelessness and Housing Exclusion: Revision of ETHOS

CONCEPTUAL                 OPERATIONAL                         Generic Definition               National
    CATEGORY                 CATEGORY                                                             Sub-
                   1.     People Living          1.1       Rough Sleeping (no access to
ROOFLESS                  Rough                            24-hour accommodation)/ No
                   2.     People staying in a    2.1       Overnight shelter
                          night shelter

                  3.      People in accom-       3.1       Homeless hostel
                          modation for the       3.2       Temporary Accommodation
HOUSELESS         4.      People in              4.1       Women’s shelter
                          Women’s Shelter                  accommodation
                  5.      People in accom-       5.1       Temporary accommodation /
                          modation for im-                 reception centres (asylum)
                          migrants               5.2.      Migrant workers accommoda-
                  6.      People due to be       6.1.      Penal institutions
                          released from          6.2.      Medical institutions
                  7.      People receiving       7.1       Residential care for homeless
                          support (due to                  people
                          homelessness)          7.2       Supported accommodation
                                                 7.3       Transitional accommodation
                                                           with support
                                                 7.4       Accommodation with support

                   8.     People living in       8.1       Temporarily with family/friends
INSECURE                  insecure accom-        8.2       No legal (sub)tenancy
                          modation               8.3       Illegal occupation of building
                                                 8.4       Illegal occupation of land
                   9.     People living un-      9.1       Legal orders enforced (rented)
                          der threat of evic-    9.2       Re-possession orders (owned)
                   10.    People living un-      10.1.     Police recorded incidents of
                          der threat of vio-               domestic violence
                   11.     People living in      11.1.     Mobile home / caravan
                          temporary / non-       11.2.     Non-standard building
INADEQUATE                standard struc-        11.3.     Temporary structure
                   12.    People living in       12.1.     Unfit for habitation (under na-
                          unfit housing                    tional legislation; occupied)
                   13.    People living in       13.1.     Highest national norm of over-
                          extreme over-                    crowding

  The latest version of the definition. Owing to wide-ranging consultations of the definition ETHOS and
their effects, the decision has been to adjust the definition to the needs of individual European states.
Each state may, on the basis of the main operational categories, adjust the ETHOS to local specificity and
character of the issue of homelessness.

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

After this general introduction we will               lapidated and also overcrowded), in so-
now have a look at what the issue of                  cial flats etc.
homelessness is like in individual
countries, i.e. Czech, Holland and Po-             Causes of homelessness
land.                                              According to research, the most frequent
                                                   cause of homelessness in the Czech repub-
                                                   lic is:
                                                          loss of occupation (23 %),
                                                          divorce (20 %),
                                                          leaving the family (11 %),
                                                          execution of a punishment (5 %),
                                                          mismanagement (3 %),
                                                          withdrawal from hospital treatment
                                                           (2 %),
                                                          other causes (29 %),
Some general facts and figures on
                                                          voluntary decision (7 %) – but we
Czech Republic
                                                           have to take their psychological
                                                           condition and the others into ac-
The homelessness problem is the theme                      count.
that it has not been spoken and known for
a long time in the Czech Republic. The total       Sociological data about homeless
population of the Czech Republic is rated on       population in the Czech republic
10,2 mln inhabitants The total number of
homeless people has not been known in the          Women comprise 10 – 15 % of homeless
Czech Republic. According to estimation,           people in our republic (in USA and EU it is
there were 100 thousand homeless people            whole 25 %).
in 1998 and it has been increasing 10 %
every year. Presenting of the clients (home-       The age structure of czech homeless people
less people) is duplicating many times.            looks as follows:
Considering that succession of the asylum               4 % of homeless people in age of
care has been missing (there is no chance                  0 – 18 years
to obtain the flat), the clients have been              9 % in age of 18 – 25 years
migrating between the institutions offering             19 % in age of 25 – 40 years
the social cares.                                       28 % in age of 40 – 50 years
                                                        25 % in age of 50 – 62 years
Forms of homelessness
                                                        15 % of homeless people older
                                                           than 62 years.
We could divide the homeless population
into the three parts:
                                                   The highest adjusted education of homeless
a) Obvious homeless – people living in the
                                                       34 % skilled,
   streets, stations, seeking accommoda-
                                                       30 % primary education,
   tion in winter reception centres, asylum
                                                       7 % secondary education with leav-
   houses etc.
                                                           ing examination,
b) Hidden homeless – people without a
                                                       6 % secondary education without
   shelter that do not turn to public or
                                                           leaving examination,
   charitable services to find an accom-
                                                       1 % higher than secondary educa-
c) Potential homeless – people whose
                                                       1 % unfinished primary education,
   needs have been unknown or partly
                                                       21 % undetected.
   known to authority. People that have
   been living in the uncertain conditions
                                                   Where the homeless people sleeping out:
   of rentable flats (sometimes unwhole-
                                                       21 % in lodging house, reception
   some), in houses appointed to demoli-
                                                          centre or asylum house,
   tion, in makeshift accommodation (di-

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       15 % at the station,                         about 500.000 persons, mostly youngsters.
       13 % at the acquaintances,                   The alcohol addiction is estimated on 10 %
       2 % at the lodgings,                         of the total national population, definition is
       1 % in a squat,                              8 consumptions on daily scale.
       48 % another, changeable accom-
        modation.                                    It is known that the peer groups of home-
                                                     less persons are poly drugs users, com-
Further information:                                 bined with alcohol consumption.
     25 % of czech homeless are per-                The loss of sustainable housing is frequent-
        sons in disability retirement,               ly found in the combinations addictive dis-
     25 % of homeless have an experi-               orders, mental disorders, social economic
        ence with children’s home,                   problems, divorces or loss of significant
     15 % of homeless have an experi-               spouse by death.
        ence with mental home.                       It is also a fact that the de-
                                                     institutionalization of the mental health
                                                     longstay facilities in the mid eighties of the
                                                     20th century caused an increase of the in-
                                                     flux of mentally ill, mostly psychiatric or
                                                     mental retarded, towards the social shel-
                                                     ters. For them the last resort.

                                                     Some general facts and figures on
                                                     Rotterdam has a population of 596.597
Some general facts and figures on                    inhabitants, is the second larges city in the
Netherlands                                          Netherlands. Like any big city in Western
                                                     Europe, Rotterdam is struggling with typical
                                                     urban problems. In a socio-economic per-
In 2005 the total population of the Nether-          spective, Rotterdam lags behind Amster-
lands is rated on 16.258.000 inhabitants,            dam, Den Haag and Utrecht, the other ma-
(source CBS, central bureau of statistics).          jor Dutch cities. This applies for example,
The estimated figures for homeless persons
                                                     the low average levels of education, em-
are rated on a variable of 25.000 till 35.000        ployment and household income.
persons. The explanation for these estimat-          One of the central problems of the city is
ed figures is found in the inability of the          the selective nature of migration. In broad
National Monitor on Homelessness to con-             terms many underprivileged and deprived
nect the figures on homelessness on the
                                                     people move to the city and stay in the city,
personal identity of the clients. The shelter        the higher incomes tend to leave the city.
providers report their client related activi-
                                                     Rotterdam has to deal with relatively high
ties to the local government on a percent-           levels of social deprivation, social segrega-
age level. There is no overview on the pre-          tion, crime and vandalism.
sumed mobility of the client group.                       45,7% of this population is mi-
A research of the Government Audit Office
                                                          (Pre-) school age is 18,5 % of the
in 2004 provided the estimated figure of
3200 till 4700 homeless youngsters. The
                                                          The elderly people (> 65 years)
age definition for youngster is aged until 25
                                                              represent 14,6%.
years old. The addiction caretakers provide
                                                          Individuals depending on social
the figures for drug addicts. In 2005 these
                                                              benefit, 14,4%,
figures are 26.000 persons are known to be
                                                          Employed labour 59 %, with a low
drug addict. In the Netherlands drug addic-
                                                              income 55%.
tion is defined as daily and persistent use of
                                                          Unemployed is 14,2% of the popu-
the hard drugs heroine and cocaine. Can-
nabis is defined as a soft drug and has
                                                          13.500 school kids dropout of the
a libertine reception in the legal system.
                                                              school system on an annual base
Estimated rate of cannabis consumers is

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

    (source COS 2004, center for research              % of the homeless stay in institutions for
    and statistics Rotterdam).                         the homeless (overnight shelters and shel-
                                                       ters). The remaining part of the homeless
Total population of the region Rijnmond is             are rough sleepers, or having no permanent
1.200.000 inhabitants with 22 municipali-              abode stay at their family’s or friends’, live
ties. Rotterdam is a center municipality for           in garden sheds or huts on company plots
the region Rijnmond.                                   of land (POD).7

The Social Scientific Department of the                Some general facts and figures on the
municipal government of Rotterdam inves-               Pomeranian Region and Gdańsk
tigated the presence and needs of home-
less population in 2002(SWA, J. Maaskant)              The Pomeranian Region is one of the
The results: about 4500 homeless persons,              16 regions in Poland. It is inhabited by over
of which 1500 rough sleepers.                          2 million people. Gdańsk is the main city in
In 2004 the research of Intraval showed                the region as well as one of the largest
the figure of 5000 drug addicts of which               cities in Poland. The population of Gdańsk
3000 problematic drug addicts. This last               is ca 500 thousand; together with Gdynia
population is an intermittent user of the              and Sopot it constitutes an urban area
shelter system.                                        called Tricity (population ca 800 thousand
                                                       in total).

                                                       On the basis of a survey conducted by the
                                                       Pomeranian Forum in Aid of Getting out of
                                                       Homelessness from 9th December 20058 we
                                                       may state that there are no fewer than
                                                       2 853 homeless people in the Pomeranian
                                                       Region. In Gdańsk alone, there are 807
POLAND                                                 homeless people, whereas in the whole
                                                       Tricity - 1 275. The figures refer to both
Some general facts and figures on
Poland                                                 7
                                                         (description – Julia Wygnańska, Statistical data
                                                       on homelessness in Poland. Report for the Euro-
Poland is one of the biggest European
                                                       pean Observatory of Homelessness FEANTSA.)
countries, inhabited by over 38 million peo-           POD – a formation dating back to the end of the
ple. Due to a lack of reliable research – it is        19th century, reinforced in the communist times
estimated that the population of the home-             and which has survived, in better or worse con-
less ranges between 30 and 30 thousand                 dition, up to day. The existence of the PODs is
people (data from the Ministry of Labour               regulated by a law and according to the defini-
and Social Policy). The estimates take into            tion included in the act from 6May 1981 on
account both the homeless staying in non-              company plots, a POD is “a plot of arable land
standard accommodation and in shelters.                divided into individual plots meant for cultivation
                                                       by entitled physical persons; the plot has got
However, due to the discrepancies between
                                                       equipment allowing for such cultivation and is
the definitions of homelessness, the figure            a place suitable for relaxation.” In compliance
might not be precise. In the short history of          with the ideology of the socialist Poland, the aim
Polish social welfare, there have also been            of the plots was providing people of labour and
estimates that there are as many as 500                their families with a possibility to actively relax
thousand homeless people.                              and to cultivate the land for their own needs.
On the basis of the available data it may be           The plots are situated in various parts of towns
stated that a statistical homeless person is           and cities, often in close vicinity of the centres,
usually a grown-up lonely man at an age of             or on the outskirts. They are divided into smaller
                                                       plats with usually a small hut or a garden shed.
41-50, unemployed, of vocational educa-
                                                       There water supply to cater for the needs of the
tion, provided with support by social wel-             plot owners and of the plants.
fare. When we take into account the area
of the biggest occurrence of homelessness              8
                                                         Survey titled “Sociodemographic Portrayal of
it may be said that the problem refers                 the Population of the Homeless in the Pomerani-
mainly to large urban communities. Over 50             an Region” realised within the project “Agenda
                                                       for Homelessness” within the ESF/EQUAL

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

rough sleepers and people staying within               unemployed or looking for a job (36%).
the accommodation provided by institutions             The majority of the homeless, even if they
for the homeless (institutional and outside-           earn their living, do not have an employ-
institutional homelessness, 2 first ETHOS              ment contract (70%) and they declare
categories).                                           social benefits obtained from various
                                                       institutions or seasonal jobs to be
Generally speaking, a typical homeless                 their source of income. Most homeless
person is a man of vocational educa-                   people are uneducated – they completed
tion, aged 51-60, unemployed, disa-                    only primary education (almost 40%), or
bled, alcohol-addicted, seeking sup-                   vocational education (over 40%).
port within the social welfare.
                                                       There are 24.4% of the homeless at the
The survey showed clearly that the problem             initial stage of homelessness (0-2 years); at
of homelessness concerns mainly larger                 the warning stage (2-4 years) – 18.7%,
urban communities. The homeless living                 adaptative stage (4-6 years) – 19.3%,
in Gdańsk, Sopot and Gdynia account                    chronic stage (6-10 years) – 21.9% and at
for almost half of all the surveyed                    the stage of permanent homelessness (over
people (45.6%). If we added the remain-                10 years) – 15.6%. An average period of
ing percent in the remaining towns of the              staying homeless is over 6 years. The
region (e.g. Słupsk 11.7%) it would occur              homeless are in majority of case single
that more homeless people live in a big city           people 82.2%).
than outside it.
The survey also showed that the ratio be-              The homeless often have serious health
tween institutional homelessness (staying              problems; over 40% of them have got
within the support of institutions for the             a medical statement of proven disability/an
homeless) and outside-institutional home-              invalid certificate.
lessness (sleeping rough), was as 60% to
40%.                                                   It may be stated that the problem of home-
                                                       lessness is in most cases accompanied by
In institutions for the homeless there is              unemployment, disability and alcohol addic-
staying over 50% of the whole population               tion. Alcohol was chosen as the most signif-
of the homeless; in unfit places (e.g. public          icant cause of homelessness (over 40%). A
places like railway stations, heat distribution        breakdown of a partners’ relationship is
centres, parks, shafts, etc) - over 20%, in            second important cause of homelessness
garden sheds and POD huts - over 15%;                  (almost 40%). As for the structural causes
with the remaining part of the population              of homelessness, mentioned by the home-
staying in hospitals or penitentiary institu-          less themselves, was eviction and driving
tions. Last year the majority of the home-             them out of homes.
less (staying in institutions for the home-
less spent over 75% of the time there,                 The population of the homeless is an aging
whereas outside institutions the population            population. In 2001 the predominant age of
of the homeless stayed over 40% of the                 the homeless was ranging between 41 and
time in unfit for living places, and plots of          50 for the whole region (including Tricity
land (over 50%).                                       and counties outside Tricity); in 2003 it was
                                                       still 41 to 50, whereas in Tricity alone it was
Taking social and occupational engagement              51 to 60. The survey for the year 2005
of the people we may speak of a lack of                shows that the predominant age for the
activity in this respect rather than of its            whole region is 51 to 60. A comparative
existence. It seems that the vast majori-              analysis clearly shows that the tendency is
ty of the homeless do not work (almost                 such that the population of the homeless is
90%), though they do have some qualifica-              getting older.
tions (over 60%) enabling them to work.
There is also a high percentage of people
who are not registered in labour offices as

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

@         Systems diagnosis

                                                       System diagnosis – national level
There is still missing the basic thing like
legal definition of “citizen without a shelter”        The social and ethical obligation to provide
in the Czech republic. No sector of Ministry           shelter and care for the homeless is pre-
of Labour and Social Affairs (or other rele-           scribed in the Welfare Law. The main func-
vant authority) is interested in the citizens          tion of the social shelter system is defined
without a shelter. This problem should de-             as the obligation for every municipality to
serve its own separate agenda with regard              provide a temporally safety net for the citi-
to its range. The number of citizens without           zens. This safety net is combined with an
a shelter is alarming and still increasing in          active support in problem solving and ad-
the Czech Republic. We can suspect that                justment. In case necessary to refer the
planning deregulation of rent will rise up             client towards the health care systems.
their number quickly. One part of Czech                The shelter system has a division for bat-
Constitution is also Declaration of basic              tered women and their children and for
rights and freedoms. There are also very               general shelter needs mostly used for single
interesting and often breaking laws. There             males.This paper is concerning the general
is: “Everyone who lives in material lack has           shelter system.
a right to help that it is necessary to ensure
the necessities of life (contribution 30, arti-        The national government selected 43 cen-
cle 2)”. It appears from this that the home-           ter municipalities with a specific obligation
less people do not ask – homeless people               in providing a regional care and shelter
have a right.                                          system. These center municipalities receive
                                                       a special purpose financial support by the
We can observe now that the big groups of              ministry of Social Affairs and Employment.
citizens are disoriented by changes and                The Netherlands has a National Action Plan
unclearness in legislation and official proce-         (NAP) that describes the policies on preven-
dures and increasing number of opposing                tion and adaptation of homelessness on
information sometimes. It is necessary to              national and regional level.
provide the complex services to citizens and
also for homeless people - the first step for          System diagnosis – local level
it will be the legal determination of home-
less people in Czech law system.                       The night shelter capacity for rough sleep-
                                                       ers in Rotterdam is 323 beds. This means
                                                       a daily competition and shortage in de-
                                                       mand. A significant part of the rough sleep-
                                                       ers create a "personal form" of shelter in
                                                       public space.
                                                       In Rotterdam there are four institutions
                                                       active on the care and shelter of homeless-
                                                       The two main institutions are the Salvation
                                                       Army and CVD. Also two confessional Cal-
                                                       vinist institutions are active on a smaller

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

scale, de Ontmoeting (day shelter) and                    AWBZ law CVD is providing the all the
Paulus Church night and day shelter with                  functions except medical treatment,
service center.                                           this is reserved for the medical profes-
Admittance to the services of the shelters is             sionals.
granted by the municipal service of Social
Affairs. Clients report themselves at the             Characteristics of the target group home-
night shelter; there is an intake procedure,          less persons shows that it is a mixture of
collecting personal data and care needs.              psychosocial loss in personal and social
The shelter reports this client information to        competences, addictive problems, psychiat-
the municipal service of Social Affairs. After        ric disorders, social economic problems,
sleeping for at least 17 nights a special             caused by poverty, debts and financial pen-
social benefit for the homeless is granted to         alties ordered by the justice system.
the client. Some clients compensate this              It is evidence based that a unilateral ap-
lack of financial support by cash paying at           proach by providing shelter is insufficient
the entrance of the shelter. The general              for the existential problems of homeless
entrance fee is €3,50. Persons with no resi-          persons.
dence permits are depending on an infor-              Shelter with a focus on passive lodging
mal form of economy. They are also ex-                disables the client. It is enhances the nega-
cluded form the social benefit system. And            tive self-esteem and is a force in demorali-
for the follow-up assistance; in fact they're         zation.
trapped on shelter level.
                                                      Policy issues
The shelter services are funded by two
main financial streams.                               As stated before in this paper on national
1. The basic funding for the institutions is          and local level there are huge transitions in
   provided by the municipal service of               the Dutch society. Not only in the caretak-
   Social Affairs, concerning costs for or-           ing and insurance paragraph but merely in
   ganization, (rent of building, mainte-             the general vision how the society must
   nance and food supplies) and wages of              cope with the modern western European
   the professional employees. The pro-               issues.
   fessionals are mainly educated on                  For example;
   a secondary level in social pedagogic                    The immigration issue, transferring
   skills or as social case worker, a tertiary                 the larger cities in multicultural
   level of professional education.                            environments.
2. On a client bound level, with the re-                    The level of participation of citi-
   strictions that the client has a health in-                 zens in the labour process.
   surance, there's additional money for                    Reforming the labour market and
   special services and support. These ad-                     make it accessible for lower skilled
   ditional funds is provided by the Gen-                      applicants.
   eral Law on Special Costs of illness                     Reduction of the large volume of
   (AWBZ) Every Dutch citizen or inhabit-                      inactive citizens and their depend-
   ant pays for this law by the general tax                    ency on welfare and social bene-
   system. There is no difference in wage                      fits.
   or social benefit. Every citizen pays                    The attitude of the citizens toward
   a remittance. An independent institu-                       its civil authority and government
   tion screens the client who applies to                      often marked as passive and con-
   this law. After establishment of the le-                    sumptive has to be bending back
   gal claim, the Health Insurance Com-                        to an innovative and pro-active cit-
   pany provides the money to the care                         izen that takes its own responsibili-
   provider. The care provider is obliged                      ties, a withdrawal of the State.
   to account for the delivered service to                  The (re) construction of a civil so-
   the Health Insurance Company. The                           ciety,
   client must affirm on a quarterly base                   Last but not last, due to the global
   the delivered service in the care-taking                    developments, the issue of public
   contract. The client has "ownership" on                     safety.
   the provided AWBZ money. Within the

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Restricting towards the Rotterdam situa-
tion, the main policy effects were the rein-
tegration and activation of the homeless,
but most off all the prevention in order to
decrease the volume of homeless persons.
This has been realized by interventions in
the funding and justification systems the             POLAND
care proving institutions like CVD.
                                                      “Right to housing is guarantied by The Con-
The reform of the Social Welfare Act                  stitution of Poland:
(WWB) and Law on Labour Disability (WIA)
will also stimulate the improved CVD rein-            “Public authorities shall pursue policies to
tegration activities. CVD has adapted to this         satisfy the housing needs of the citizens, in
interventions as showed in this paper.                particular combating homelessness, pro-
                                                      moting the development of low-income
In relation too the existing issue of the             housing and supporting initiatives aimed at
homeless, programs are developed by the               acquisition of a home by each citizen.”
City Department of Social Affairs to prevent
and avoid evictions caused by debt prob-              Implementation of the right to housing is
lems. Covenants with social housing pro-              still far behind The Constitution. Since over
viders, the energy sector and bailiffs, initi-        fifteen years major service provider for the
ated by the city government is an attempt             homeless has been non-governmental or-
of early intervention to prevent housing              ganizations (about 80%-90% of services).
eviction and reduces homelessness.                    Naturally, they started to grow in niches
                                                      were social problems were concentrated
On the other hand it has to be stated that            and addressed neither by commercial insti-
in the political scenery the measurements             tutions nor public authorities. Most found-
the city government has been taking merely            ing came from private donors and European
focused on the public nuisance the rough              sources (PHARE, ACCESS) but organizations
sleeping homeless persons cause. How                  claimed public financing as in fact what
ever, the legislation that the city govern-           they were doing was one of the statutory
ment developed and established via the                responsibilities of the state. Public admin-
official democratic trajectory has an effect          istration was not eager to accept it based
on each citizen in this community. Indeed             on argumentation that non profits are hard
the effect on the most public nuisances               to control their services keep no standards
caused by homeless citizens is positive;              and are too expensive, besides they are
reduction of nuisance by them is open to              established for private not public purposes.
objectification. But the instrument actually
is adapted for new groups causing public              It was finally regulated by 2003 Public Ben-
nuisance, youngster dropping out of school,           efit Organizations and Volunteering Act
ethnical youngster with a high grade of               which introduced definitions of a non-
criminality, and other multiple criminal of-          governmental organization and public bene-
fenders. The message is here that the                 fit activity. By the Act all organizations im-
group of vulnerable rough sleepers were an            plementing public benefit tasks are partners
instrument of governmental experience.                to public administration and should receive
                                                      either full financing or co-financing for their
The effect is also that this governmental             implementation. One of public benefit tasks
instrument called a chain approach be-                is ‘social welfare, including aid offered to
tween police, justice department, city gov-           families and individuals with social prob-
ernment and care providing institutions, is           lems, and work to offer equal opportunities
successful on other social issues like the            to such families and individuals’. Since then
fight against domestic violence. Pro-active           services for the homeless as well as other
approaches can prevent homelessness of                activities of NGOs have either been fi-
women and children. And also prevent the              nanced on contract (pl. zadania zlecone) or
influx of homeless man.                               project (pl. zadania powierzone) basis.

                 Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Financing on project basis is probably most               theory, priorities set in both kinds of pro-
common in service provision for the home-                 grams should be a base for projecting local
less. Usually on annual basis, although                   government’s budgets and spending direc-
three or five year long financing agree-                  tives. So far, programs for each year are
ments are used in some towns, local gov-                  created much later than budgets and are
ernment publishes calls for proposals for                 considered to be of little importance. In
non-profit organizations for implementation               2004 little less than 60% of gminas have
of number of priorities. Service providers                passed NGO–administration Cooperation
can apply and get a grant of 70 to 80 % of                Programs.
total project costs. Grants are awarded
according to criteria set beforehand but it is            Statutory obligations of public author-
not uncommon that least expensive pro-                    ities
jects win.
                                                          Former Social Welfare Act of 1990 was
Financing on contract basis requires ad-                  replaced by a new one in 2004 introducing
ministration to cover full service costs ac-              additional instruments to support the
cording to service description (most often                homeless. Public authority which is still
by performance measures), access to the                   responsible for supporting the homeless is
service (by/without referral) and kinds of                local government and it is gmina’s, own
clients. Full financing is questionable as                responsibility’ which means it has to be
rates are usually set by local government                 covered from gmina’s own budget (as op-
itself and are much lower that cost of the                posed to “passed responsibilities” that have
service as claimed by service providers. In               to be implemented by gmina but are fi-
fact, local government contracts out ser-                 nanced from national budget). Homeless-
vices and provides full financing only by                 ness remains one of ‘difficult life situations’
definition and service providers have to use              that oblige the State to provide welfare.
additional sources to be able to provide the              Some changes were made in legal defini-
service of certain quality. It is a trade of              tion of the homeless person.
between independence and stable financ-
ing.                                                      By 2004 Social Welfare Act a homeless
                                                          person is defined by three separate criteria.
It has to be mentioned that since providing               To be homeless a person needs to meet
shelter to the homelessness is a responsibil-             one of them although it is not clearly stated
ity of local government financing strategies              in the Act. According to first one a ‘home-
vary a lot across the country. Two strate-                less person is a person not living in
gies described above provide basic draft                  housing premises as defined by regu-
which is probably implemented in full varie-              lation on protecting rights of tenants
ty of options. Issue under debate is of                   and hosing stock of local government
equal access to public financing for non-                 (gmina)’. Regulation on protecting rights
governmental and public administration                    of tenants and housing stock of local gov-
bodies implementing same kind of service                  ernment defines a premise as a place serv-
and the role of local budget’s structure in               ing satisfying housing needs of people and
this process.                                             a place used by artists to do their artistic
                                                          and cultural work. Temporary stay facilities
Since 2004, each gmina is obliged to pre-                 like dormitories, hostels, tourist accommo-
pare     Local     Government       and      Non-         dation and other places serving tourist and
Governmental Organizations Cooperation                    rest purposes are excluded.
Program (based on 2003 Public Benefit
Organizations and Volunteering Act) and                   According to second criteria a ‘homeless
Local Strategy for Addressing Social Prob-                person is a person nowhere registered
lems (based on 2004 Social Welfare Act).                  for permanent stay as defined by
Both documents have to be based on needs                  regulation on people’s registry and
assessment and prepared in cooperation                    personal identification cards’. Regula-
with non-profit sector. It is an opportunity              tion on people’s registry and personal iden-
for non-profits to shape local policy so that             tification cards requires each citizen to be
it includes priorities vital for their clients. In        registered in certain gmina for permanent

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

or temporary stay. Adequate address note              are provided from gminas founding. For
has to be included in personal identification         example, hardly any transitional housing
card that each person is supposed to have.            and supported accommodation is covered
It is possible to be deregistered and no-             from local governments resources.
where registered again. To become regis-
tered a person needs to provide a legal title         New tool was introduced in 2004 Act and it
for an apartment under the address he or              is Individual Plan for Exiting Home-
she wants to be registered or can be regis-           lessness, which can be designed an im-
tered by people holding the legal title for           plemented by social worker in cooperation
that apartment. The purpose is to prescribe           with homeless person. Plan can be de-
each person to teritotry and administration           signed either by social worker employed by
of specific gmina. As providing for the               public welfare centre or by non-profit or-
homeless and satisfying housing needs of              ganization.
citizens is a responsibility of local govern-
ments (gminas) this regulation is vital for           Last but not least of local government’s
awarding support to the homeless. Gminas              obligation it to bury a homeless person.
developed interesting strategies to deal
with homeless clients who dwell on their              In terms of access to medical treatment
territory and are registered somewhere                very important regulation was added to
else. Holding registration is definitely vital        2004 Public Health Services Act. Beginning
for being recognized by administration. A             with 2005 homeless people implementing
person can apply for social housing only in           Individual Plan for Exiting Homelessness
gmina of permanent stay or in gmina of last           are entitled to use medical services fi-
permanent stay.                                       nanced from national budget within the
                                                      national health insurance system. Social
The third criterion was added in 2004 Act.            Welfare Center is obliged to pay health
It states that a ‘homeless person is one              insurance fees for clients under Individual
not living in a habitable premise regis-              Plan for Exiting Homelessness. Previously,
tered for permanent stay in a dwelling                access to medical care for the homeless
in which she or he cannot live’. This                 was regulated by 2004 Social Welfare Act
option was added to include people who did            by gmina’s obligation ‘to award and pay
not meet other criteria and still were obvi-          benefits to cover cost of health services for
ously homeless for example victims of do-             the homeless (…) being not able to cover
mestic violence.                                      that cost based on health insurance regula-
                                                      tions of National Health Fund’. Till 2005
General rule of social welfare in Poland has          health institutions were resilient to provide
always been to support a person in her own            treatment to the homeless as it was not
community and place of living. Social Wel-            granted that welfare centers would cover
fare Act states it clearly that gmina is              the costs. Theoretically, a homeless person
obliged to support each homeless person ‘in           in need of urgent medical treatment would
need’.                                                have to go through procedures required to
                                                      receive welfare services (long record needs
Major kind of service for the homeless as             to be filled in and social worker is required
defined by 2004 Social Welfare Act is right           to visit a person at home and evaluate her
of each person in need to receive ‘shel-              income), before being treated.
ter/refuge, meal and indispensable
clothing’. This is gmina’s obligation and is          In January 2005 eviction regulations were
fulfilled ‘by placing people in need in tem-          changed in order to eliminate ‘street evic-
porary accommodation like night shelter,              tion’. Prior to 2005, eviction orders could
shelter, homeless house and other places              have been executed without the obligation
dedicated to serve this purpose’. Terms like          to provide social housing. The most vulner-
temporary, night shelter, shelter homeless            able tenants were exempt from that regula-
house are not defined. As a consequence               tion and it was not possible to evict preg-
local governments struggling with financial           nant women, the disabled, families raising a
deficits tend to interpret it as narrow as            disabled child and the unemployed etc.
possible and only the most simple services            Eviction to the street was always strongly

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

opposed by numerous interested parties,
including homeless service providers. As a
result of this opposition the regulation was
abandoned in January 2005 a person may
only be evicted provided a social housing
apartment or “substitute apartment” is
available. The regulations are strict on not
allowing eviction to a homeless or night
shelter. The goal of introducing substitute
apartments was to decrease long waiting
lists of people to whom eviction was or-
dered and could not have been executed
due to lack of social housing apartments.
The standards of substitute apartments are
even lower those of social housing (e.g. an
outside toilet, 5m2 of usable area per per-
son, possibility to warm the space up). The
question is whether there will be enough
substitute apartments in gmina’s housing
stock to make the goal achieved. Activists
still argue that eviction to a substitute
apartment is in fact eviction to the street
due to the fact that, sooner or later, its
victims move into shelters.”9

Policy issues

   Lack of standardisation and specialisa-
    tion of institutions for the homeless in
   Stereotypes connected with the issue of
    homelessness (occurring among the
    authorities and local communities)
   Economic and financial problems of
    many Polish NGOs

 Julia Wygnański; Policy Paper for the European
Observatory of Homelessness FEANTSA, 2005.

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

@ Description of our institutions

                                                               RPIC-ViP s.r.o.
                                                               Slezská univerzita v Opavě
                                                               Statutární město Karviná
                                                               Úřad práce Karviná

Silesian Diacony

Silesian Diacony is a non-government non-
profit organization providing its services in
the social and medical area in the process it           CvD - NETHERLANDS
puts into practice the Biblical principles of
love and service to people in need and                  CVD description and characterization.
distress. In the centre of attention of Sile-           Rehabilitation by forms of activation and
sian Diacony are people with disability,                reintegration is the main ideological motiva-
elderly people, the homeless and all those              tion and inspiration for CVD in Home Sweet
who are facing any difficulties. Among the              Home. It‘s also a fact that the development
thirty centres there are daily centres for              of the re-activation en reintegration in the
children and youth with disability, shel-               labour process in an innovative activities for
ters and hostels for men and women in                   CVD as a shelter provider.
distress, homes for senior citizens, counsel-           CVD is making a progressive transition as
ling centres, field services for senior citizens        an organization by focusing on the key
and other social and medical services. Cen-             products, welfare, housing and labour par-
tres, in which more than 300 employees                  ticipation.
take care of the clients, are located
throughout the Moravian–Silesian region,                CVD is a non confessional and multifunc-
and in its organization they are divided into           tional welfare institution located in Rotter-
four regions and one specialized section.               dam.
                                                        CVD’s main objectives are welfare, housing
The activities, we realize in field of work             and working.
with the people without the shelter, are
financed from several sources:                          Mission statement: “we help people in
     subsidies of Ministry of Labour                   a way we would like to be helped our-
        a Social Affairs,                               selves”.
     ESF
     benefits of towns,                                Ideological CVD opinions
     client’s payments for services.                      1. CVD aims at enhancing the capaci-
                                                               ties of the clients so they can en-
ESF/EQUAL Project "Assistance"                                 sure a manageable position em-
                                                               bedded in a social network. This
Partner’s are:                                                 can be called as the CVD paradigm
                                                               or meta frame of reference.
       Silesian Diacony                                   2. This also means CVD is focusing on
       AKLUB Centrum poradenství                              the client as a responsible citizen.
        a vzdělávání                                           A vulnerable citizen, but still a citi-
       ANATAS s.r.o.                                          zen embedded in the open society
       Hospodářská komora okresu                              with all the rights and duties Dutch
        Karviná                                                society offers every civil person.
                                                               Dialectic to inclusion is the fact of
       Moravskoslezský kraj
                                                               exclusion, as stated before our ser-

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

        vices are bound and not fully ac-             The changing agenda on homeless-
        cessible for persons with no resi-            ness.
        dence permit.                                 In the coming year 2006 the transition of
   3.   CVD also adapt the medical para-              national responsibilities towards the local
        digm to its own paradigm, we deal             government will chance the welfare and
        with clients and not with patients,           homelessness agendas. Anticipating on this
        and we adjust the abilities of the            transformation the city government of Rot-
        client and do not focus on the disa-          terdam took the following initiatives:
        bilities or malfunction of the client.             Central screening, registration and
   4.   CVD accepts actual level and life                     clearance of the admittance to the
        style of existence of some of the                     shelters,
        clients as being the maximum level                 Conditions for inclusion and exclu-
        of existence.                                         sion terms of the clients,
   5.   CVD want to treat homeless per-                    Conditions for the shelter providers,
        sons with respect and let them ex-                    how to give account of the provid-
        perience their dignity.                               ed client related services, on
   6.   CVD promotes and demands this                         a personal identified level, with
        standard quality of its staff; “a pro-                time table and level of adjustment
        fessional, respectful and caring atti-                on housing skills, based on a re-
        tude towards our visitors and client,                 sults agreement.
        expressing a highly service stand-                 Active support of the client on so-
        ard”.                                                 cial reintegration, e.g. job training,
   7.   CVD does not accept anti-social be-                   skills for the labour market.
        haviour as a coping strategy, cause                Reduction of public nuisance, partly
        of the highly egocentric attitude                     caused by homeless people.
        that’s enclosed in such an attitude.
                                                      The effect for all the shelter providers, in-
CVD aims at enhancing the capacities of the           cluding CVD, is an active and professional
clients so they can ensure a manageable               personal bound approach of the client on
position embedded in a social network.                the subjects of health, housing, economic
CVD contains 4 Business Units.                        situation and labour participation.
1. Shelter: 100 beds for night shelter, 10            In this perspective the cooperation with ESF
nursing beds for homeless, a boarding                 Home Sweet Home is a logical step ahead.
house with 18 rooms, 150 chairs day cen-              In the following description of the CVD
ter.                                                  assisted living facilities the transformation
2. Social Boarding: 100 beds, 15 trainee              due to the changing agenda on homeless-
houses,                                               ness in Rotterdam are adapted in the de-
3. Flexible Housing, 14 beds trainee cen-             scription.
ter, 80 supported living houses, 30 beds
stabilization houses.                                 ESF/EQUAL Project "Home Sweet Home"
4. Social casework: specialized in social
casework, Crisis center 12 beds, out-                 Partner’s are:
reaching and acute social casework.                       Centrum voor Dienstverlening CVD
                                                          Gemeente       Rotterdam,  Sociale
Totally there are 20 working units.                          Zaken&Werkgelegenheid
CVD has 526 persons active on contract                    Provincie Zuid-Holland
base, what is the equivalent of 460 Full                  Roteb
time jobs on a 36-hour working week scale.                S.M.E.S. BV Sloop-en Grondwerken
                                                          Service Dienst Werk (SDW)
                                                          Stichting Start Foundation

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

St. Brother Albert's Aid Society                     that time it was the first shelter for the
POLAND                                               homeless in Tricity.

St. Brother Albert's Aid Society in Gdańsk           Mission
is a part of a nation-wide organization
which has 61 circles in all Poland.                  We work in spirit of our Patron, St. Brother
St. Brother Albert's Aid Society is
a non-governmental catholic charity organ-           "... give food to the hungry, a place to
isation. The Society aims at providing help          the homeless and clothes to the na-
to the homeless and the poor in Poland -             ked. If you cannot give much, give
according to the spirit of its Patron, St.           a little ...”
Brother Albert. We make efforts to help
homeless people recover from homeless-                      We help not making people addict-
ness through social work, care of souls and                  ed to the help
legal help.                                                 We treat the clients, who are
                                                             homeless people (long-time home-
We are an organization working on the                        lessness), people threatened with
basis of an act on associations. We estab-                   homelessness and unemployed
lish and run shelters, charity points; we                    people in a subjective way
provide help in matters concerning formali-                 possibly biggest involvement of
ties (e.g. obtaining documents, medical                      a client into co-creation of all the
examination, seeking employment, con-                        documents, programmes, goals
tacts with a family, with a therapeutic                      which refer to himself/herself
group). We co-operate with state admin-                     creating and realising with the cli-
istration, local authorities and non-                        ent only those programmes which
governmental organizations. The society is                   have been accepted by him/her (al-
a non-profit organization, i.e. all the fi-                  so in written form)
nances go towards the cause of our statu-                   teaching the client to become
tory activity.                                               a subject and not an object of
                                                             his/her own activities
The Society was founded in 1981 and has                     taking into account the needs and
been in operation ever since. At the mo-                     desires of a client; providing help in
ment we are running 62 homes in whole                        pursuing them
Poland.                                                     motivating a client to regain living
                                                             independence and to fight with
The Gdańsk Circle of St. Brother Albert's                    own addictions
Aid Society was founded in May 1989 on                      raising the self-esteem of a client,
the initiative of the citizens of Tricity. We                helping him/her to regain trust in
obtained an allocation of premises – previ-                  himself/herself, teaching a client
ously a school building in Gdańsk                            how to take responsibility for own
Przegalina, from the Municipal Authorities                   life into own hands, increasing the
in Gdańsk, where we set up a shelter (un-                    consciousness of being able to de-
fortunately the building was in a very bad                   cide about own life and changing
technical condition). The building under-                    the time perspective from the past
went an overhaul financed from the money                     or present into the future
donated by one of the members of the                        preventing a client from becoming
Society. In August 1991 the first inhabit-                   addicted to receiving help and sup-
ants of the shelter moved in. In summer                      port
1992 the building was completed and at

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

       co-operating with other social                Running a secretariat of the Pom-
        workers with a view to creating                eranian Forum in Aid of Getting out
        possibly the most holistic image of            of Homelessness
        a given client                                 We are one of the initiators of establish-
       treating a client with due respect             ing it as well as a leading organisation in
       obeying professional secret, follow-           the Pomeranian Forum in Aid of Getting
        ing professional ethics                        out of Homelessness (an initiative of
       constant enhancing of professional-            meetings since 1997), associating over
        ism of own activities                          20 entities from the public sector (Social
       sharing both the successes and                 Welfare Centres) as well as non-
        critical moments in own work.                  governmental organizations helping the
                                                       homeless in the Pomeranian Region.
At present we run:
                                                     In December 1994 the Gdańsk Circle re-
 St. Brother Albert's Shelter in                    ceived a congratulation letter from the
  Gdańsk Przegalinie, at                 135         Governor of Gdańsk for “fruitful work for
  Przegalińska st where daily there are              the benefit of the Gdańsk Region”. In 1998
  on average 33 homeless men                         the inhabitants of the shelter won the cup
 St. Brother Albert's Shelter in                    of the Governor of Gdańsk in soccer. In
  Gdańsk       Nowy        Port,     at    3         March 1999 we received Archbishop
  Starowiślna st where daily there are               Tadeusz Gocłowski’s award for “endeav-
  on average 57 homeless people                      ours to help another man” and an Amber
 St. Brother Albert's Night Shelter in              Sword Award distinction for an organiza-
  Gdańsk, at 1 Żaglowa st                            tion of the year 1998. In 2000 we were
  where daily there are on average 40                also granted the Amber Sword Award.
  homeless people
 St. Brother Albert's Warming Place                 In 2002 we received from the Governor
  in Gdańsk (Railway Station:Gdańsk                  and the Marshal of the Pomeranian Region
  Główny) a place for 15 homeless allow-             a special award funded by the Regional
  ing them to stay overnight and warm                Centre Foundation (RCI) for an outstand-
  themselves                                         ing contribution in building partnership in
 Charity point in Sopot, at 6 Królowa               the civil sector in the Pomeranian Region.
  Jadwiga st we collect and give out use             In 2006 we received the Lech Bądkowski
  clothes, soaps, washing powders and                Award for the best non-governmental or-
  the like, small household appliances we            ganization in Gdańsk.
  give out coupons for soaps, washing
  powders and the like, for the homeless             ESF/EQUAL Project "Agenda of Homeless-
  staying within the care of Social Wel-             ness"
  fare Centres in Sopot and Gdynia
 Running a charity point in Gdynia,                 Partner’s are:
  at 9 M. Reja st we collect and give out
  used clothes, soaps, washing powders                      St. Brother Albert Aid Society,
  and the like, small household appliances                   Gdańsk Circle
 “BARRACKS” project (co-operation                          Pomeranian Forum in Aid of Getting
  with MOPS - Municipal Social Wel-                          out of Homelessness
  fare Centre in Gdańsk)                                    Regional Information and Support
  Since 1999 we have been cooperating in                     for Non-governmental Organisa-
  with two partners: a Danish Institution                    tions Centre in Gdańsk
  of Forsorgshjemmet Saxenhøj and Social                    Municipal Social Welfare Office in
  Welfare Centre in Gdańsk with a view to                    Sopot
  launching a training flat for the home-                   University of Gdańsk
  less prognostically capable of independ-                  Pomeranian Guild Chamber of
  ent living (the so called BARACKS Pro-                     Small and Medium-Size Enterprises
  ject). In the training flat there are stay-
  ing 2 people.

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Part 3. Assisted Living
Part. 3.1                                               lessness, that is the groups mentioned
A complex system of support                             above when presenting the ETHOS typolo-
                                                        gy of homelessness, there should be activi-
for the homeless and threat-                            ties undertaken making it possible to pro-
ened with homelessness                                  vide real support in the sphere of unem-
                                                        ployment and housing exclusion. Special
A holistic system of social policy in the               attention should be paid mainly to people
sphere of homelessness should deal with                 and families living in sub-standard condi-
the issue possibly from a multi-angle per-              tions (overpopulated flats, places unfit for
spective taking into account all the prob-              living) as well as flats occupied illegally
lems concerning homelessness. One of such               (plot huts, squats).
areas is prevention, another early inter-
vention, then crisis intervention, social               Early intervention
emergency and finally a long-term target,
namely: reaching social and occupation-                 The activities of the early intervention char-
al integration.                                         acter are of preventive and protective na-
The realization of all the points should be             They focus on identifying the groups of
introduced within the cross-sector co-                  particular risk and directing a whole range
operation of various institutions and organi-           of activities towards them with a view to
sations coming from the non-governmental                counteracting the possibility of getting into
sector, self-governmental and governmen-                homelessness.
tal sector, employers, health care, munici-             What is characteristic for such help is the
pal police and the others, who may contrib-             fact that it is provided in the own environ-
ute to supporting and helping the homeless              ment of the people threatened with home-
and those threatened with homelessness.                 lessness.

Prevention                                              Referring again to the situation analogous
                                                        to prevention, it should be emphasized that
Counteracting homelessness is an extreme-               early intervention may seemingly be expen-
ly costly activity; both financially and social-        sive, though keeping the people threatened
ly. It is a truism to remind that prevention            with homelessness in their own environ-
costs significantly less.                               ments and communities, is both socially
                                                        and economically fully justified and benefi-
Prevention activities should be directed at             cial.
a possibly wide range of issues, embracing
first and foremost the housing market                   Crisis intervention
and the labour market. The prevention
activities should focus on the fundamental              Activities within the area of crisis interven-
causes of homelessness and a reduction of               tion are based on prompt intervention aim-
the risk of becoming a homeless person.                 ing at reducing the period of a given per-
The activities should be realized in many               son’s staying homeless.
dimensions and areas such as: legislation
and law, political system (system of                    The phenomenon of homelessness referring
social policy, housing system), social                  to the situations when a person is staying
(family, local communities), psychological              in public places (e.g. railway stations) and
(counteracting exclusion and isolation).                when the person is staying temporarily at
                                                        friends’ or family or in other places calls for
Homelessness in Europe has a rising ten-                intervention in case of a critical situations,
dency, as far as the scale of the problem is            namely undertaking a number of remedial
concerned.                                              measures preventing the development of
Moreover, due to a large number of the                  the situation or stopping activities and be-
homeless and those threatened with home-

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

haviours harmful from a social point of
view.                                                     Immediate help points, such as
The crisis intervention is especially focused              diners, charity points, medical
on providing immediate shelter, meal, nec-                 points as well as counselling and pro-
essary clothes and medical help to those                   viding up-to-date information is a cru-
who are in such a need. The activities un-                 cial element of the crisis intervention
dertaken within the intervention concern                   offered to the socially excluded home-
the following spheres:                                     less.

   Streetwork. The activity of social                 The support and help offered in the various
    workers working in the streets of towns            forms mentioned above has an ad hoc
    and cities. Street work makes it possi-            character and is usually short-term. Some
    ble to constantly monitor the problem              of the services presented here may have
    of homelessness outside institutions.              a form of basic help offered to some of the
    Moreover, it enables street workers to             homeless for a longer time.
    realize the principle of offering support
    on a regular basis, regardless of the              Social Integration
    fact whether the homeless reject the
    offer or not; it does not exempt us from           The activities within the social integration
    the duty of constant readiness to help.            relate to the social inclusion of the home-
    It is also of paramount importance that            less and finally their reaching living inde-
    street workers are in permanent con-               pendence. The independence may have
    tact with the homeless, which allows               various dimensions (economic, psychologi-
    for a kind of supervising and monitoring           cal. Housing, legal) and need not necessari-
    their living situation.                            ly be connected with physically leaving the
                                                       institution for the homeless.
   Warm Centres and Overnight Shel-
    ters, as the easy-access institu-                  The activities within the social and occupa-
    tions, providing the homeless with                 tional reintegration are addressed to people
    shelter in situations of a crisis. Within          who first of all declare their willingness to
    the activity of such institutions, there is        and indicate the activities towards improv-
    not only shelter provided but also                 ing their living situation, and who objective-
    meals and clothes. The places are usu-             ly have conditions to realize the process of
    ally open in the evening and at night.             gaining independence and getting out of
    The stay there is temporary. The activi-           homelessness. Furthermore, the activities
    ty of the places has also preventive               aiming at social inclusion are directed main-
    value in the sphere of health and life             ly to people saying in shelters or training
    care and protection, especially at winter          flats, where they have their basic needs
    time. Generally, the access to such in-            fulfilled.
    stitutions is unrestricted and direct              The integration activity may also be ad-
    (there is no need of an administrative             dressed to people who due to objective
    decision)                                          reasons have difficulty with returning to the
                                                       open labour market, owing to either age or
   Health care is a key element of the                disability and it may have a form of work-
    crisis intervention. Most rough sleepers           shops or social firms.
    have got health problems. The prob-
    lems result from frostbites, dermatolog-           The activities undertaken with a view to
    ical diseases, coronary system diseases            social integration of the homeless include:
    or the consequences of being addicted
    to psychotropic drugs. It is of much im-              The specialisation of institutions is
    portance that the homeless get there                   a crucial element of the long-term
    adequate and necessary medical care                    support – it is based on adjusting –
    since without catering for the basic                   according to the needs, level of collabo-
    needs of the homeless it is impossible                 ration and psycho-physical capacity –
    to act effectively in the sphere of social             an institution adequate to a given
    inclusion.                                             beneficiary. It is obvious that each of

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

    the institutions, especially those of a to-
    tal character, like overnight shelters or             Work. An indispensable and key ele-
    shelters, institutionalizes, with the re-              ment of reintegration and social inte-
    sult that the homeless may get addict-                 gration are the activities focused on
    ed to seeking help. The problem is ag-                 work, with a final goal of getting back
    gravated by the homogeneity of the in-                 on the labour market. The philosophy,
    stitutions, where the homeless in objec-               however correct in its assumptions, in-
    tively different existential situations are            cluded in many documents of the Euro-
    ‘pushed’ into a uniform system, en-                    pean Union and influencing the way the
    couraging deindividualisation. There-                  structural funds are spent, nonetheless
    fore, a key element here is specializa-                requires a co-operation of many organi-
    tion, or even hierarchisation, of the in-              zations and their joint efforts for it to
    stitutions enabling to adjust help to the              be effective. Education and psychologi-
    level of progress and engagement in                    cal assistance must be reinforced by
    the process of getting out of homeless-                a practical training of a given job, reviv-
    ness. Undoubtedly, motivation to un-                   ing the habit of going to work, especial-
    dertake employment or gain independ-                   ly in case when a person has been un-
    ence is totally different and higher in                employed for a long time. In the long
    case of a person is staying in an as-                  term, two directions may be adopted in
    sisted flat, where it is necessary to                  the sphere of returning to the labour
    pay the bills and gain money to pay for                market. One of the possible paths is
    food than when a homeless person is                    the activity aiming at a direct contact
    staying in a shelter, where the respon-                with the employer or focusing on activi-
    sibility for own life automatically dimin-             ty leading to establishing own firms.
    ishes and declines. The experience                     Those implementing such projects will
    gained in the course of implementing                   at first look for friendly firms willing to
    projects which concentrated on provid-                 employ people who have been unem-
    ing the homeless with support in areas                 ployed for a longer time, contributing at
    such as education and occupational                     the same time to disseminating the
    activisation, without the housing com-                 idea of the open labour market. The
    ponent, show that the results are short-               friendly employers will be a kind of a
    term and only illusively effective.                    bridge between assisted employment
                                                           and employment on the open labour
   Education. The educational training in                 market by regular employers. The ac-
    various forms and intensity enable the                 tivities will be addressed mainly to peo-
    homeless to improve their job qualifica-               ple who declare willingness to return to
    tions and the general level of educa-                  the labour market and who undertake
    tion. The training also makes up for                   activities aiming at improving their liv-
    their socializing shortcomings, directly               ing situation and finally who have ob-
    connected with the low level of educa-                 jective conditions (they have a
    tion, which in turn has influence on                   chance to find and keep a job on the
    how awkwardly the people behave in                     open labour market) allowing them to
    public institutions. Another element of                gain independence and get out of
    the training is providing the homeless                 homelessness.
    with communication skills indispensable
    in modern world, which they do not                     The second path is focusing the activity
    have, and the lack of which impairs the                on setting up social firms or social co-
    effectiveness of their functioning in var-             operatives, namely social economy ini-
    ious social environments. Thus, educa-                 tiatives, by people who have been out
    tion requires an elaboration of appro-                 of work for a longer period of time. The
    priate methodology and didactics ad-                   firms function as any other free market
    justed to the potential and limitations                companies, with the exception that
    of the homeless who have been unem-                    they may apply for subsidies from vari-
    ployed for a long time. Moreover, edu-                 ous funds. At the beginning the struc-
    cation should be realized both in the                  tures only bring as much profit as it is
    occupational and social spheres.                       sufficient for own maintenance, though

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

    the ideal would be for the firms or co-              psychological assistance. There are ex-
    operatives to produce 100% of the fi-                amples of such attempts known in all
    nancial resources that are necessary for             Europe and they only added to the
    them to stay on the market. It is also               frustration of the authors of such pro-
    an interesting idea to establish open                grammes, since the majority of the tar-
    workshops, where the homeless may                    get groups handed in a sickness leave
    combine work with vocational training                after a few days of work.
    in a less systematic way, in other
    words, they may from time to time par-              User involvment. The key element of
    ticipate in the work of other workshops.             the process of mobilising the homeless
    Such forms of work seem to be espe-                  is their actual involvement in solving
    cially effective in case of people who,              their own problems. Transferring and
    owing to various reasons, have limited               entrusting the responsibility for own
    access to the labour market or actually              choice to the professionals is a common
    have objectively worse conditions for                phenomenon in the work on social and
    finding employment and keeping it up.                occupational integration. What is of
    The activity may be addressed to peo-                much importance here is to make it
    ple who due to objective reasons, like               possible to some extent, to define in-
    for example age or disability have diffi-            dependently the goals, tasks and activi-
    culty with returning to the open labour              ties undertaken in the future by the
    market. Such solutions will in a way al-             homeless. Specialists, on the other
    low them to enter the labour market                  hand, should try to respond as much as
    through the ‘back door’, which does not              possible to the demand, sometimes
    mean that it is a worse entrance. On                 making it more realistic. The realization
    the contrary, as the experiences from                of such an approach is possible when
    the other European countries show,                   we have many tools to use and we
    these are highly effective and efficient             have a whole array of activities to
    activities.                                          launch. Imposing patterns of activities
                                                         or planning a path of personal or voca-
                                                         tional development without a significant
   Assistance and psychological sup-                    engagement of a homeless person is
    port. Psychological support as an inte-              pointless and usually leads to a failure.
    gral part of the integration programme               We are then realising our vision, not
    enables to counteract addictions (alco-              responding to the real needs of the
    hol, homelessness syndrome), to build                beneficiaries. The possibility of shaping
    the basis for personal development and               one’s own fate is an indispensable ele-
    to gain the ability of independent func-             ment of ‘existential revival’.
    tioning. The key element here is to be
    able to move various spheres of per-                Assisting (personal coaching). An
    sonal and intimate life. The help should             important element of the integration
    be of diverse character and intensity                process is the so called assisting indi-
    with regard to the goals set jointly with            vidual people in the course of work in
    the beneficiary of our services. The                 the three spheres, i.e. education, work
    tasks and activities in this sphere of               and life. By providing individual support
    human life must be adjusted to the ac-               we are able to adjust the support and
    tual potential and resources of a home-              help to individual needs and capacity of
    less person, in compliance with the in-              our beneficiaries. Moreover, we may
    dividual diagnosis. Help and assistance              constantly monitor the progress or re-
    may be provided, not only by profes-                 gress of the participants of our pro-
    sionals, but also by the group of the                jects. ‘The method is based on intro-
    homeless themselves, forming a sup-                  ducing a personal assistant, counselor,
    port group or a kind of a community.                 companion, who having assumed that a
    The realization of the activities in the             return to the labour market and to the
    sphere of occupational activisation is               community is a process, will step by
    bound to fail, if we do not activate                 stem accompany his client on this path,
    a whole chain of activities within the               motivating him/her, supporting and

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

     monitoring the adequacy of the chosen
     direction, according to the needs of
     the ‘wanderer’. 10 The method of assist-
     ing is used all over Europe.

”Progress in immobility”11

At the end it should be emphasised that
integration activity needs time; one should
not get discouraged, as the effects of the
undertaken activities may take time to pay
dividends. Sometimes the return to the
community may last adequately long in
relation to the length of staying homeless
or unemployed. As the survey revealed the
average period of homelessness is 6 years
and so the time needed for a given person
to get out of homelessness may also be so
long. It may also occur that long-term at-
tempts to encourage a homeless person to
return to the labour market may be unsuc-
cessful. However, it should be stressed that
occupational activisation aims ‘not only at
finding and keeping a job but also at
strengthening contacts and social bonds as
well as generating the feeling of participa-
tion and attachment. Even if the integration
with the labour market is not achieved, the
work on it often prevents further exclusion
and marginalization of a homeless person.

  Aleksandra Dębska, Assisting and moni-
toring a homeless person, preliminary re-
port, wydawnictwo, miejscowość, 2005.
   The term was created by Gunter Grass
and was used in his book ‘From a Snail’s
Diary’, Gdańsk 1999.
   Assumptions of the programme More
people into work realised within the Danish
National Agenda of Activities for the Sake
of Social Integration. Own translation, Co-
penhagen, 2003

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Part. 3.2                                              All the solutions presented here in the
                                                       field of housing for the homeless,
                                                       have a character of a certain ladder, in
Assisted Living – as an element                        other words, a path that may be fol-
of institutional support for the                       lowed by a homeless person on
homeless                                               his/her way to gaining independence
                                                       and getting out of homelessness.
The subject of this report concerns
mainly the system of support in form                   Let us now have a closer look at the
of crisis intervention and social inte-                way the institutions, providing shelter
gration, particularly in the aspect of                 and help in the field of housing for the
specialization of welfare institutions                 homeless, function in the three Euro-
providing support in the sphere of                     pean countries (Czech, Holland and
housing.                                               Poland).

CZECH REPUBLIC                                         non-profit organizations, sometimes with
                                                       the town in which they have been situated.
Aims and role of Assisted Living in our
EQUAL project                                          There have been two accepted forms of
                                                       specific living in support of the assistance
In project’s realization, the progressive              for endangered groups by the czech legisla-
complex working system will be created                 tion. These are “protected” living and “sup-
and verified with the target group of people           ported” living. Both types of living are de-
without home. It will be concerned the field           termined to handicapped people.
of employment, education and living too.               In the spectrum of providing services in the
Order and succession of the particular sys-            field of living for homeless population, the
tem provides the services in the field of              service of this character has been missed.
housing (street work →night shelter →
sheltered houses). We still have missed                On the basis of multiyear practical experi-
interlink between the living in all day shel-          ence of Silesian Diacony with the services
ter and independent living in the Czech                and work for target group and analysis of
Republic. The result of user’s reintegration           the segment’s needs has been chosen the
should be his return to the society. The               method “Living with the Assistance” as that
several flats with social assistance will be           interlink. The center of this approach has
created from EQUAL project to fill this                its unsubstitutable place, particularly:
space.                                                             stimulation of homeless peo-
                                                                      ple to solve their current
According to the basic complex homeless                               situation on their own,
problem, the need of its systematic solution                       overcoming of communica-
was defined. The logical part of solution                             tion and others barriers,
has been the innovating method of housing                          retrieval of social skills,
for this target group.                                             reacquire or learn to self re-
Among the services offered to homeless                                sponsibility,
people to solve their situation in the field of                    client’s training and simula-
living belong night shelters, sheltered                               tion to gain necessary com-
houses, eventually chambers. These facili-                            petences to independent liv-
ties have been usually running through the                            ing and reversion to “com-
                                                                      mon life”.

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

                                                       people. There are only beds and bedside
The towns, where the asylum houses have                tables in the room. Clients can also buy
been running, will provide rental dwellings            something to eat here. They get a tea or
to accommodate a few homeless people in                a coffee and toilet articles. They can take
framework of EQUAL project. The assistant              a shower. Then they can watch TV or read
for living will come here. He will perform             something in the daily centre. The silent
social work with the clients and help them             hour starts at 10 p.m., so the daily centre is
to estimate the main targets of the project.           closed and everybody has to be quiet. They
                                                       pay about 2€ for one night.
Function system of providing social
services                                               Structure of the employees: chief, social
                                                       worker, 3 gatekeepers (they are changing).
                                                       DAILY CENTRE
In every shelter – specially in the night
shelter with daily centre – there is a street          Daily centre has attended to people living in
worker who searches potential clients on               a night shelter, shelter or still on the
the street, gives them information about               streets. Everybody could come here, get a
providing services, offers them a possibility          tea or buy something to eat. Daily centres
of living in our shelters, helps them with             are usually full for whole day especially in
their problems, gives them advices or some             winter time.
kind of help in acute crisis (interview, escort
to some center,...).                                   If anyone (from a night shelter or a daily
                                                       centre or right from the street) wants to
When the homeless comes to us we can                   talk with social worker to gain some advices
offer him (her) a wide range of services. At           or only for the feeling he needs it, he could.
first the client with the social worker does           But they don’t have a duty to work together
an incoming interview where they deter-                with the social workers on their individual
mine client’s needs and if he/she is inter-            plans.
ested in our services they make a written
contract – The agreement of providing so-              Daily centre and night shelter are closely
cial service – that regulates relationship             linked.
between the client and our organization,
discretion and duties of each of them.                 SHELTER
Then, it depends on client’s needs we start
to provide the appropriate services.                   We can offer to client an opportunity to live
                                                       in the all day shelter (in double or triple
NIGHT SHELTER                                          room if it is free) when the client has been
                                                       living in one of our night shelters for
We can say that this is the first stage for            a longer time and his adaptation runs good.
the most of people who come to us. The
basic target of this institution has been the          Equipment of the room for each person is:
reintegration of clients to the common life,           a bed, bedside table, wardrobe, table and
it means the integration of people in unfa-            chair in the room.
vourable social situation to the major soci-
ety. The aim of this institution is to help in         Aim of service
acute crisis, to put up night’s lodging and to         The basic (main) target of this institution
give an opportunity to get a shower etc.               has been the reintegration of users to the
Clients can use the assistance of social               common life, it means the integration of
worker in different matters (papers, dealing           people in unfavourable social situation to
with the authority etc.). Clients of night             the major society. It should help the clients
shelters have no obligation to work with the           to solve their problems independently and
social worker to solve their problems.                 to be independent on a social care system
                                                       or to minimize this dependence.
The night shelter usually runs from 5 p.m.
to 8 a.m. It could be used by about 20

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

The partial goals serve to fulfil of the basic        Motivation schemes and rewarding
(main) goal:                                          models
    satisfaction of user’s necessities of
        life, it means a provision of short           If we mean motivation scheme only in con-
        time (temporary) accommodation,               nection with Assited living so the the big-
        an opportunity to self hygiene,               gest motivation for people living in the
    users are guided to self-activity and            streets is clear – accommodation.
        responsibility for their life to mini-
        mize their dependence on a social             If they get a place in night shelter we offer
        benefits and to learn them to solve           them a possibility to live in all day shelter.
        their problems,                               It depends on size of their participation of
    assistance to retrieval their lost               solving their problems, goodwill for coop-
        strength and motivation for further           eration and for solving their global situa-
        life (form of individual and grouped          tion.
        interview or therapy),
    assistance and support in looking                In EQUAL project we have another stair of
        for a job and housing,                        motivation scale – independent living in
    assistance in processing the pa-                 social flat.
        pers, social benefits and dealing
        with the authority                            In fact our legal system enabled us to pro-
    offer of further services (psycholo-             vide any other motivation programs – espe-
        gist, physician, guidance bureau              cially financial motivation is impossible due
        etc.).                                        to system of social benefits.

We offer these services:                              User involvement
    temporary accommodation,
    opportunity to make a hygiene,                      Payment for provided services
    chance to wash their clothes,                        Clients have to pay for accommodation
    minimal legal and consulting assis-                  and others services we provide from
       tance,                                             their incomes (social benefits, salary,
    assistance in processing the pa-                     pensions etc.)
       pers, social benefits and social care
       services,                                         Participation on housework
    assistance in solving the private                    Among their duties belong: keep the
       problems,                                          house and rooms clean and participa-
    possibility to take part in various                  tion on another works which are
       free time activities,                              needed for running of the house.
    possibly board or opportunity to
       make a meal,                                      Cooperation with the staff
    working therapy.                                     Clients have to cooperate with social
                                                          worker and other responsible workers
Structure of the employees: chief, social                 on their individuals plans and on solu-
worker, social services’ worker, gatekeep-                tion of their situation.
ers, care person.
                                                         Effort of solving their situation by them-
LIVING WITH ASSISTANCE                                    selves
                                                          This means specially looking for the
This is consequential link in an overall chain            job, looking for the other form of ac-
of providing services. The rental of flats and            commodation, solving problems with
accommodation for a few clients, this pro-                some existing addiction, solving prob-
gramme will be realised by force of the                   lems with health, solution of family
assistant of living. That has been the new                problems, solving problems with in-
untested way of realization via EQUAL pro-                debtedness.
ject “FROM EIGHT TO FOUR” in the Czech
republic.                                             The individual plan and the individual cli-
                                                      ent’s target serve to fulfil of service’s target

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

that we have been providing. The client has            Cross sector cooperation
been meeting his key worker when he
signed the agreement of providing social               The section of shelter is mainly cooperating
service. The client together with his key              with the social services department of the
worker has made the individual plan. The               cities where we work. Our further partners
client’s duty has been working on agree-               are various governmental institutions (eld-
ment’s fulfilment. We use client’s oriented            erly houses, insane hospitals, hospitals,
approach when client alone is the solver of            prison houses), police, courts, employment
his problems with our assistance.                      office, local governmental office.

The most important thing is to specify indi-           The level of cooperation is different in the
vidual targets and the way of target’s fulfill-        various areas. It depends on duration of
ing.                                                   each shelter in given city, but we can say
                                                       that we have good relationship with each of
The individual client’s targets have been              above-mentioned organizations.
rethinking after three months from target’s
specification. Client could change his indi-           Cooperation with department of social
vidual targets.                                        services

Process for creation of the individual                 It is very important in the course of the
plan:                                                  whole helping process. We cooperate with
                                                       SSD in many directions. The most of our
       Client has a right to participate in           clients are unemployed and dependent on
        creation of the individual plan and            social benefits. We are not providing free
        to cooperate in process of the indi-           services and everyone has to pay for it.
        vidual plan’s creation.                        One of client’s duty (if they are not em-
       There have been specifying short-              ployed or pensioner) is that they have to be
        term and long-term target(s) in the            registered by employment office and social
        individual plan.                               services department.
       Client has cooperated with the key
        worker (tutor) in the individual               We have made agreements with each of
        plan’s creation. Key worker has                SSD in the given city. There is an appointed
        been allocated to the client. Client           amount for the night/month that will SSD
        has a right to choose another key              pay us for every client who is an inhabitant
        worker.                                        of this city and fulfil the condition as pro-
       The individual plan has been re-               vided by law for receipt social security
        thinking after three months at                 benefits.
        least, client and key worker take
        part in this.                                  Influencing Policymakers and Public
Relations with other activities at As-
sisted Learning and Working level                      One of EQUAL project partners is Moravia-
                                                       Silesian region (where SD mainly work on)
EQUAL project is a complex programme                   as a self-governing unit. As municipality M-
and the realized activities are closely linked.        S region built social policy of region and
So it is more than desirable to continue and           also can influence globally social policy of
to share the same principles.                          the whole Czech republic. Within realization
                                                       project “From eight to four” we open very
The primary motivational element is better             important topics which are relevant to tar-
level of living for representatives of the             get group of homeless people and discuss
target’s group to enter the complex pro-               them with all partners, which can be impor-
gramme of realized project “Living with                tant in making new policy in every field.
Assistance”. Representatives of the target’s
group are going to be educated and to take             Public opinion on target group of homeless
part in work therapy without the right to              people is not very positive because of not
reward.                                                relevant and distorted facts about them.

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

One of our goals is to appeal on the public            problem of homelessness is the very impor-
opinion through the promotion in the media             tant problem of whole society and it is nec-
and give to people relevant and objective              essary to solve it.
informations and persuade people that

NETHERLANDS                                            It clear the fieldworkers are active on the
                                                       most irregular times and places. The area
The following part is a description of the             they cover is the city of Rotterdam, inclu-
approaches on assisted living.                         sive the suburbs and some underground
CVD has developed a floating scale of living           stations. These are known locations for the
levels, subscribed in 6 levels, called the             rough sleeper.
Woonladder or in English, the Housing-
scale. It also describes the institutional path        The fieldworkers are specialized social
too independence living.                               caseworkers or social nurses.
                                                       Their personal competence is the very spe-
THE FIELDWORK,                                         cial ability to make contact and develop
IS THE ZERO LEVEL.                                     a working relation with the client. It is a
                                                       fragile mixture of nearness and distance. If
The aim of the fieldworkers is to make con-            the fieldworker makes a promise to the
tact with the rough sleepers who doesn’t or            client, he has to be sure he can deliver.
aren’t able to make use of the night shel-             Non-deliverance will directly influence the
ters. These clients have different motives to          working relations with the client. The field-
sleep in the public space. Although it’s pro-          workers don’t have a permission to deliver
hibited by city law, they maintain in the              direct admittance to the shelters. In case of
public space.                                          health problems they can guide the client to
Making contact is also making a map of the             the health service of the day shelters.
city, where are these clients seeking shel-
ter, what are there motives to reject the              The fieldworkers have the obligation to
shelter facilities, or what is the reason they         report their outreaching activities in the
can’t make use of the facilities. What are             general CVD client registration system. The
there needs as a rough sleeper?                        personal client file forms the base for the
                                                       follow-up client file.
The role of the fieldworkers thereby is mul-           The reports contain the descriptions of the
tifunctional, not only in an observing role            encounters with the clients, the delivered
(government policy) but also a client moti-            activities on health or social economic mat-
vational role, to increase the clients ac-             ters, or guidance towards others social
ceptance and consumption of the offered                services.
institutional services. The fieldworkers try           These reports are also is the base the given
to affiliate with the needs pronounced by              account to the city department of Social
the client. They also try to guide the client          Affairs, the main financier of these field
towards and within the measurements of                 working activities.
the shelter and care providing systems.
The fieldworkers are the most outreachend              THE NIGHT AND DAY SHELTERS,
active workers in the assisted housing sys-            THE FIRST LEVEL.
tem. They frequently are the last resort for
the drop outs of the shelter system. And in            The night shelters have the main objective
fact they are also the last resort for the             to deliver a temporally shelter for those
shelter system that lost a specific client.            citizens that are in the need of a night shel-
                                                       ter. Main cause of the homelessness will be

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

the lack of an adjustable accommodation.             because all of the working units are located
The direct social network of the client pro-         in these kinds of neighbourhoods.
vides no sustainable alternative.
It’s a fact that this formula of the aim and         The staffs of the night shelters are mostly
role of the night shelter is suitable for at         skilled as social pedagogic workers. Or they
least 50 % of the CVD night shelter popula-          are skilled in a different profession but em-
tion. The use of the night shelter is mo-            ployed by the CVD merely based on their
mentary and occasional, within a range of            commitment with the target group home-
1 till 7 nights on a yearly base.                    less people.
Otherwise, the consequence of this obser-            The assumption here is that the staffs has
vation is that the other 50% of the clients          the social skills and cognitive capacity to
consume the rest of the shelter capacity.            encounter with the homeless persons. So
An average of 30 % of the clients lasted             it’s a mixture of social behaviour and atti-
permanent in the shelter.                            tude, ideological inspired acting within the
This reveals a shelter system on two levels,         CVD’s company frame or reference of re-
short track and endurance.                           spect for the specific identity and personali-
An explanation of this phenomenon can be             ty of the clients.
found in the overall shortage of capacity in
the city shelter system. On the other hand,          On an operational level the staffs are acting
the demand of the client system due too              in a variety of rolls and tasks. Recently
migrating effects is overwhelming.                   a reversion of the employee’s rolls and
There is no guaranty for shelter access for          tasks has been adjusted. This was an obli-
the client. Each and every evening they              gation within the references of the profes-
have to ‘apply’ for admittance.                      sional standards, caused by the Central
CVD night shelters offer three forms.                Results are that there has been a division
      CVD Havenzicht is a night shelter,            and specialization of labour.
         capacity 42 beds and closed during          Still, the main concern of the worker is the
         daytime.                                    group of homeless individuals that populate
      CVD van Speyk is a night shelter,             the shelter, but also the specific attention
         capacity 32 beds, during daytime            an attended to the individual is increased.
         this accommodation operates as              On this base the care can be delivered
         day shelter, so it ‘s continuously          ‘made to measure’ towards the individual
         shifting in purpose and function.           needs of the client.
      CVD de Hille has a night shelter,
         capacity 28 beds, but here it is an         To the City Department of Social Affairs
         integrated part of a multifunctional        must be given account for the delivered
         facility service centre.                    service at the same time. Or the Health
CVD shelters are located in buildings that           Insurance Company, both provides the
originally functioned as a primary school            funding for the activities and wages of the
( Havenzicht en van Speyk) or as a convent           employees.
( De Hille).
The shelters are scattered over the eastern,         When the client is given access to the shel-
northern and southern part of the inner city         ter there’s an intake procedure.
of Rotterdam, in neighbourhoods that origi-          The intake procedure contents registration
nally were build in the late 19th and early          of the personal data of the client, like date
20th century. Contemporary mostly multicul-          of birth, former address and residence, civil
tural neighbourhoods with an enhanced                position, income position, education level.
social economic deprivation. This makes the          An assessment of the client needs is also
relation management with the surrounding             reported. There is not a formal diagnosis on
communities vulnerable and volatile.                 health issues made by the staff, because
The management continuously invest in this           they’re not allowed to formulate a medical
relation management for a sufficient opera-          diagnosis.
tional basis. In fact this is a task for the         So the focus is mainly on the abilities and
CVD management of any CVD working unit               capacities of the client and secondary the
                                                     disabilities. Capacity orientation versus the

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

affirmation of dysfunction like in the medi-            non access. This is a necessity for the
cal model.                                              changing of staff and at CVD van Speyk
This perception increases the positive stim-            especially it’s needed for the transformation
uli for the client to cope with is abilities and        of the day shelter in to a night shelter. This
opportunities in the given circumstances.               shows the lack of space, the day ward will
                                                        be used as a dormitory. But the advantage
Additional to the shelter service CVD                   is that the kitchen facilities can be used, as
Havenzicht offers a specialized medical                 well as the lavatory and bathrooms.
ward for 10 rough sleeping clients. Rough
sleeping is enlarging the health problems               Facilitations of the day shelters are also
for the client; they are a group at risk for            used by the rough sleepers who don’t use
several contagious diseases (tuberculosis,              the night shelters. They can sign up in the
hepatitis e.g.)                                         day shelter for a correspondence address.
The combination of their addictive and                  This utility gives the client the opportunity
some times conduct disorders combined                   to receive correspondence of the depart-
with a rejecting approach of general hospi-             ment of Social Affairs.
tals and immaculate dressed medical staffs              This is necessary for their social benefits
doesn’t make the average rough sleeper fit              and health insurance. A possibility for rela-
for hospitalisation.                                    tion management with family, friends or
So in cooperation with the convalescent                 acquaintances is also provided.
institution Humanitas CVD is exploiting 10              The day shelters offer e-mail en internet
special nursing beds for rough sleepers in              facilities to the day shelter customers. The
Havenzicht. A team of general practitioners             rough sleeping homeless have access to all
gives consultations too the rough sleepers              relevant information and can correspond on
on several evenings and all day and night               the World Wide Web. In a migrated popula-
shelters so the basic medical care and pre-             tion this is a comprehensive addition.
vention can be supplied.
                                                        Beside these opportunities there are an
Progress has been made in the scholarship               activation programmes.
of the shelter staff, not only on their opera-          CVD de Hille has a special workshop called
tional capacity but also on their bureaucrat-           Sandfort & so. Here the client can express
ic abilities to give account and compose a              his or her craftsmen skills on furniture or
client dossier that can cope with the actual            timber.
professional standards.                                 As a form of neighbourhood relation man-
CVD has the obligation and ambition to                  agement there are street sweeping and
refer at the National Standard Conditions               cleaning programs at both the day shelters.
for Quality (HKZ) in 2007. This will be the             It gives them the opportunity for a small
entrance condition for the continued fund-              increase of income, because the labour
ing by the City government and Health                   shift is paid directly cash.
Insurance Company.                                      CVD van Speyk is active on a creative scale,
                                                        art products like ceramic works and paint-
Complementary to the night shelters are                 ings, made by the homeless are exposed
the day shelters.                                       too the public and often sold as generous
CVD has two day shelters, CVD van Speyk                 gift for close relations.
en CVD de Hille.                                        CVD de Hille is the only CVD day shelter
The capacity of these day shelters are ex-              with a drugs consuming room, here the
pressed in chairs, both day shelters have 75            opiate addicts are permitted to consume
chairs.                                                 their drugs. This is to avoid public nuisance
The access too the day shelters are ar-                 of drugs consumption in the neighbour-
ranged by entrance passes. After an intake              hoods.
procedure the client gets an entrance pass.
The intake is similar with the intake proce-            The staffs of the day shelter are like the
dure of the night shelters. The client can              staff of the night shelter skilled in the social
use the day shelter 7 days a week. The                  pedagogic studies. Social case work is also
hours of opening are restricted in time, for            provided as well al case management. The
8 hours a day. There exits a moment of                  day shelter is a contact place for other

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

health providers who visit and meet their             CVD de Hille boarding-house has a capacity
clients in the day shelters. The task for the         of 18 rooms. The client can apply for access
staff is therefore also a form of relational          too the pensions rooms by writing a letter
networking on behalf of the client.                   of motivation. In case of illiterate the staff
                                                      will help and one of the first (re)integration
Often the mistake is made that the visitors           activities occurs directly learning how to
of the day shelters strictly are homeless             read and write Dutch.
persons.                                              If there’s a vacancy the negotiations start
Internal investigation showed us that many            immediately, otherwise one is transferred
visitors are living in the surrounding of the         too the waiting list.
day shelter, sometimes in a CVD boarding
house, or supported living system. Some               This negotiation contains an assessment on
are living in depended in the neighbour-              goals for the client and also for the assist-
hood but visit the day shelter for its social         ing counsellor. This is a staff employee with
climate and deal with loneliness.                     a specific task to coach 3 or 5 client in their
CVD de Hille allows only persons in the               process of house training. A contract is
night shelter who has been admitted enlist-           drafted; it contains the results of the nego-
ed at the day shelter.                                tiations and the obligation of both party’s
                                                      client and counsellor. Mostly the contract
TRAINING IS THE SECOND LEVEL                          focus on restore a normalized life style,
                                                      participation with a day and night rhythm,
The next step in the Housing scale are the            activation or labour reintegration, settle-
training facilities, like CVD Hille boarding          ment of debts, reduction or adaptation of
house and CVD ‘ s Gravenhof. It is the se-            the substance use, contact with significant
cond level of the housing ladder.                     relations , like family or children.

The invaliding effects of durable homeless-           Very important is the focus on a repre-
ness need a preparatory explanation.                  sentative appearance. Clean clothing and
Sociological and psychological research in            a fresh haircut and daily shaving. And
the late 90th proved that the durable effect          sometimes on indication and personal need
of homelessness as a rough sleeper has a              a contact with a mental health institute.
devastating effect on ones cooping mecha-
nism. Orientating in time, capabilities to            The client pays rent for the room and ac-
plan and act in a linear state are diminish-          commodation.
ing. The focus is narrowing on a circular
point of view; to adjust on the basic human           The maximum period of training in the facil-
needs of warmth, food; addictive substanc-            ity called CVD de Hille pension is 12
es are having a regressive effect on the              months. Then the client has to progress to
personality of the rough sleeper. The rough           the next step on the housing ladder.
sleeper is loosing contact with partial ele-
ments of reality. Loosing contact with a              CVD‘s Gravenhof can be compared and is
meaningful social network like family,                identical in its targets and program with
friends and labour colleagues and slipping            CVD de Hille boarding house. The main
further into a unilateral network of rough            difference is the period of training. The
sleeping colleagues.                                  agreement with the City Department of
                                                      Social Affairs for residing at ‘s Gravenhof is
The ability to restore the cooping mecha-             made up at 6 till maximum 7 months.
nism for a stabilized and durable life in a           The capacity of ‘s Gravenhof is 14 rooms so
common household has to be trained. This              on a yearly base it’s maximized too 28 cli-
is especially valid for the group of long term        ents, all former long stay rough sleepers.
rough sleepers that inhabit nigh shelters.            The facility is located in the western part of
Therefore CVD has two training facilities             the inner city.
with the main objective to train the former           The drugs related scene is just around the
rough sleeper and move them up to the                 corner and can be tempting.
housing ladder.                                       Excessive substance abuse, drugs or alco-
                                                      hol, is prohibited in ‘s Gravenhof. Main tar-

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

get is to normalize the consumption pat-                The boarding houses are located in large
terns and facilitate the client in its capabili-        buildings, in the eastern, southern and
ties to control the craving and seductive               northern part of the inner city of Rotter-
and persuasive effects of the former life               dam. The former purposes of these building
style. This also means a change is social               were group housing. In the early 90th CVD
patterns and behaviour. An action with                  was able to purchase these buildings for
a high risk profile is getting in contact with          the special purpose housing for groups of
the former ‘mates’ on the street level. Here            psychiatric ill homeless rough sleepers.
the counsellor focuses on restoring old and             They were the most vulnerable group of
healthy relationships or practice and con-              rough sleepers who had to compete with
necting with new relationships. By starting             the other rough sleepers, mostly substance
an activation program on a voluntary base;              abusers.
for instance in a completely different part of
the city.                                               Boarding house CVD de Zon was a boarding
                                                        house for farmers and cattle salesman trad-
Of course the training program isn’t com-               ing at the nearby cattle market. At the time
pleted in 6 or 7 months. Within the client              the cattle market was removed there be-
contract with the training facility there’s             came a vacant opportunity. CVD inherited
also a moment of assessment and evalua-                 with the purchase of the Zon also the re-
tion. The advice can be progressive and                 sponsibility of care for the inhabitants of de
positive, towards the next higher levels of             Zon, a part of the deal. This is the origin of
the housing ladder. But experience and                  the actual population of the Zon. It is
scientific research shows us that after a               a boarding house for men with severe alco-
period of progressive and constructive con-             hol abuses. Traditionally it isn’t prohibited
firmation and affective attention of the                to drink in the Zon. So now de Zon is, as
client, there occurring a risk of relapse and           described in the homeless literature, a ‘wet
depression. The existential changes can be              house’. Due to its ancient history de Zon
too progressive. Increasing both fear and               has a logistic structure of the midst of the
anxiety of failure. The client provokes a               19th century, less or non privacy, the men
conflict and ‘flees’ back on the street. Espe-          sleep on dormitory wards.
cially when it’s not clear enough for the
client that the next step will be and how               The other two boarding houses are espe-
heavy the burden will be to reach that                  cially for the homeless, psychiatric, males
stage.                                                  and female clients. This is a result of the
                                                        deinstitutionalization in the 80th of the for-
THE SOCIAL BOARDING HOUSES:                             mer century.
THE THIRD LEVEL                                         The main diagnosis of the inhabitants of de
                                                        Nok and de Schuilplaats are schizophrenia
To adjust to that phenomenon CVD has as                 or chronicle psychotic disorders. Being
follow-up stage a range of boarding houses              homeless they sometimes have developed
where the main purpose and target will by               a drugs abuse. This is one of the reasons
stabilisation of the client physical and men-           why they’re not involved in clinical caretak-
tal condition. Here the client can get used             ing programs of the official mental health
to the normalized living conditions and daily           institutions. Although in the start of the 21
rhythms of living within a group of compan-                century a change of policy occurred by
ions. These are called the social boarding              the mental health institutions. The social
houses and they represent the next third                pressure on these institutions to take there
level on the housing ladder.                            responsibility for these invalidated and ill
                                                        persons increased. Both Central and city
CVD boarding houses are divided in                      governments combined with associations of
    CVD de Schuilplaats, (= the                        families of schizophrenic patients provided
       shelter), 32 places                              a lot of public and political pressure. Re-
    CVD de Nok, ( = the ridge), 30                     sults; the Dutch national mental health
       places,                                          association made the commitment to take
    CVD de Zon,(= the sun), 43 places                  a care taking responsibility for at least 10
These are symbolic names.                               % of this population on a yearly base. The

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

estimations of the total client group are             worker. The necessary ability for the staffs
26.000 in 2005.                                       to cope with the care systems is evident.

The symbolism in the names of the board-                 CVD de Nok or the ridge is a boarding
ing houses is as follow:                                  house for the elderly homeless and
         CVD de Schuilplaats (shelter) is                mentally ill client. Indeed, they are liv-
indeed a shelter of the streets for this                  ing on the ridge of their capabilities. It
group of young ands mentally ill homeless                 forms a community in it selves. Stabi-
persons. After the episode of training on                 lized living increases the ability to ex-
level 2 or sometimes directly from level                  tend their social activities and restore
one, the inhabitants of the boarding house                their social networks and activities. The
find a place to shelter and settle down. The              methodical approach in CVD de Nok is
population of de Schuilplaats are young                   identical as in CVD de Schuilplaats.
homeless and psychiatric patients. The
average age of these clients is 35 years, an          Access to the boarding houses is combined
episode in which their mental illness makes           with an assessment of the Independent
them extra vulnerable for psychotic epi-              Indication Office, in relation with the Gen-
sodes. Therefore a therapeutic relation with          eral Law on Specific Costs of Illness(
the mental health care is a condition for             AWBZ), the funding is partial by the Mental
admittance in the boarding house. In case             Health Insurance , partial by the city de-
of a psychopharmacological treatment it is            partment of Social affairs and partly the
also conditioned to consume these medica-             client it selves pays his share. This means
tions. It’s the basic condition for the guid-         that when ever a client make progress on
ance agreement the client and his mentor.             then housing ladder the selection has to be
Here the contour of the basic guidance                made is their a base for AWBZ funding?
model for CVD housing appears. A triadic              Merely every client is presented to the In-
construction, the participants are:                   dependent Indication Office.
 the client,
 mentor and                                          All the CVD boarding houses have extra
 external care system. The external care             training facilities in the form of small
     system can have the identity of a medi-          apartments. These apartments are located
     cal, social or reintegration care system.        in the direct neighbourhood of the boarding
All three parties cooperate to improve the            house. A client can be a candidate for an
living conditions of the client. This guidance        external training program, living in these
agreement is formalized in a contract. It             apartments.
guarantees the rights of the client and the
obligations for the care providers to evalu-          The increased responsibility for managing
ate the progress of the program each 3                an own household can be trained. All the
months. These are conditions of national              basics skills like cleaning up, going shop-
Law on Quality of Care. In case of discon-            ping, cooking and laundry can be exposed
tent by the client there is a possibility to          here. In the boarding house it selves the
complain about the quality, directly ad-              clients was started with this improved inde-
dressed at the care provider. Or addressed            pendence. The access at the training house
at a neutral organisation for Client In-              is a reward for their investments.
volvement and Interest Group. Both inter-
ests are legally based in national and Euro-          The working relationship with their mentor
pean Law.                                             is continued. The frequency of contact is
                                                      lessened. The boarding house is nearby
The role and profile of the staffs in the             and in case of urgency the client can make
boarding house can be described as per-               contact. Contact can also be continued on
sonal coach and mentor with a task of case            a social base, because it’s known that the
manager. So the educational level is social           client can get isolated and loneliness is
pedagogic or case worker with a special               a destructive emotion. Therefore the em-
knowledge of mental health problems and               bedding in an adjustable social network,
coping styles of both actors, client and              with activities that confirms the client in

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

a constructive and positive attitude is a              This initiative of cooperation is founded at
basic condition for success.                           the end of the 20th century by the following
HOUSING, WORKING, LIVING:                                   City department of Social Affairs,
THE FOURTH LEVEL                                                Rotterdam
                                                            The care taking organisations for
Not all the CVD clients have invalidating                       the homeless in Rotterdam,( CVD,
components caused by severe mental prob-                        Salvation Army)
lems.                                                       Bouman Mental Heath and Addic-
We can describe this as the fourth level on                     tive care provider, Rotterdam,
the housing ladder. Another outflow oppor-                  Maaskoepel, combination of the
tunity is formed by the units of CVD WWL.                       Rotterdam social housing corpora-
This is an abbreviation of the main compo-                      tions.
nents of the program, Wonen (=housing),
Working, Living. This unit is partly a board-          This addition of the adaptation range in
ing house, half way house and partly a unit            rehabilitation of the homeless is focused on
for supported living. The client group is              the assisted or supported living. It is the
merely a group of former male rough                    basic housing component for a successful
sleepers, now homeless and their main                  trajectory.
problems are social economic and addictive             In fact it is forms the back-door of the care-
related problems.                                      taking of the homelessness for rough
Like wise the methodical model of the                  Any successful front service for the caretak-
boarding houses for mental ill clients, WWL            ing of the homeless rough sleepers is de-
has a triadic model for the assisted living.           pended on a well organized back-door as
All the basic conditions for client as well all        for instance the (Z) Onderdak model. The
care systems are valid in the WWL model.               basic notion is embedded in the policy of all
The main difference here is the social eco-            the stakeholders and thereby political and
nomic problems of the clients. Most of them            financial guaranteed. Characteristic for the
have severe debt problems, due to former               Rotterdam housing stock is the high per-
criminal offences and penalties, or as a               centage, 54,6%, of rental dwellings exploit-
result of their addictive behaviour and ac-            ed by housing corporations.
quiring criminality in the purchase of drugs.
Positive though is that most of these client           The housing corporations are acting on the
are having a professional labour history and           obligation to invest in social cohesion. With
are skilled craftsmen.                                 their participation in (Z) Onderdak they
                                                       really act, the housing corporations provide
The main targets here are controlling the              dwellings especially for the target group
addiction and craving and restore the capa-            homeless. The City Department of Social
bilities to obtain your own household. Re-             Affairs rent and basically furnish these
habilitate as an employee and learn to be              houses; the caretaking system provides the
loyal with the agreements you’re making.               supported living.
Restoration of the social network, family or           The client signs a guidance contract, with
kids, most of the clients are divorced or              strict conditions for all participating part-
known as procreators of children. The focus            ners.
is on all fronts, take your responsibility for         The dwellings are dispersed all over the city
your own live and utilize the opportunities            of Rotterdam. Typical for the inhabitants of
and support you’re offered.                            the dwellings is the fact that the addiction
                                                       is stabilized and in control. Two persons are
Assisted Living: the fifth level                       allowed to live in the dwelling an opiate
                                                       addictive together with an alcoholic addic-
The next and fifth level of the housing                tive.
ladder is formed by the project
(Z)Onderdak.( Without) a Roof.                         The social case worker visits the clients on
                                                       a weekly base, so the level of independ-
                                                       ence of the client has to be sustained and

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

sufficient. The caseload of the case worker            must be complementary and adaptive too
is 15 clients per case-worker. The model is            the phase the client is entering.
evaluated by the city Department of Health             Then there is the client itself as an actor in
and is a partly success.                               the process, a fully responsible person with
                                                       its own special qualities and remarkable
Partly because the outflow to in depended              identity.
living of inhabitants is low, due to the hous-
ing market situation and the relapse fre-              A client is not just an object of care in
quency of clients. On the other hand, the              a mechanical or industrial process. In fact,
returns on social investment is high be-               daily practice teaches us that those clients
cause the cutting cost of institutionalized            who manage to reach the level of inde-
care, this is representing a much higher               pendent living in fact adapt the offered care
price level.                                           taking system and combine this with a suc-
                                                       cessfully exploited personal network. Con-
INDEPENDENT LIVING: THE SIXTH                          cerning odd jobs, or temporally employ-
LEVEL                                                  ment on contract base. Bypasses on the
                                                       housing market are made through creative
The last sixth level on the housing ladder             and inventive relation management, volatile
is independent living.                                 affective relations as a result. Durable suc-
Although the housing market in Rotterdam               cess is occurring surely for some clients.
has its limitations still client and former            But mostly we must admit that a longitudi-
rough sleepers can obtain a level of inde-             nal and successful result is an ambition that
pendent living.                                        must motivate and stimulate both clients as
                                                       caretaker. Based on empiric figures we
It is obvious that the routing as described            must acknowledge that such a lasting ex-
in this paper can offer the client the utmost          istence as a bourgeois an idealistic point of
support in realisation of this highly ambi-            view that most of these vulnerable persons
tioned goal. Nevertheless it is not an instant         only can watch on television.
success formula, not all the rough sleeping
clients are able to rehabilitate them selves           Motivation schemes and rewarding
and conduct a continuously and stabile life            models.
style. Re-housing is an element in the spec-
trum, the fulfilling of the existential needs          CVD is allowed to rewards clients who are
to act as a full member of society often is            active in activation programs. In the new
expressed in the professional occupation or            Act on Social Welfare there where re-
labour related activity one is occupied by.            strictions on the volume of financial re-
As stated before the existential emptiness             wards. In present day CVD is allowed to
of being unemployed or unoccupied with                 increase the reward to €1.500, on a yearly
meaningful activities has devastating ef-              base.
fects on identity and self esteem.
                                                       Clients who participate in voluntary activa-
Most of the success stories are combina-               tion programs may also be financial re-
tions of a solid support program, construc-            warded.
tive interaction and cooperation between               This extra bonus system is one of the moti-
the varieties of caretakers involved. Espe-            vation schemes CVD promotes. Together
cially concerning the aspect of client related         with the methodological programs CVD
information management. The adjustment                 presents the client the evidence based
of client needs on the several fields of at-           knowledge that rehabilitation is not only a
tention and focus is increased by an ade-              matter of material restoration, just housing
quate timing factor. The element of inde-              alone, but also as prevention of relapse an
pendent housing is valuable and a solid                activity whether it is voluntary or labour on
connection with the domain labour or daily             contract base will reduce the risk of exis-
activity is the main responsibility of the care        tential problems. This can initiate depres-
taking system. Caution for the renewed risk            sion, excessive substance abuse and cyclic
of claims by former debts, so the budget               movement in and out the shelter system.
management and debt solving program

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

The client is experiencing the progress on            bates, articles in the written of visual me-
the housing ladder as a motivation. The               dia.
staff is stimulating the client to broaden his
range of activities. The affirmation of self          It is clear that the first circle of influence is
esteem by acting in a positive and social             the territorial circle in which CVD is operat-
role model motivates the client. Respect              ing, the cit of Rotterdam. Formal contacts
always has to be earned and affirmed with-            with the civil servants are very common, in
in the social interaction.                            case of budget negotiation or evaluations of
                                                      the results. The informal cooperation with
User Involvement                                      the civil servants is also of great importance
                                                      and based on reciprocity. Cooperation in
In the Netherlands the Act on the Clients             projects or presentations or congresses on
Advisory Board in Care systems, participa-            local, national or even European level is
tion of clients in the policy of an organiza-         common practice.
tion is obliged. CVD has a Client Board;
participants are clients of all forms of the          Another second circle of influence is the
housing ladder, even rough sleepers that              participation of CVD in national umbrella
don’t use the shelter service. CVD Client             organisations participating on the issue of
Board has a right of advisory and also on             homelessness, in the Netherlands the Fed-
some issue a dominant right of approval.              eration Shelter (Federatie Opvang), the
CVD board of directors is presenting the              Civil Entrepreneurs Group (MO Groep) and
company policy on a monthly base to the               on European level the Feantsa.
Client Board. Every company reorganisation
or initiative has to be approved or advised           The third circle of influence for policy mak-
by the Client Board. In case of rejection the         ers is the CVD cooperation with the re-
process is stagnating.                                search institutions, independent as well the
                                                      Universities. Publications on the issue of
The national Act of the Right of Complaint            homelessness are in these form construc-
offers every client of care taking or care            tive methods of influencing policymakers
providing organisation the possibility to             and public opinion.
make a complaint on the delivered service.            And last but not least, a constructive rela-
The organisation has to report each year              tionship with the media, a responsibility for
the volume, the content of the complaint.             the CVD staff department Communication
The process of complaint solving and the              and Information. This section of CVD is also
adjustment measurements the organisation              responsible for CVD the annual report,
has made to prevent these complaints have             a representative publication of the CVD
to be reported in the annual CVD report.              activities.
The National Inspection of Health and the
Health insurance Company are receiving                The Cow Container is a well known phe-
this annual CVD reports.                              nomenon in the inner city of Rotterdam.
                                                      Whenever there is a large public event, the
Influencing Policymakers and Public                   Cow Container appears in the public sight.
opinion.                                              The consuming public is polluting the inner
CVD is a welfare organisation that supports           city in their joyful expression of life and
the needs and the social position of the              wealth. The Cow Container cleans is up.
vulnerable citizens of Rotterdam. Therefore           Here the general public is influenced in its
it is obliged to manifest this care taking of         opinion that the homeless, mostly drug
public interest on a political level and make         abusers, are taking care of a clean city.
statements too the public and political level         This typical citizen is exposing a construc-
of city government and city council. Expres-          tive and positive role model, for instance.
sion of this attitude is the ongoing commu-
nication with the public and authorities that         The street sweeping activities are also well
although homeless and rough sleeping,                 known and highly appreciated by the
these people are still citizens of Rotterdam          neighbourhoods. Frequently combined with
and has to be treated like anyone else.               civil criticism on the official city service
Stage for this expression can be public de-           that’s responsible for the brightness of the

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

street level. Again, this is a positive role        CVD organized a football tournament with
model performed by the homeless rough               members of the city council; offering public
sleepers.                                           opinion a view on the involvement of the
                                                    Rotterdam homeless with the victims of this
In case of the Tsunami fund raising, related        natural disaster.
with efficient and suitable media attention,


The institutional support division in St.           level of engagement on the side of a bene-
Brother Alberta Aid Society embraces                ficiary and psycho-physical capacity of
hierarchised and standardized institutions          a      given   homeless       person.     The
as well as “Assisted Living” flats hired on         hierarchisation of the institutions is signifi-
the open market for people at the final             cantly increase the effectiveness of the
stage of the process of coming out of               process of getting out of homelessness
homelessness, constituting together with            which should include the activities within
the work of street-workers a consistent             social work described below.
system of help offered to a homeless per-
                                                    Due to the individual nature of problems
                                                    concerning homeless people it is not possi-
                                                    ble to define a uniform model of social work
Institutions for the homeless hierarchised
                                                    that is carried out both in the local envi-
and organized up to the standard are to
                                                    ronment and in specialist institutions. It is,
support the process of coming out of home-
                                                    however, possible to define a general direc-
lessness by dividing the beneficiaries who
                                                    tion of activities undertaken within the
are interested in the process of social and
                                                    scope of social welfare in reference to con-
occupational reintegration from those who
                                                    secutive stages of work with a homeless
are only looking for a shelter or meal.
The help is based on a precise diagnosis
                                                    STREETWORK – stage one
and includes:
                                                    Beside the system of institutional help there
Intervention – namely undertaking
                                                    is also field social workers whose task will is
a number of remedial measures with a view
                                                    to monitor places in Tricity where the
to stopping or preventing behaviour or
                                                    homeless stay – uninhabitable places, the
situations that are harmful from a social
                                                    surroundings of the city center, railway
point of view. In particular the following
                                                    stations, allotments and heat distribution
measures will be undertaken: providing
                                                    centers. The task of the street-workers is to
shelter, food and necessary clothing. Inter-
                                                    establish contact with the homeless, inform
vention is an obligation on the side of each
                                                    them about the possibilities of getting help,
commune. Therefore, there should be coali-
                                                    provide them with help, monitor the situa-
tions established for the sake of co-
                                                    tion, co-operate with public services and
operation between the Social Welfare (both
                                                    with the Teams for the Homeless at the
the NGO sector and the public sector), the
                                                    Municipal Welfare Offices. The street-
Police, Municipal Police, Railway Security
                                                    workers are undergo supervision during
Services, Health Care.
                                                    whole time.
Specialist help – namely the realization
                                                    Definition of street work
of, among other things, hierarchisation and
specialization of the institutions based on
                                                    Street work is a form of social work, in
adjusting a given institution to the needs,
                                                    which people after special training and

                   Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

     preparation seek contacts with and work                b) co-operation with the system
     with people from the area of social exclu-          3. Monitoring the situation
     sion in the local environment.                      4. Gradual decreasing the contact – be-
                                                            coming      independent      of  the
                                                            streetworker’s assistance
     Aims of street working
     a) system aims                                II.      Co-operation       with       appropriate
         1. raising effectiveness and efficiency            institutions
            of supporting people from the area           1. exchange and flow of information
            of social exclusion                          2. intervention in a critical situation
                                                         3. acknowledging and showing a present
         2. increasing the chances of monitor-              picture of the issue
            ing and counteracting threats oc-
            curring in a given community in a            WARMING CENTER - stage two
            given area
                                                         A warming place is a place where the
     b) focused on an individual                         homeless may stay overnight; instead of
         1. improving the quality and aspiring           beds there are only chairs. The place is
            to change attitudes and ways of              open in the evening and at night.
                                                         The addressees of the help are mainly
     The ‘street worker’s’ mission is:                   rough sleepers who wish to spend a night
                                                         in a warm place, with access to a toilet and
        reaching the homeless and threatened            a possibility to eat a warm meal. The
         with homelessness,                              homeless spending a night there may be
                                                         under the influence of alcohol but do not
        working with them towards positive              require medical services’ intervention. How-
         changes, understood as a willingness to         ever, they cannot be a threat to the other
         change the way of living,                       people staying there. There is a total ban
                                                         on drinking alcohol or taking any other
        co-operating with a person, making use          psychotropic substances at the place.
         of his/her potential
                                                         The idea behind the work of this institution
     The street worker’s tasks                           is to establish a bridge between the home-
                                                         less, who on a daily basis do not use the
I.      Work with a client                               support and assistance of help institutions
     1. Establishing, keeping in and developing          and who are rough sleepers, and the sup-
        contact                                          port system meant for the homeless. Its
        a) Contact – assessment of a situation           goal is to establish contact and maintain it
            – need to intervene/work on a                with the people who are basically outside
            long-term basis                              the system of social welfare.
        b) Arousing trust
        c) Arousing and making aware of the              The place keeps record of the people find-
            needs – a change from ‘here and              ing help there (basic data: name, surname,
            now’ to prospective thinking                 date of birth)
        d) Joint preparation of an agenda of
            activities on the basis of a given           The warming place is in the centre of
            person’s potential against the               Gdańsk, at the main railway station.
            background of the community –
            making the needs real.                       There is also an information point at the
        e) Motivating for realising the aganda           place for the homeless (e.g. where to look
        f) Conveying reliable information on             for help and how to get it), medical first-aid
            the help system                              (dressing materials, pain-killers). The staff
     2. Transferring the contact                         there are usually social workers, trained
        a) including a client into the help sys-         how to provide first aid.

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

                                                       encouraging the client to work on himself
NIGHT SHELTER – stage three                            or herself, to show a possible way out of
                                                       the situation, present possibilities of
Night shelter is the element of the system             change, present the offer of the ‘Agenda of
and it offer the basic standard of services.           Homelessness - Standard of Active Return
The homeless are admitted there mainly                 to the Labour Market’ programme.
with a view to spending the night, washing
or changing clothes.                                   In crisis situation’s, in winter periods for
                                                       example, the homeless will also be able to
The addressees of the services are all the             stay in the shelter during the day in a
people who accept the regulations of the               common room.
institution in compliance with the act on
social welfare with its later amendments;              Social work in night shelter is on basic level.
with the exception of people under the                 Begins from establishing which commune is
influence of alcohol or other psychotropic             applicable in a given situation, getting in
drugs.                                                 touch with an appropriate social worker,
                                                       generally reconnoitering the reasons of
The night shelter is functioning from even-            homelessness, expectations and needs of a
ing hours till morning hours and in extraor-           given person, assessing the capacity of a
dinary circumstances it may even be open               client and qualifying him/her for a given
24h.      The    rooms     are      shared   by        institution; in other words conducting an
a number of people and the inhabitants of              initial diagnosis, completing necessary doc-
the institution are entitled to get one hot            uments (identity card, National Health Care
meal.                                                  book, military book, insurance book), ena-
In the idea of nigh shelter there is no pos-           bling access to general physician, motivat-
sibility for the inhabitants in the institution        ing to medical treatment and therapy; in
to get a permanent sleeping place; each                case of alcohol addiction refraining from
night may be spent in a different bed and              drinking, providing information about condi-
in a different room; there is no possibility           tions and possibilities of using various
for them to leave behind any personal be-              forms of help and assistance, teaching and
longings on the premises with a view to                executing personal hygiene habits, register-
making it impossible to get a feeling of               ing at the Labour Office, motivating to
certain stabilization and identification with          starting and continuing medical treatment,
the place. But right now due to a lack of              collecting medical documentation for the
spaces for homeless people in Gdańsk, the              needs of the Team for Granting Disability
night shelter doesn’t fulfill this standard.           Status and the Social Insurance medical
In the night shelter there is medical care
provided at least once a week as well as a             SHELTER – stage four
possibility of rehabilitation both within the
scope of the institution’s own resources or            A higher position in the hierarchy of institu-
in co-operation with others.                           tions is occupied by a shelter for the home-
                                                       less. This institution is the main part of the
Night shelter provides a full-time social              system of institutional assistance within the
worker. The personnel consist of people                ‘Agenda of Homelessness - Standard of
experienced in working with the homeless.              Active Return to the Labour Market’ project.
There is an obligation for the staff to com-
plete first aid course. There is two people            The institution admit those people who
on duty in the shelter at the same time.               have successfully completed the first stage
                                                       of verification in the night shelter and who
The night shelter is co-operating closely              regularly work in the workshops or undergo
with all the public services and institutions          a training in a work place and who are also
working in the sphere of helping the home-             determined to undertake any activities that
less.                                                  could help them solve their problems and
The support offered to a homeless person               get out of homelessness.
in such an institution is mainly meant for

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

The service is addressed to the homeless
co-operating with a social worker and the             There is also a diagnosis prepared of social
workers of social welfare with a view to              and living situation of a given person on the
improving their living situation after accept-        basis of an environmental survey and the
ing the regulations of the institution.               reconnaissance carried out by the man-
                                                      agement of the institution. Then, there is
Shelter is only temporary accommodation.              a help plan prepared for individual clients
The shelter provides its inhabitants with a           as well as an attempt should be made to
24-hour stay. The rooms are for between               get in touch with the members of the family
one and four room-mates. There is a sepa-             of a given person. There are individuals
rate room in the shelter for visitors and the         programmes worked out of getting out of
shelter provides mass and communication               homelessness. It is estimated to what ex-
media.                                                tent the person may count on his/her family
                                                      to get help, to get support and re-establish
There is at least one hot meal provided –             family bonds. The person should also be
with an aim of finally providing three meals          helped as far as obtaining a council flat is
a day. There is information available on the          concerned or regaining his/her own lost
premises about the possibilities of getting           lodgings, motivating the homeless to ‘com-
help, such as: medical care at least once a           ing out of’ the institution, taking into ac-
week, rehabilitation both within the scope            count their propositions of activities, moti-
of the institution’s own resources or in co-          vating to public benefit work for the sake of
operation with other institutions, psycholog-         the institution itself and its inhabitants,
ical care, therapeutic activities, permanent          organizing group and individual therapy
access to a social worker, specialist help.           (including self-help groups), qualifying peo-
                                                      ple for the next stages of the programme of
The shelter conducts extended social work             coming out of homelessness, psycho-
with a client on the basis of a diagnosis and         therapeutic help (concerning homelessness
assessment prepared by a team of special-             syndrome, alcohol and other addictions).
ists (a social worker, a psychologist, an
                                                      Additionally, there is a social work car-
addictions therapist, a job adviser, a home-
                                                      ried out directed at social integration
less person’s assistant). Each beneficiary
                                                      – based on motivating people to change
staying in a shelter gets an Individual Pro-
                                                      their life style through the realization of
gramme of Coming out of Homelessness
                                                      concrete projects, e.g. arousing the need to
prepared by a social worker in co-operation
                                                      get employed, obtaining a permanent
with a psychologist and an assistant (per-
                                                      source of income, participating in a therapy
sonal coach) of a homeless person.
                                                      offered by a given institution or outside the
The staff consists of people experienced in
                                                      institution, improving the organization of
working with the homeless. There is an
                                                      free time, creating the skills of own money
obligation for the staff to complete first aid
                                                      management, creating hygiene habits, cre-
course. The shelter co-operate closely with
                                                      ating proper interpersonal relationships and
all the public services and institutions work-
                                                      socially acceptable behaviour, participation
ing in the sphere of helping the homeless.
                                                      and access to entertainment (e.g. going to
                                                      the cinema and theatre) co-operation with
Social work in the shelter is on high level
                                                      local communities (e.g. co-organising local
                                                      fairs), access to mass communication (the
The basis for this stage is the information
obtained from the night shelter, where the
first stage of social work with a client has
                                                      Together with the work focused on social
been completed. In the shelter there is a
                                                      integration there is social work under-
division of duties as far as realizing social
                                                      taken focused on occupational inte-
work with individual persons is concerned.
                                                      gration – establishing labour clubs, making
Each worker of the shelter is responsible for
                                                      it easier to contact prospective employers
introducing activities connected with social
                                                      and to have access to job offers, setting up
work. Once or twice every second week
                                                      workshops and working teams providing
there is obligatorily organized staff meet-
                                                      services outside the institution (possibly
ings enabling to monitor and evaluate work.
                                                      a preliminary stage of setting up a Social

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

Firm), e.g. a repair and building team,               Social work is closely adjusted to the
printing team, tailoring team; establishing           needs of a client
social firms and employing the homeless;
participating in the activity of Social Inte-                in reference to the sick and el-
gration Centre; organizing courses and                        derly it means:
trainings in compliance with the specificity          motivating them to undertake and contin-
of the region and the needs of the benefi-            ue medical treatment; collecting documen-
ciaries themselves; setting up workshops,             tation for the needs of the Team for Grant-
e.g. crafts, carpentry and locksmith ones.            ing Disability Status and the Social Insur-
                                                      ance medical commission; collecting docu-
HOME    FOR    HOMELESS        (Socio-                ments concerning previous employment;
Therapeutic Home) – stage five                        supporting the clients in contacts with pub-
                                                      lic offices and institutions, and moreover:
Hierarchically the institution is on the same         collecting documentation for social welfare
level as the shelter and is characterized by          homes, establishing contacts with family
a similar standard of services. It is meant           members, finding out what pension
for a temporary stay or long-term stay even           schemes a        given client is entitled to,
permanent.                                            checking what support from the family a
                                                      client may count on, renewing family rela-
The home is meant for people with alcohol             tionships, help in matters concerning ob-
addiction, unemployable people, people                taining a council flat or regaining a lost flat.
before retirement, retired people, elderly
people and disabled people. Those who                      in reference to addicts it is addi-
have a lot of difficulties with reintegration               tionally combined with therapy, con-
or doesn’t have any chance of independent                   tacts with a psychologist – therapist,
living on their own.                                        participation in support groups.

The Socio-Therapeutic Home provides                   Social work focused on social integration –
a possibility of day and night stay (24               motivating to change life style through
hours). The rooms are for between one to              realizing concrete projects, e.g. reviving the
four people. There is three meals a day               need to get employed, obtaining a perma-
provided. Through running workshops and               nent source of income, participating in
offering various activities the Home caters           therapy offered by a given institution or
for various needs of the inhabitants. Ad-             outside the institution, improving the or-
dicted people will undergo the basic thera-           ganization of free time, creating the skills of
peutic process in outside specialist institu-         own money management, creating hygiene
tions.                                                habits, creating proper interpersonal rela-
                                                      tionships and socially acceptable behaviour,
There is information available in the Home            participation and access to entertainment
about the possibilities of getting help and           (e.g. going to the cinema and theatre),
assistance, medical care – a doctor at least          motivating the homeless to get out of the
once a week, full-time nurse on the premis-           institutions and taking into account their
es, rehabilitation both within the scope of           propositions and activities, co-operation
the institution’s own resources or in co-             with local communities, providing access to
operation with other institutions, psycholog-         mass communication (the Internet), moti-
ical care, therapeutic activities, permanent          vating to public benefit work for the sake of
assess to a social worker, specialist help.           the institution itself and its inhabitants,
Not each beneficiary gets an Individual               organizing group and individual therapy,
Programme of Coming out of Homeless-                  psycho-therapeutic help (concerning the
ness.                                                 syndrome of homelessness, alcohol and
The staff consists of people experienced in           other addictions), engaging in voluntary
working with the homeless. There is an                work, animating interest clubs, circles and
obligation for the staff to complete first aid        workshops depending on the interests and
course. The Home co-operates closely with             hobbies, self-help activities.
all the public services and institutions work-
ing in the sphere of helping the homeless.

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

TRAINING FLATS (assisted living) –                      INDEPENDENT LIVING – stage seven
stage six

For the people at the final stage of the                Motivation schemes and rewarding
process of coming out of homelessness                   models
there is an offer of training flats – individual
lodgings rented on the free market enabling                Diagnosis and analysis of each home-
to acquire and regain the skills of social co-              less person
existence.                                                 Individual Agenda for Getting out of
                                                            Homelessness – an ordered path to in-
The period to be spent in such a flat should                dependence
not exceed 6 months. There is between 5                    Participation in working out an Individ-
and 10 homeless people at the final stage                   ual Programme (Agenda)
of the programme of coming out of home-                    Home – real chances to obtain own flat
lessness participating in the sheltered flats              Boredom – overcoming boredom
programme.                                                 Money – through work
The programme is addressed to people or                    Education – possibilities of raising own
families motivated and determined to                        qualifications
change their life style, people waiting for                Technologies – access to new technol-
council flats or aiming at obtaining their                  ogies, e.g. computers
own lodgings. A condition for a person to                  Friendly atmosphere – homeless people
be included in the programme will be realis-                surrounded by care and understanding
ing the Individual Programme of Coming                     Assistants – combining the formal and
out of Homelessness. The beneficiaries                      informal roles in contacts with the
using the trainig flats are partially partici-              homeless (a friend, a guardian angel of
pate in the costs of their maintenance. Each                a homeless person) homeless person)
person signs a contract defining the rules of
using the flat. People staying in the flats             Influencing Policymakers and Public
are monitored by a personal coach (assis-               opinion
tant) and social workers
                                                           Co-operation with the representatives
The participants of this stage should be                    of central administration and self-
employed and should have own income.                        government – proposing system solu-
The employment may be realized on the                       tions in the field
open labour market or in other forms –                     Co-operation with the mass-media
a training in a work place, vocational prepa-               (programmes on homelessness)
ration.                                                    Membership in umbrella organizations
                                                            (federations) – FEANTSA
Social work starts with signing a contract.                Co-operation with local communities –
The client in a training flat is monitored and              football matches, picnics, fairs, informa-
evaluated; the punctuality of his/her pay-                  tional posters on the institutions
ments (e.g. a rent) is checked; the client is              Campaigning on the possibility of trans-
provided with help in planning a domestic                   ferring 1% of the annual income tax for
budget, organizing a day, adapting to                       the benefit of our organisation
a new environment, psychological and                       Carrying out social research
therapeutic problems (concerning the syn-                  National and international co-operation
drome of homelessness, alcohol and other
addictions). In justified cases there is also
assistance provided in other spheres.

Part 4. Conclusions

                Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

The aim of this report is certainly not to
create a uniform catalogue of services in              Area 2.
the field of providing the homeless with               Warm centers, Night shelters
shelters and housing that could be used all
over Europe. The authors of the survey                 Area 3.1. Stabilization, training, work-
tried to present quite an adequate picture             ing
of the system of institutional support as far          Shelters
as housing for the homeless is concerned in
their native countries.                                Area 3.2. Stabilization, training, work-
The picture emerging from the survey                   The Social Boarding Houses,
points to mainly the similarities of solu-             Homes for Homeless
tions and systems and shows a consistent
philosophy behind help provision demon-                Area 4.
strating itself in a certain hierarchisation of        Assisted Living – training facilities,
help delivered to socially excluded people.            supported accommodation

The hierarchisation has a form of an insti-            Area 5.
tutions ladder, on whose rungs the                     Independent Living
homeless ascend or descend. Each of the
rungs responds to specific needs of the                The philosophy behind the scheme
target group, adjusting the help to the po-            means that the effectiveness and
tential and limitations of the homeless. The           quality of services in the field of help-
institutional chain presented by the individ-          ing the homeless are increased. The
ual partners of the Home@Work theoreti-                more so, that the methods included in
cally leads the homeless from homelessness             the scheme are combined with a thor-
to independence and independent living.                ough diagnosis of a person, participa-
The partners associated within the H@W                 tion,      education,       occupational
share the view that there is no homogenei-             activisation, individual work of e.g.
ty or heterogeneity in the population of the           assistants. The whole is an integrated
homeless in the whole Europe, hence                    quality, making it possible for the
a wide spectrum of institutions indispensa-            homeless to integrate in the psychical,
ble in order for the system to meet the                health, social, housing and admin-
diverse needs of the homeless.                         istration spheres.

The philosophy of support proposed by                  The model of Institutional support
the all partners is based on a permanent               for the homeless, due to the overlap-
and complex adjustment of help to the                  ping of many problems, must always
needs of the target group. In this way the             be a part of a wider model of social
support is provided continuously. In its               and occupational integration of the
core, the system responds to the needs of              ‘roofless’ people, which embraces
the citizens, regardless of the evaluation of          many aspects seemingly not connect-
those needs. There are needs taken into                ed with homelessness. Without taking
account which are generally not accepted               into account the wide spectrum of
or which are perceived as destructive, e.g.            activities in the field of homelessness,
extremely asocial attitudes or addictions.             e.g. an autonomous housing integra-
                                                       tion may prove inefficient and ineffec-
To conclude the previous part of the report            tive. Occupational and social integra-
we may divide the areas of help in the form            tion of the homeless is a much wider
of shelters and housing for the homeless               notion than the housing integration
into:                                                  itself.

Area 1.                                                Apart from the similarities, there are
Field work, Streetwork                                 also differences that we would like

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

to present in the report in the solu-                allocating most financial support for the
tions functioning in Czech, Holland                  provision of support for the homeless. One
and Poland. The differences between                  should not wonder then, that the support
the solutions applied in these three                 and help delivered to the homeless by the
European countries come mainly from                  Dutch is really professional and truly com-
the specificity of the individual coun-              plex. Poland and Czech are at present try-
tries. Different social realities in the             ing to verify and introduce the best of the
countries in question have impact on                 functioning solutions. What is the strength
the regulations and system solutions                 on their side is the flexibility of activity (not
functioning there. The factor differen-              restricted by too many legal regulations)
tiating the way the support is deliv-                and engagement in the mission of helping
ered to those in need is certainly the               and supporting the homeless.
character of the issue of homeless-
ness which is different in the countries             All the Home@Work organizations function
from central and eastern Europe and                  in a certain social and political reality. As
from western Europe.                                 non-governmental organizations they try to
                                                     influence policymakers and public
Homelessness in Czech and Poland is                  opinion on homelessness issue and meth-
correlated to a significant degree with              ods to fight with his problem.
the problem of alcohol addiction,
which means that the institutions                    The activities are carried out through
providing the homeless with support                  a wide cross-sector co-operation with both
and shelter must take it into account.               the representatives of the public sector,
On the other hand, homelessness in                   non-governmental sector and the private
Holland is correlated to a much bigger               sector. The H@W partners also co-operate
degree than in Poland and Czech with                 with the representatives of the national,
drug addiction. It is only one of the                regional and local authorities. They also
many differences which must be re-                   have close contacts and co-operate with
flected in the individualization and                 the representatives of the mass media.
differentiation of the system of sup-                Very interesting are the initiatives aimed at
port.                                                keeping in contact with inhabitants, neigh-
                                                     bours and local communities. All the organ-
A factor which is further differing the coun-        izations embraced by the Home@Work
tries included in the report are the issues          partnership are associated in umbrella or-
connected with the legal regulations oblig-          ganisations, associating similar subjects. It
ing in each of the countries. Holland has            allows for a broader dissemination of their
got a number of legislative regulations con-         activities and increases their significance on
cerning the problem of homelessness; it is           the political and social arena, not only on a
also the richest of the three countries. In          national level but also on a European level.
comparison with Czech, which does not
even have an official definition of a home-          The fact should be emphasised that the
less person, Holland appears to be a coun-           target groups of the services get in-
try of a precisely defined and systemically          volved in the activities undertaken by
ordered notion of homelessness.                      the H@W, which is an indispensable and
                                                     necessary condition of work with the social-
Although the philosophy and methodology              ly excluded people. The feature is common
presented by Czech, Poland and Holland               for all the organizations which assume that
are fairly similar, the quality and standard         self-defining by a homeless person of ‘what
of the services and support in the sphere of         the path to independence’ should be in
housing and shelter available to the target          his/her case, brings best results in their
group in the individual countries differ sig-        activity. The participation of the services
nificantly. The further difference is the            users is realized also on the level of the
standard of the realization of individual            management of organizations and projects,
services. Holland has got the most precise           e.g. in Holland there are homeless people’s
standards of functioning of the institutions         councils established in compliance with
for the homeless. It is also the country

               Assisted Living - Home@Work Partnership

legal regulations, whose aim and task is to
represent the interests of this social group.

In conclusion, regardless of the cultural
diversification and different economic con-
ditions in the individual countries presented
in the report, homelessness in Europe has a
fairly similar character. The problem of
being ‘roofless’, no matter where it occurs,
is always an example of an extreme social
exclusion, aggravated by additional prob-
lems of both individual and structural na-
ture. The philosophy of support and help as
well as the methodology of work stemming
from it are quite similar in Czech, Holland
and Poland. What unites them is a holistic
approach to a homeless person, taking into
consideration his/her diverse deprivations.
The organizations associated in the
Home@Work Partnership see a necessity of
integrating various activities in various
spheres of social life with a view to achiev-
ing success in helping the homeless.


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