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					                       BROAD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT (BAA)


1. Agency Name
United States Air Force Academy (USAFA)
Colorado Springs, CO


2. Funding Opportunity Number
USAFA–BAA-2009-1


3. Funding Opportunity Title
Research Interests of the United States Air Force Academy


4. Types of Instruments Awarded
Research and Development contracts, grants and cooperative agreements


5. Announcement Type
This is the initial announcement.


6. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers
12.800


7. Due Dates
This announcement remains open until superseded. Proposals are reviewed and
evaluated as they are received. Proposals may be submitted at any time. Calls may be
placed against this BAA and specific information related to due dates will be provided in
each Call. The Calls may also include specific terms which apply to the Call such as
further technical details, cut-off date for proposal submission and any pertinent clauses
such as available GFP or specific Organizational Conflict of Interest requirements.
Proposals or White Papers can be submitted at any time or in response to Calls. Late bid
and proposal provisions (IAW FAR 52.215-1(c) (3)) will apply to this BAA.

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8. Additional Overview
USAFAs Dean of Faculty (DF) is announcing to business and academia the intent to solicit
proposals for basic and applied research through this BAA. This strategy provides USAFA
DF an acquisition tool with the flexibility to solicit proposals and make awards to develop
technologies to meet present and future Air Force research needs as technology issues
are identified. USAFA invites proposals for research in many broad areas. These areas
are described in detail in Section I, Funding Opportunity Description.



USAFA is seeking unclassified, fundamental research white papers and proposals do not
contain proprietary information. Requests for White Papers/proposals are transmitted via
Calls are published separately from the BAA at various times during the open period of the
BAA (note: the first Call may be published with the BAA).

It is also anticipated awards will be made in the form of grants, cooperative agreements or
contracts. USAFA reserves the right to select and fund for award; all, some, or none of the
proposals in response to this announcement. All awards are contingent upon the
availability of funding for the program areas identified. Unless specifically indicated in a
Call, cost sharing is permitted but not required. This announcement will remain open until
replaced by a successor BAA or cancelled. Proposals may be submitted at any time.


Awards based on responses to this BAA are considered to be the result of full and open
competition. Small businesses are encouraged to propose on all of the solicitations. The
NAICS code, unless otherwise stated in the BAA amendments shall be: 541711, Research
and the Physical, Engineering and Life Sciences (except Biotechnology) and 541712,
Research and Development in Biotechnology. The size standard for both NAICS codes is
500 employees. Proposals submitted shall be in accordance with this BAA and its
appropriate amendment(s).


Interested offerors should be alert for any BAA amendments call for proposals, permit
extensions to the proposal submission dates, or otherwise change the requirements of this

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BAA or its subsequent amendments. Amendments to this BAA will be posted to the
FedBizOpps and/or Grants.gov website and published when they occur. Interested parties
are encouraged to periodically check these websites for updates and amendments.


USAFA will not issue paper copies of this announcement. The costs of white papers
and/or complete proposals in response to this BAA are not considered an allowable direct
charge to any award resulting from this BAA or any other award. Technical and cost
proposals, or any other material, submitted in response to this BAA will not be returned.




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                                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS


I. FUNDING OPPORTUNITY DESCRIPTION ................................................................. 6


    a. Research Centers ................................................................................................... 6
       1) Aeronautics (Aeronautics Research Center) ........................................................ 6
       2) Aeronautics (Modeling and Simulation Research Center) .................................... 8
       3) Astronautics (Space Systems Research Center).................................................. 9
       4) Bioenergy (Environmental Research Center) ..................................................... 11
       5) Chemistry (Chemistry Research Center) ............................................................ 12
       6) Computer Science (Academy Center for Cyberspace Research)....................... 13
       7) Engineering Mechanics (Center for Aircraft Structural Life Extension) ............... 14
       8) Laser and Optical Physics (Laser & Optics Research Center) ........................... 15
       9) Physics (Space Physics & Atmospheric Research Center) ................................ 17
       10) Center for Physics Education Research (CPER) .............................................. 19
       11) Academy Center for Unmanned Aerial Systems Research (UAS) ................... 20
       12) Center of Innovation (CoI) ................................................................................ 21
       13) Electrical and Computer Engineering Research ............................................... 23


    b. Research Institutes .............................................................................................. 25
       1) Institute for Information Technology Applications ............................................... 25


    c. Other...................................................................................................................... 26
       1) Space Situational Awareness (Department of Physics) ...................................... 26
       2) Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership .......................................... 27


    d. Special Programs ................................................................................................. 28
       1) Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) ............................... 28


    e. Conferences and Workshops .............................................................................. 30

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    f. Technical Information ........................................................................................... 31
    g. Evaluation Criteria for Conference Support ...................................................... 31
    h. Cost Information .................................................................................................. 32
II. AWARD INFORMATION .......................................................................................... 32
III. ELIGIBILITY INFORMATION .................................................................................. 32
IV. APPLICATION AND SUBMISSION INFORMATION .............................................. 33
V. APPLICATION REVIEW INFORMATION ................................................................ 46
VI. AWARD ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION ......................................................... 48
VII. AGENCY CONTACTS ............................................................................................ 49
VIII. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ............................................................................... 49




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    I.   Funding Opportunity Description


         The Air Force Academy invests in an active research program for three main
         reasons. First and foremost, research significantly enhances the cadet learning
         experience. Our research is done by, for and with cadets who work alongside fellow
         cadets and faculty mentors. Research provides cadets with rich independent
         learning opportunities as they tackle ill-defined problems and are challenged to
         apply their knowledge and abilities.


         Secondly, our research program provides opportunities for essential faculty
         development. Research broadens and deepens the experience base of the faculty.
         This infuses current, relevant, state-of-the-art and cutting-edge applications and
         examples into the curriculum. This also helps our faculty remain current in their
         respective fields.


         Third, at USAFA we strive to conduct research to enhance the ability of the Air
         Force to perform its mission. There are currently ongoing research projects
         spanning topics as diverse as super cooled cesium atoms, cyber security, spatial
         disorientation and homeland defense.


         This BAA is located at FedBizOpps.gov and Grants.gov website. Research areas
         of interest to the Air Force Academy’s Technical Program Managers are described
         in detail in the Sub areas below.


         a. Research Centers


         1. Aeronautics (Aeronautics Research Center)
         The Aeronautics Research Center performs a range of aeronautical research tasks
         in support of Air Force, DoD, NASA, other government and commercial sponsors.
         Making use of the extensive experimental facilities housed in the USAFA

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    Department of Aeronautics, the Center pursues a range of aeronautic and
    propulsion research efforts, with equal emphasis on basic and applied research.
    The research program in this center is geared toward providing all undergraduates
    with a rich, relevant research experience while answering critical research needs of
    our highly varied customer base. Researchers may expect extensive access to
    premier facilities, tremendous latitude of pursuits and single-minded focus on
    research tasks, but must seek to incorporate student participation in their projects,
    typically two to four students per semester. Substantial effort in this center is
    directed toward the solution of multi-disciplinary problems may require skills beyond
    classical aeronautics disciplines, including plasma and laser physics, automatic
    controls and applied mathematics. The ARC, in partnership with the USAFA
    Modeling and Simulation Center, is a leader in the complementary employment of
    experiment and simulation to solve complex fluid, aerodynamic and control
    problems.


    Current research strengths include several complementary thrusts. Closed loop
    flow control efforts focus on aero-optic and energy extraction, with extensive effort
    in the development of automatic control algorithms and techniques, experimental
    flow control methodologies and CFD simulations. Plasma actuator development
    continues in collaboration with the USAFA Physics Department, investigating basic
    phenomenology while investigating high-leverage applications for the devices. Heat
    pipe investigations seek improved performance of high power lasers. Well-
    developed force and moment measurement capabilities are employed in the
    investigation of numerous air vehicle modifications as well as development of new
    designs. Operating engines, including an F-109 turbofan and several internal
    combustion engines are used for fuels and flow quality investigations. Researchers
    are encouraged to propose topics in these areas and other allied aeronautics
    subjects.




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    Currently available facilities, instrumentation and research efforts can be found at
    http://www.usafa.edu/df/dfan/research_centers/aero_research_center.cfm.


    Thomas E. McLaughlin, Ph.D.
    Director, Aeronautics Research Center
    USAF Academy Department of Aeronautics
    PH (719) 333-2613, FAX (719) 333-4813
    E-mail: tom.mclaughlin@usafa.edu


    2. Aeronautics (Modeling and Simulation Research Center)
    The Modeling and Simulation Research Center (M&SRC) is a multi-disciplinary
    center which shares a dual mission of providing high performance computing
    resources to USAF Academy cadets and research and teaching personnel, as well
    as conducting modeling and simulation research tasks in support of Air Force, DoD,
    NASA, other government and commercial sponsors. Making use of
    distributed/shared memory computing systems and a dedicated research network,
    the Center pursues a range of computational research efforts, with equal emphasis
    on basic and applied research. The research program in this center is geared
    toward providing undergraduates with scientific computing experience supported by
    the DoD High Performance Computing Modernization Program and projects answer
    critical research needs of our highly varied customer base. Researchers may
    expect extensive access to premier facilities, tremendous latitude of pursuits and
    single-minded focus on research tasks, but must seek to incorporate cadet
    participation in their projects, typically two to four cadets per semester.


    The M&SRC, in partnership with the USAFA Aeronautics Research Center, is a
    leader in the complementary employment of experiment and simulation to solve
    complex fluid, aerodynamic and control problems. Current fluid/aerodynamic
    research efforts include: 1) closed loop flow control focused on aero-optic and
    energy extraction, 2) plasma actuator development, in collaboration with the USAFA

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    Physics Department, 3) Chemical, Oxygen, Iodine Laser operation optimization, 4)
    fluid-structure interaction as applied to aero-elasticity and cargo airdrop operations,
    5) massively-separated flow aerodynamics, including turbulence modeling and 6)
    electrostatic force enhancement of aerosol processes. The M&SRC, in partnership
    with the USAFA Center of Innovation, is also a leader in the complementary
    employment of web 2.0/3.0 experiment and simulation on “intelligent networks”
    including the Flexible Distributed Control/Coordination (FDC) process. FDC has the
    desired effect of changing and improving decision making within a Command and
    Control (C2) hierarchy adding a collaborative element to the decision making
    process and it may also be able to align social networking to achieve desired
    effects. This is a complementary thrust with the Department of Homeland Security.


    Currently available facilities, resources and research efforts can be found at
    http://www.usafa.edu/df/dfan/research_centers/modeling_and_simulation_center/m
    odeling_and_simulation.cfm


    Keith Bergeron, Ph.D.
    Director, Modeling and Simulation Research Center
    USAF Academy Department of Aeronautics
    PH (719) 333-9387, FAX (719) 333-4813
    E-mail: keith.bergeron@usafa.edu


    3. Astronautics (Space Systems Research Center)
    The Space Systems Research Center performs a wide range of activities involving
    the design, assembly, integration, test, launch and flight of small satellites and
    sounding rockets to conduct research for the Air Force and the Department of
    Defense. This unique program blends science, technology and organizational skills
    like none other at the Air Force Academy. The Center is currently analyzing the
    spacecraft and payload telemetry of FalconSAT-3, briefing real FalconSAT-6
    payloads to the Air Force and DOD Space Experiment Review Boards, finishing the

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    construction of FalconSAT-5 and performing vibration/Thermal Vacuum/CGMOI
    testing at Kirtland AFB NM, Hall-Effect Thruster characterization at Edwards, launch
    vehicle integration at Kodiak Island AK.      These activities will be completed by
    February 2010. The Center is also preparing for a FalconSAT-6 conceptual design
    review by May 2010. The center also is conducting research on sounding rockets.
    Our recent FalconLAUNCH-7 obtained an apogee altitude of 354,000 ft! Other
    research areas are nanosatellites (CUBESAT class) and space education.
    Designing a satellite is a complex, multi-disciplinary undertaking requiring expertise
    across a number of technical disciplines.


    The Space Systems Research Center has openings in the following areas:
       •   Electrical engineer, FalconSAT program.
       •   Mechanical technician, fabrication and design support, FalconSAT and
           FalconLAUNCH programs.
       •   Satellite engineer, FalconSAT and FalconLAUNCH programs.
       •   Space operator, FalconSAT program.
       •   Computer Aided Design (CAD) modeler, FalconSAT program.
       •   Avionics Chief Engineer, FalconSAT and FalconLAUNCH programs.
       •   Software Engineer, FalconSAT program.
       •   Space operations Chief Engineer, FalconSAT and FalconLAUNCH
           programs.


    Currently available facilities, instrumentation and research efforts can be found at
    http://www.usafa.edu/df/dfas/Research/research.cfm?catname=dfas


    Timothy Lawrence, Lt Col, USAF, Ph.D.
    Director, Space Systems Research Center
    USAF Academy Department of Astronautics
    PH (719) 333- 6734
    E-mail: timothy.lawrence@usafa.edu

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    4. Bioenergy (Environmental Research Center)
    The Environmental Research Center’s (ERC) primary mission is to support the Air
    Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) basic research program though faculty
    and cadet research efforts. The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) has a
    long-term vision to establish a multi-year alternative energy program of planning,
    research and infrastructure investment starting in 2009. The vision involves a mix
    of research and alternative energy production facilities in solar electric, biofuels,
    waste-to-methane and other multiple conservation efforts. Given the recent high
    interest in the use of microalgae in alternative fuels production, our Environmental
    Research Center (ERC) within the Department of Biology is starting up a Biofuels
    research program. To this end we are seeking research partnerships in developing
    the photosynthetic, growth and biomass properties of certain microalgae for the
    purposes of optimizing algal oils production.


    Ultimately, our goal is to have these oils converted to liquid transportation fuels.
    Research efforts will focus on strain selection/cultivation to improve the overall yield
    of oils in microalgal mass cultures, in concert with developing novel extraction
    processes to increase oil harvest yields. A proposed solution would include a
    commercial partner with experience in conducting and participating in R&D relating
    to the production of lipids in microalgae for conversion to biofuels. Ideally, this
    arrangement would include exceptional research scientists with backgrounds in
    applied algal biochemistry, physiology and lipid biosynthesis to investigate/integrate
    a variety of approaches to increase oil yields in microalgae. Researchers must
    provide leadership and guidance for a team of laboratory technicians and students,
    produce reports and other materials to disseminate research results, assist other
    partner scientists and have a good working knowledge of laboratory analytical
    equipment. Recognizing the need to develop renewable energy sources vital to this
    nation’s security and defense, “the primary objectives are to understand and
    improve the facility of certain microorganisms to produce biofuels—specifically
    molecular hydrogen and algal lipids—for use in fuel cells and air breathing engines.”

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    Because of our USAFA mission to prepare young men and women for leadership
    positions within the Air Force, cadet participation with researchers is expected as
    part of our independent study projects (499s) and cadet summer research program
    (visiting partner labs). Additionally, there is potential for cross disciplinary
    involvement from a number of academic departments aside from Biology such as
    Chemistry (biochemistry), Civil Engineering (facility production), Management
    (project analysis) and Aeronautics (fuel testing). Development of this research
    thrust may also result in potential collaboration opportunities with other academia,
    private companies and our Air Force Research Laboratories.


    Donald V. Veverka, Ph.D.
    Director, Environmental Research Center
    USAF Academy Department of Biology
    PH (719) 333-9670, FAX (719) 333-2420
    E-mail: don.veverka@usafa.edu


    5. Chemistry (Chemistry Research Center)
    The Chemistry Research Center (CRC) engages in broad range of basic and
    applied research topics in support of the Air Force and DoD technology base. An
    essential feature of the projects chosen for study is the active participation of cadets
    who are chemistry, biochemistry and materials chemistry majors. The cadet
    research efforts are mentored and guided by Academy military and civilian faculty
    members, with significant collaboration by contractors and academic partners. The
    expertise, knowledge and creativity of scientists who are from outside of the Air
    Force Academy are an important part of the research efforts. The current topics of
    interest in the CRC are renewable energy materials and processes (e.g. hydrogen
    storage materials, ionic liquid thermal fluids and photoelectrochemical materials),
    energetic materials, chemical agent decontamination in ionic liquids, electrowetting
    of surfaces by ionic liquids, microbial adhesion on surfaces, polymer and

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    nanoparticle coatings on technologically important surfaces, organometallic
    chemistry of fulvenes.
    Research may take place on site using the laboratories and analytical
    instrumentation located in the Department of Chemistry at the US Air Force
    Academy (USAFA). A short description of the chemistry research facilities and
    equipment is available at http://www.usafa.edu/df/dfc/research.cfm?catname=dfc


    John S. Wilkes
    Director, Chemistry Research Center
    USAF Academy Department of Chemistry
    PH (719) 333-6005, FAX (719) 333-2947
    E-mail: john.wilkes@usafa.edu


    6. Computer Science (Academy Center for Cyberspace Research)
    The Academy Center for Cyberspace Research (ACCR) conducts research in a
    wide range of basic and applied areas within the field of Computer Science in
    support of the Air Force, DoD and other government and commercial sponsors.
    The primary mission of the center is to enhance cadet education through
    participation in and exposure to research projects in the domain of cyberspace. All
    cadets in the Computer Science major receive a research experience through
    independent studies, course projects and summer research opportunities. Current
    research focus areas for ACCR include cyberspace education and training,
    offensive and defensive cyber-warfare and information assurance. State of the art
    computing facilities are available to students and researchers for conducting studies
    in an isolated network environment running VM software for rapid reconfiguration
    and testing. Parallel architectures are also available for studies using neural
    networks and parallel algorithms. ACCR is especially interested in multi-disciplinary
    efforts apply underlying computer science principles and theory to complex
    problems and applications. For example, the application of concurrent coding
    theory to the development of jam resistant communications without requiring a

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    shared secret; ad hoc network routing algorithms for robust communication in
    autonomous vehicles; and the application of visualization principles to discover
    system vulnerabilities. Researchers are encouraged to propose topics in these
    areas as well as other cyberspace topics.


    Currently available facilities, publications and research efforts can be found at
    http://www.usafa.edu/df/dfcs/accr/.


    Dennis L. Schweitzer, Ph.D.
    Director, Academy Center for Cyberspace Research
    USAF Academy Department of Computer Science
    PH (719) 333-3945, FAX (719) 333-3338
    E-mail: dennis.schweitzer@usafa.edu


    7. Engineering Mechanics (Center for Aircraft Structural Life Extension)
    The Center for Aircraft Structural Life Extension (CAStLE) performs a range of
    vehicle structural integrity research tasks in support of Air Force, DoD, DHS, NASA,
    other government, academic and commercial sponsors. Making use of the
    extensive experimental and computational facilities housed in the USAFA
    Department of Engineering Mechanics, CAStLE pursues a range of engineering
    mechanics, mechanical engineering, aerospace engineering, corrosion engineering
    and material science research efforts, with more emphasis on applied, advanced
    development and technology transition than basic research. The research program
    in this center is geared toward providing all undergraduates with a rich, relevant
    research experience while answering critical research needs of our highly varied
    customer base. Researchers may expect extensive access to premier facilities,
    tremendous latitude of pursuits and single-minded focus on research tasks, but
    must seek to incorporate student participation in their projects, typically two to four
    students per semester. CAStLE in partnership with the USAFA Modeling and
    Simulation Center is a leader in the complementary employment of experiment and

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    simulation to solve complex static stability, static strength and fracture mechanics
    problems. Current research strengths include: high temperature materials
    development; advanced barrier coatings; static strength, corrosion and static
    stability design, test, analysis and methods development; computational structural
    and fracture mechanics; failure analysis, flight data acquisition system development,
    installation, maintenance and data analysis; structural risk analysis; and USAF
    Aircraft Structural Integrity Program. Researchers are encouraged to propose
    topics in these areas and other allied integrity subjects.


    Currently available facilities, instrumentation and research efforts can be found at
    http://www.usafa.edu/df/dfem/castle/index.cfm




    Lt Col Tim Radsick, Director, Center for Aircraft Structural Life Extension (CAStLE)
    Department of Engineering Mechanics
    PH (719) 333-1928, DSN 333-1928
    FAX (719) 333-8520
    E-Mail: tim.radsick@usafa.edu


    8. Laser and Optical Physics (Laser & Optics Research Center)
    The Laser and Optics Research Center performs a range of research tasks in
    support of the Air Force, Department of Defense, Department of Energy, National
    Science Foundation and other government and commercial sponsors. Making use
    of the extensive experimental facilities housed in the USAFA Department of
    Physics, the Center pursues a range of research efforts, with an emphasis on basic
    research. The research programs in this center are geared toward providing all
    undergraduates with a rich, relevant research experience while answering critical
    research needs of our highly varied customer base. Researchers may expect
    extensive access to premier facilities, tremendous latitude of pursuits and single-



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    minded focus on research tasks, but must seek to incorporate student participation
    in their projects, typically two to four students per semester.


    Current research areas of emphasis comprise five broad areas. In the Atomic
    physics area, precision measurements of atomic properties are a primary focus of
    investigation. These include measurements of atomic state lifetimes and branching
    ratios in alkalis such as cesium, sodium, potassium and rubidium along with
    alkaline-earth elements such as strontium which have atomic clock applications.
    Also the interaction of alkali atoms with inert gases is being studied for their
    collisional excitation transfer properties which are important to the operation of alkali
    lasers. This area is closely related to our second area of emphasis: the study of
    diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPAL). Key objectives of the DPAL research program
    are investigating their potential for scaling to high average power, investigating
    various amplifier and resonator configurations and improving the spectral and
    spatial output characteristics of high power semiconductor diode pump sources.
    Applications such as second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation
    are also part of this effort. Other gas lasers such as carbon monoxide lasers
    operating infrared wavelengths are also investigated.


    Fiber laser research involves novel fiber designs including photonic crystal fibers
    and acoustically-engineered fibers for the suppression of non-linear effects in high-
    power fiber lasers, fiber components necessary for coherent beam combining, fiber
    laser and amplifier characterization, novel fiber manufacturing and processing
    methods, high-brightness, efficient, wavelength-stabilized pump sources, modeling
    and simulation of fiber lasers and amplifiers and fiber laser applications including
    but not limited to remote sensing, tracking, directed energy weapons and
    communications.


    High-performance imaging research is focused on novel wavefront measurement
    and manipulation techniques including holographic wavefront sensing and

                                           16 

 
    correction and photon sieve telescopes. Key objectives include developing and
    demonstrating imaging technology suitable for integration into rugged compact
    devices and aerospace platforms.


    Nanomaterials research includes the application of novel materials structures for the
    manipulation of light including negative index materials, phonon-photon
    superlattices, tunable dielectrics, ferro-electric and ferro-magnetic oxides, surface
    plasmonics and black silicon for photo-detector and solar cell applications.


    Researchers are encouraged to propose topics in these areas and other related
    subjects.


    Maj Benjamin G. Ward
    HQ USAFA/DFP USAF Academy, CO 80840
    Phone: (719) 333-4165,
    Fax: (719) 333-7098,
    E-mail: benjamin.ward@usafa.edu


    9. Physics (Space Physics & Atmospheric Research Center)
    The Space Physics and Atmospheric Research Center (SPARC) studies the natural
    environment from the troposphere to the Sun in support of Air Force, DoD, NASA,
    National Science Foundation and other government and commercial sponsors.
    Making use of the extensive experimental facilities housed in the USAFA
    Department of Physics, the SPARC pursues a range of efforts, with equal emphasis
    on basic and applied research. The research program in this center is geared
    toward providing all undergraduates with a rich, relevant research experience while
    answering critical research needs of our highly varied customer base. Researchers
    may expect extensive access to premier facilities, tremendous latitude of pursuits
    and single-minded focus on research tasks, but must seek to incorporate student
    participation in their projects, typically two to four students per semester. Substantial

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    effort in this center is directed toward the solution of multi-disciplinary problems may
    require skills beyond classical physics disciplines, including plasma and laser
    physics, advanced miniaturization techniques, use of Microelectromechanical
    systems (MEMS), development of minitruized automated satellite constellations and
    advanced data mining techniques for large data systems. The SPARC in
    partnership with the USAFA Space Systems Research Center, is a leader in the
    development of miniaturized payloads for small satellites.


    Current research strengths include several complementary thrusts. Space
    physics and space weather study the relationship of the space environment and the
    effects this environment have on mankind. Topics in space weather can range from
    experimental, such as developing new instrumentation to measure the space
    environment, to theoretical, such as developing assimilative models which can be
    used to predict the space environment into the future. Linked with space physics
    and space weather, the micro and nano satellite thrust develops aggressively
    miniaturized spacecraft for use in small in-expensive constellations devoted
    to exploiting the entire range of space activities of interest to sponsors. The applied
    physics thrust considers all applications of physics to the practical applications of
    technology to sponsors and in the past has included studies of plasma actuators,
    high speed spectroscopy in support of brief duration phenomena in the roposphere,
    mesosphere and the ionosphere, studies of the aurora and applications of weather
    modeling to highly dynamic small scale areas such as the Air Force
    Academy. Finally we support a wide range of basic research in astronomy and
    astrophysics in support of the Academy observatory.


    Matthew G. McHarg, Director of Space Physics and Atmospheric Research Center
    Department of Physics
    USAF Academy, CO 80840
    PH (719) 333-2460 (Desk), PH (719) 333-3510 (Front Office), FAX (719) 333-3182
    E-Mail: Matthew.Mcharg@usafa.edu

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    10. Center for Physics Education Research (CPER)
    The Center for Physics Education Research (CPER) was founded in 1994 to build a
    USAFA center of gravity providing impetus, opportunities and tools for physics
    faculty nationwide as well as engage in and apply Scholarship of Teaching and
    Learning-like (SoTL) research activities within the Department of Physics. The
    CPER maintains extensive ties and collaborations with similar research programs
    nationwide.


    The primary goals of the CPER are to:
       •   Engage in research initiatives quantify gains in student understanding and
           appreciation of physics. Efforts in this category leverage the random
           assignment of students within Core Physics sections to categorize and
           assess gains in performance of students within a single semester and across
           multiple semesters. In addition to analyzing performance on standardized
           assessments, there is considerable interest in analyzing student response
           patterns, developing assessment rubrics and understanding prior student
           knowledge.


       •   Develop and share tools for enhancing teaching and student learning in
           physics. Of particular interest is the development of pedagogical techniques
           and supporting tools for the Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) initiative, the
           signature CPER effort. This effort includes the extension of JiTT to develop
           student self explanations under a Worked Example model of instruction.
           Additional efforts would include development of tutorials (to include computer
           simulations) for both beginning and intermediate physics students.


       •   Maintain a connection between course and curriculum development (content,
           assessment methods, pedagogical approach) and physics education
           research. CPER is actively and intimately involved with several national level
           efforts to engage in collaborative education research and bring the research

                                           19 

 
           results into the classrooms, both nationally and USAFA, as soon as
           warranted by the assessment results. Current research in this area includes
           Do-It-Yourself Modeling (DIY), examination of concept visualization
           techniques in eight disciplines ranging from Astronomy to Sociology and
           development of classroom lessons based on the group’s prior work. These
           topics (and supporting grants) are in the NSF CCLI (Course, Curriculum and
           Laboratory Innovation) category.


       •   Proliferate lessons learned on a national level by disseminating research
           results through conference presentations, workshops and publications.


       •   In addition to disseminating results and lessons learned in Goals 1-3 on a
           national level, CPER personnel are also developing tutorials, annotating JiTT
           content for national distribution and authoring a first-ever undergraduate
           textbook in the Physics of Space Weather.


    Researchers are encouraged to propose topics in these areas and other related
    subjects.


    Maj Robert Lee, PhD
    Director, Center for Physics Education
    USAF Academy Department of Physics (USAFA/DFP)
    Phone: (719) 333-3411 DSN: 333-3411
    Email: Robert.Lee3@usafa.edu


    11. Academy Center for Unmanned Aerial Systems Research (UAS)
    The Academy Center for UAS Research educates our cadets as Air Force
    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Officers, develops premiere UAS research
    capabilities and faculty and provides world-class UAS research facilities, supporting
    a real-world experience for our cadets and producing needed research solutions for

                                          20 

 
    our military partners and sponsors. The research in support of this Center focuses
    on providing autonomous, decentralized solutions of UAS may also incorporate the
    use of land and water assets. Researchers may expect access to premier facilities,
    including light weight UAS vehicles with supporting Command and Control
    infrastructure and test and development equipment.


    Current research areas strive to achieve the Center’s goals. These include control
    systems algorithms to direct autonomous vehicles, robotic control and navigation,
    robust communication systems meet the challenges of unpredictable network
    topology changes, inexpensive sensor network designs incorporate fusion
    techniques for target identification and localization and event-driven, multithreaded
    software architectures. Researchers are encouraged to propose topics in these
    areas or in areas they feel will complement the Center’s work.


    Daniel Pack, Ph.D.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering HQ USAFA/DFEC
    2354 Fairchild Drive, Suite 2F6
    USAF Academy, CO 80840-6236
    PH: (719) 333-6967
    Fax: (719) 333-3756
    E-mail: Daniel.Pack@usafa.edu


    12. Center for Innovation (COI)
    The USAFA Center of Innovation (COI) performs a wide range of cadet focused
    research and innovation tasks, projects and programs in support of DHS S&T, OSD,
    DoD, USSTRATCOM Global Innovation Security Center (GISC), AFRL and the JCS
    Strategic Multilayer Assessment Group. The COI also focuses on cadet research
    and innovations supports a Title III Section 313 DHS S&T program called
    “Technology Clearinghouse to Encourage and Support Innovative Solutions to
    Enhance Homeland Security.” The innovation program places equal emphasis on

                                          21 

 
    basic and applied research as well as prototyping and field testing novel
    technologies for use by warfighters and first responders. The COI focuses on
    creating novel linkages between old and new technologies can lead to game
    changing process innovations. The COI research program is geared toward
    providing all undergraduates with a rich, relevant research and innovation
    experience while answering critical needs of our highly varied customer base.
    Researchers may expect extensive access to premier facilities, tremendous latitude
    of pursuits and single-minded focus on research and innovation tasks, but must
    incorporate student participation in their projects, typically two to four students per
    semester. Substantial effort in this center is focused on how cadets would employ
    web 2.0/3.0 collaborative tools to enhance warfighters and first responders’ ability to
    achieve desired effects. Specifically, the COI is interested in championing
    innovations in the cyber area blends the cadet’s collaborative social networking
    skills with the state-of-the art networks, computational nodes, trusted enclaves and
    delayed tolerant networks.


    The COI, in partnership with the USAFA Modeling and Simulation Center, is a
    leader in the complementary employment of web 2.0/3.0 experiment and simulation
    on “intelligent networks” to achieve a disruptive process innovation called Flexible
    Distributed Control/Coordination (FDC). FDC has the desired effect of changing
    and improving decision making within a Command and Control (C2) hierarchy
    adding a collaborative element to the decision making process. It is believed FDC
    can achieve what is referred to as 3rd to 6th degree effects cannot be accomplished
    within a traditional hierarchical organization. FDC may also be able to align social
    networking to achieve desired effects. Prototyping an intelligent networking
    infrastructure facilitates collaboration, with more socialized networking constructs,
    we hope can ultimately achieve a FDC capability. The improvements come as a
    result of improved information flow between hierarchies and throughout the layers of
    a hierarchy, much the same way as human interactions are guided today.



                                            22 

 
    Current research strengths include several complementary thrusts. Crowdsourcing
    in a DoD/DHS environment; Core Routing & Switching; ad hoc mobility; IP and
    digital communications; virtualization; media and content and network
    management. Immersive connected innovations interest include real-time ray
    tracing (3D water and 3D display); 3-D Internet and data visualization; Co-
    Processor Memory Sharing for Visual Computing; Confrontational Computing:
    Socializing Around Arguments on the Web; Human-Centric Vision of Consumer
    Applications; 2D Interconnect for Tera-scale Processors; Collaborative Visual
    Analytics in Virtual Worlds; Parallel Programming Tools: Enhancing Computer
    Vision; Bringing Mobility to Virtual Worlds; Everyday Sensing and Perception; Clone
    Cloud: Augmented Smartphone Applications Through Cloud Execution; Distributed
    Applications with Adaptable Security; Router Bricks: Enabling General-Purpose
    Network Infrastructure; Cloud Computing - near term platform approaches, security
    federation, enterprise collaboration and scalable data storage; internet-scale
    general-purpose information exchange service facilitates, controls and monitors the
    secure borderless delivery of messages among a wide range of internet-connected
    devices and enterprise applications; Collaborative Data Management - Automatic
    assignment of semantics to data. Researchers are encouraged to propose topics in
    these areas and other allied COI subjects.


    Dr. Terry Pierce
    Director USAFA Center of Innovation
    Special Advisor for Disruptive Innovation DHS S&T
    PH (719) 333-3974
    E-mail: terry.pierce@usafa.edu


    13. Electrical and Computer Engineering Research
    The Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (DFEC) conducts research
    into producing needed solutions for our military partners and sponsors while
    providing real-world engineering experience for our cadets and aiding in the

                                          23 

 
    professional development of our faculty. Research in the areas of energy security
    and smart grid technology are sought to include concepts associated with effective
    demand management, integration of multiple generation sources and
    communication of energy events.
 
    The DFEC research program currently includes investigations in the following
    areas:
       •     RF measurement and systems development,
       •     Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) applications,
       •     circuit development,
       •     robotics and
       •     renewable energy.


    Researchers may expect access to fully equipped facilities, including a state-of-the-
    art Anechoic Chamber and RF laboratory, MEMs design and test capabilities,
    various robotics platforms and test and development equipment as well as a printed
    circuit board prototyping support. Examples of existing research include improvised
    explosive device (IED) detection, radar cross section (RCS) analysis, MEMs-based
    antenna design, portable wind power generation and autonomous robot algorithms.
    Researchers are encouraged to propose topics in these areas or in areas they feel
    will complement the department’s work.


    Andrew Laffely, LtCol, USAF/USAFA/DFEC
    USAF Academy, CO 80840
    PH (719) 333-9472
    Fax (719) 333-3756
    E-mail: andrew.laffely@usafa.edu




                                          24 

 
    b. Research Institutes


    1. Institute for Information Technology Applications
    Warfighter’s Edge (a Rapid Application Development team, under the Institute for
    Information Technology Applications)


    The Warfighter’s Edge team performs a myriad of cutting edge software
    development with research necessary for interaction with legacy software solutions.
    The team is primarily focused on the needs of unit level warfighters. Development
    projects range from interface development using plug in technologies to direct
    database calls to web service requests. The development team is geared toward
    interfaces with Air Force programs such as Portable Flight Planning System (PFPS)
    [and its 5.0 follow on], FalconView, Joint Mission Planning System (JMPS), Patriot
    Excalibur, TaskView, Theater Battle Management Core System (TBMCS) – Unit
    and force level and other common warfighter programs. Development is conducted
    with Team Foundation Server in the .NET programming language (C# or VB) with
    unit tests covering code. Agile development, specifically SCRUM is performed by
    the Warfighter’s Edge Team.


    Code is produced on the Defense Research and Engineering Network (DREN), is
    compliant with DoD regulations including Standard Technical Implementation
    Guides (STIGs), ASACoE certifications, AFNIC (EITDR) processes and
    requirements. Software is used on NIPR, SIPR and JWICS networks, therefore
    appropriate security clearances must be held. Research agreements with outside
    agencies is common and all code produced is the property of the US Air Force.


    Strengths are a self contained sustainment capability including subject matter
    experts on staff with real world operational aircrew, C&A and testing.




                                           25 

 
    Overview of some products can be found at http://wedge.hpc.mil


    Lt Col Andrew Berry
    PH (719) 333-9798, DSN 333-9798
    E-mail: Andy.Berry@WEdge.hpc.mil


    c. Other


    1. Space Situational Awareness (Department of Physics)
    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) research is performed by the Department of
    Physics (DFP) across a range of research tasks in support of the Air Force, DoD,
    NASA and other government and commercial sponsors. Making use of USAFA’s
    extensive experimental facilities housed in several academic departments, DFP
    pursues a range of research efforts, with an emphasis on basic and applied
    research. The SSA-relevant research programs are geared toward providing all
    undergraduates with a rich, relevant research experience while answering critical
    research needs of our highly varied customer base. Researchers may expect
    extensive access to premier facilities, tremendous latitude of pursuits and single-
    minded focus on research tasks, but must seek to incorporate cadet participation in
    their projects, typically two to four cadets per semester.


    Space situational awareness is the requisite current and predictive knowledge of the
    space environment and the operational environment upon which space operations
    depend as well as all factors, activities and events of friendly and adversary space
    forces across the spectrum of conflict. Current research areas of emphasis include
    space object characterization via resolvable and non-resolvable imaging using both
    passive and active optical and radar observations, improvements to satellite orbit
    determination and prediction (methodology, algorithms and processing), modeling
    of space surveillance sensors to enhance algorithm development and fusion of
    disparate data sources to maximize the situational awareness. USAFA currently

                                           26 

 
    has a 41- and 61-centimeter telescope for SSA research along with access to high
    performance computing and small satellite experiments. Future capabilities and
    facilities will include a two-meter fast-tracking telescope, small remote/autonomous
    telescopes and radar receivers. This mini network of sensors will be tasked and
    used by cadets to maintain a small satellite catalog for SSA. Researchers are
    encouraged to propose topics in these areas and other related subjects.


    Francis K. Chun, Ph.D.
    Professor of Physics
    USAF Academy, CO 80840
    PH (719) 333-2601 (Desk), PH (719) 333-3510 (Front Office)
    FAX (719) 333-3182
    E-mail: Francis.Chun@usafa.edu


    2. Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership
    The Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership is involved in multiple basic
    and applied research efforts span the domains of human behavior. Specifically, we
    have expertise in areas such as human factors, leadership, sociology, social
    psychology, clinical psychology, social work, general psychology, biopsychology
    and cognition. The research program in the department is designed to leverage the
    expertise of the diverse faculty while at the same time provide undergraduates with
    relevant, applied experience in research through independent study projects,
    summer research programs and working alongside faculty on ongoing projects.
    This is accomplished through research conducted locally and also through
    numerous collaborations with other DoD agencies and academic institutions.


    Current topics of interest range across the behavioral sciences and include:
        • The examination of sleep to assess neuropsychologigal performance as a
            function of chronic partial sleep deprivation.



                                           27 

 
        • Psychosocial resiliency among soldiers who have deployed during Operation
           Iraqi Freedom and Operaion Enduring Freedom.
        • The examination of leaders decision making and performance in complex
           socio-cultural and technological contexts. The goal is to enhance flexible
           and adaptive decision making and consequent behavior in military and
           interagency individuals and teams across the spectrum of current and
           potential military and civil-military (interagency and coalition) operations.


     Douglas R. Lindsay, Lt Col, USAF, PhD
     Director of Research
     USAF Academy Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership
     PH (719) 333-2972, FAX (719) 333-6711
     E-mail: douglas.lindsay@usafa.edu


    d. Special Programs


    1. STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Math)
    The United States Air Force Academy faculty performs a variety of STEM outreach
    tasks in support of Air Force and Department of Defense goals to enhance the
    quality of K-12 science and mathematics education with the ultimate goal of
    encouraging greater numbers of US citizen high school graduates to pursue college
    degrees and careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.


    Making use of the extensive experimental and classroom facilities housed in the
    USAF Academy in Colorado Springs, the Academy administers one of the largest
    undergraduate research programs in the United States, as ranked by the National
    Science Foundation’s annual listing of federally funded research & development
    universities. See for example http://www.usafa.edu/df/data/researchReport-
    all_optimized.pdf The USAF Academy currently houses twelve active research
    centers and two Air Force research institutes as described at

                                          28 

 
    http://www.usafa.edu/df/dfe/dfer/index.cfm?catname=research most of which have
    a STEM focus.


    Further, the Academy pursues a broad range of teaching and learning research
    efforts, including research into the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL)
    and a growing STEM outreach program. The program is geared toward providing
    all K-12 students in southern Colorado (loosely defined as south of the Palmer
    Divide) with a richer experience in science and mathematics by partnering with
    universities, K-12 school systems, non-profit foundations, professional societies and
    other entities in southern Colorado.


    Researchers may expect seasonal (i.e., summer) access to premier classroom and
    laboratory facilities, tremendous latitude of pursuits and single-minded focus on
    STEM education but must seek to incorporate K-12 faculty and student participation
    in all their projects. Substantial effort will be directed toward
       •   Teacher training of K-12 educators, with emphasis on improved methods of
           organizing and providing coherent curriculum packages from national
           providers (e.g., NASA, American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics,
           American Chemical Society, Civil Air Patrol) to educators
       •   “Kindle the fire of curiosity” experiences for K-12 students and teachers
           during the normal school year and
       •   STEM summer camps at the Air Force Academy and across southern
           Colorado


    Researchers are encouraged to submit science-based proposals in these and
    associated STEM outreach areas which develop and implement coordinated
    programs lend themselves to longitudinal studies of their efficacy.




                                            29 

 
    Currently available facilities, instrumentation and research efforts can be found at
    http://www.usafa.edu/?catname=Dean%20of%20Faculty


    Col Rob Fredell, Ph.D.
    Chief Scientist and Director of Research
    USAF Academy
    (719) 333-4195
    E-mail: robert.fredell@usafa.edu


    e. Conferences and Workshops
    USAFA understands it is essential for the scientific community to maintain clear
    lines of communication for thorough and well-reasoned research to be
    accomplished. Support for conferences and workshops are an extremely valuable
    tool for USAFA. It allows our technical managers the opportunity to receive current
    information in their respective disciplines. It also allows USAFA the opportunity to
    inform the research community of the current thrust of USAFAs programs.
    Conferences and workshops constitute a key forum for research and technology
    interchange. USAFA accepts proposals from all recognized scientific, technical or
    professional organizations qualify for federal tax-exempt status. USAFAs financial
    support through appropriate financing vehicles for conferences and workshops is
    dependent on the availability of funds, Technical Program Manager’s discretion and
    certain other restrictions including:


       •   USAFA support for a workshop or conference is not to be considered as an
           endorsement of any co-sponsoring organization, profit or non-profit.
       •   The subject matter of the conference or workshop is scientific, technical, or
           involves professional issues are relevant to USAFAs mission of managing
           the Air Force basic and applied research programs.
       •   The purpose of our support is to transfer federally developed technology to
           the private sector or to stimulate wider interest and inquiry into the relevant

                                            30 

 
           scientific, technical, or professional issues relevant to USAFAs mission of
           managing the Air Force basic and applied research programs. Proposals for
           conference or workshop support should be submitted a minimum of six
           months prior to the date of the conference. Proposals should include the
           following:


    f. Technical Information:
       •   Summary indicating the objective(s) of the conference/workshop
       •   Topic(s) to be covered and how they are relevant to USAFAs mission of
           managing the Air Force basic and applied research programs
       •   Title, location and date(s) of the conference/workshop
       •   Explanation of how the conference/workshop will relate to the research
           interests of USAFA
       •   Chairperson or principal investigator and his/her biographical information
       •   List of proposed participants and method (or copies) of announcement or
           invitation
       •   A note whether foreign nationals will be present


    g. Evaluation Criteria For Conference Support:
    Anticipated use of funds requested from USAFA proposals for conferences and
    workshops will be evaluated using the following criteria. All factors are of equal
    importance to each other:
       •   Technical merits of the proposed research and development
       •   Potential relationship of the proposed research and development to the
           Department of Defense
       •   The qualifications of the principal investigator(s) or conference chair(s)
       •   The realism and reasonableness of cost including proposed cost sharing and
           availability of funds




                                           31 

 
           h. Cost Information (In addition to information required on SF 424 Research
           and Related (R & R) Budget forms):
              •   Total project costs by major cost elements
              •   Anticipated sources of conference/workshop income and amount from each
                  source


           If you have questions concerning the scientific aspects of a potential proposal to
           USAFA for conference or workshop support, please contact the Technical Program
           Manager listed in Section I of the BAA for particular scientific area.


    II.    Award Information


           1. The Government anticipates the award of grants, cooperative agreements or
              contracts under this BAA. It is anticipated cumulative annual awards will not
              exceed fifty million dollars.
           2. The amount of resources made available to this BAA will depend on the quality
              of the proposals received and the availability of funds.
           3. Awards may start any time during the fiscal year.


    III.   Eligibility Information


           All responsible, potential applicants from academia and industry are eligible to
           submit proposals. USAFA particularly encourages proposals from small businesses,
           historically black colleges and universities, minority institutions and minority
           researchers. However, no portion of this BAA is set aside for a specific group.


           Proposals from Federal Agencies, including subcontracting/sub-recipient efforts will
           not be evaluated under this BAA. Federal agencies should contact the Technical
           Program Manager associated with technical area and listed in Section I of the BAA



                                                   32 

 
          to discuss funding through the internal Government procedures. Cost sharing is
          encouraged but not required.


    IV.   Application and Submission Information


          1. Address to Request Announcement Package – This announcement may be
             accessed from the Internet at Grants.gov. See ‘For Electronic Submission’
             below. A copy of this BAA is also posted on FedBizOpps.


          2. Marking of Proposals - As previously stated, USAFA is seeking white papers
             and proposals do not contain proprietary information. If proprietary information
             is submitted, USAFA will make every effort to protect the confidentiality of the
             proposal and any evaluations. However, under the Freedom of Information Act
             (FOIA) requirements, such information (or portions thereof) may potentially be
             subject to release. If protection is desired for proprietary or confidential
             information, the proposer must mark the proposal with a protective legend found
             in FAR 52.215-1(e), Instructions to Offerors – Competitive Acquisition (Jan
             2004), (modified to permit release to outside evaluators retained by USAFA).
             Since the Government anticipates the award of grants, cooperative agreements,
             or contracts, this statement is applicable to proposals for all three of these
             potential instruments.


          3. Content and Form of Application Submission –
                 a. White Paper - Before submitting a research proposal, you may wish to
                     further explore proposal opportunities. You can do this by contacting the
                     appropriate USAFA Technical Program Manager who can provide
                     greater detail about a particular opportunity; the Technical Program
                     Manager may then ask for a white paper. However, in your
                     conversations with a Government official, be aware only warranted



                                                 33 

 
       contracting and grants officers are authorized to commit the
       Government.


       If you prefer, or the Technical Program Manager requests, you may
       submit a White Paper, which should briefly describe the proposed
       research project’s (1) objective, (2) general approach and (3) impact of
       Department of Defense (DoD) and civilian technology. The white paper
       may also contain any unique capabilities or experience you may have
       (e.g., collaborative research activities involving Air Force, DoD, or other
       Federal laboratory.) The Technical Program Manager may have
       additional guidelines regarding form and content of preliminary
       proposals. For additional information regarding White Papers and for
       ease of offerors and consistency, please see the AFRL BAA Guide for
       Industry at
       www.wpafb.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=6790.%20.


         White Paper Format
         •   Paper Size – 8.5 x 11 inch paper
         •   Margins – 1 inch
         •   Spacing – single or double spaced
         •   Font – Times New Roman, 10 or 12 point
         •   Copies – as discussed with the Technical Program Manager
         •   Content – as described above


    b. Full Proposals – All proposals should be submitted electronically and
       must include the SF 424 (R & R) form from
       www.grants.gov/agencies/approved_standard_forms.jsp#2 as the cover
       page. Unnecessarily elaborate brochures, reprints or presentations
       beyond those sufficient to present a complete and effective proposal are
       not desired. To convert attachments into PDF format, Grants.gov

                                  34 

 
      provides a list of PDF file converters at
      www.grants.gov/help/download_software.jsp


        Full Proposal Format
        •   Paper Size
        •   8.5 x 11 inch paper
        •   Margins – 1 inch
        •   Spacing – single or double spaced
        •   Font – Times New Roman, 10 or 12 point
        •   Page Limitation – None, although unnecessarily elaborate
            proposals are not desirable.
        •   Attachments – submit in PDF format (Adobe Portable Document
            Format)
        •   Content – as described below


    1.) Advance Preparation For Electronic Submission - Electronic
       proposals must be submitted through Grants.gov. There are several
       one-time actions your organization must have completed before it will
       be able to submit applications through Grants.gov. Well before the
       submission deadline, you should verify the persons authorized to submit
       proposals for your organization have completed those actions. If not, it
       may take them up to 21 days to complete the actions before they will be
       able to submit applications.


       The process your organization must complete includes obtaining a Dun
       and Bradstreet Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) number,
       registering with the Central Contract Registry (CCR), registering with
       the credential provider and registering with Grants.gov. (Designating an
       E-Business Point of Contact (EBiz POC) and obtaining a special
       password called MPIN are important steps in the CCR registration

                                  35 

 
       process.) Go to www.grants.gov/applicants/get_registered.jsp. Use the
       Grants.gov Organization Registration Checklist at
       www.grants.gov/section3/OrganizationRegCheck.pdf to guide you
       through the process. To submit a proposal through Grants.gov,
       applicants will need to download Adobe Reader. This small, free
       program will allow you to access, complete and submit applications
       electronically and securely. To download a free version of the software,
       visit the following web site:
       www.grants.gov/help/download_software.jsp. Consult Grants.gov to
       ensure you have the required version of Adobe Reader installed.
       Should you have questions relating to the registration process, system
       requirements, how an application form works, the submittal process or
       Adobe Reader forms, call Grants.gov at 1-800-518-4726 or
       support@grants.gov for updated information.


    2.) Submitting the Application


       a) For Electronic Submission – Application forms and instructions
          are available at Grants.gov. To access these materials, go to
          www.grants.gov, select “Apply for Grants” and then follow the
          instructions. In the Grants.gov search function, enter the funding
          opportunity number for this announcement (USAFA-BAA-2009-1).
          You can also search for the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance
          (CFDA) Number 12.800, Air Force Defense Research Sciences
          Program. On the Selected Grant Applications for Download page,
          click on 'download' under the heading 'Instructions and Applications'
          to download the application package.


          All electronic submission requirements will be defined in each Call.



                                  36 

 
       Note: All attachments to all forms must be submitted in PDF
       format (Adobe Portable Document Format). Grants.gov provides
       links to PDF file converters at this site:
       grants.gov/agencies/asoftware.jsp#3.


    b) SF 424 Research and Related Form (R & R) - The SF 424 (R & R)
       form can be downloaded from
       www.grants.gov/agencies/approved_standard_forms.jsp#2 and must
       be used as the cover page for all electronic proposals. Complete all
       the required fields and the following instructions for the specified
       fields. Mandatory fields will have an asterisk marking the field and
       will appear yellow on most computers. In grants.gov, some field’s
       will self populate based on the BAA selected. Please fill out the SF
       424 first, as some fields on the SF 424 are used to auto populate
       fields in other forms. The completion of most fields is self-
       explanatory except for the following special instructions:


       - Field 2: The Applicant Identifier may be left blank.


       - Field 3: The Date Received by State and the State Application
       Identified are not applicable to research.


       - Field 7: Complete as indicated. If Small Business is selected,
       please note if the organization is Woman-owned and/or Socially and
       Economically Disadvantaged. If the organization is a Minority
       Institution, select "Other" and under “Other (Specify)” note you are a
       Minority Institution (MI).


       - Field 9: List USAFA as the reviewing agency. This field is pre-
       populated in grants.gov.

                               37 

 
       - Field 17: Choose ‘No’ and check 'Program is Not Covered By
       Executive Order 12372'.


       - Attachments: All attachments to all Grants.gov forms must be
       submitted in PDF format (Adobe Portable Document Format). To
       convert attachments into PDF format, Grants.gov provides a list of
       PDF file converters at
       www.grants.gov/resources/download_software.jsp


    c) Certification: All awards require some form of certification of
       compliance with national policy requirements.


       For assistance awards, i.e., grants and cooperative agreements,
       proposers using the SF 424 (R & R) are providing the certification
       required by 32 CFR Part 28 regarding lobbying. (The full text of this
       certification may be found at
       www.wpafb.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070817-127.pdf). If
       you have lobbying activities to disclose, you must complete the
       optional form SF-LLL, Standard Form – LLL, ‘Disclosure of Lobbying
       Activities’ in the downloaded PureEdge forms package.


    d) R & R Other Forms: The following other forms must be used for all
       electronic proposals: R & R Senior/Key Person Profile form, R & R
       Project/Performance Site Locations form, R & R Other Project
       Information form and the R & R Budget form. The R & R Sub award
       Budget Attachment Form is required when sub awardees are
       involved in the effort. The SF-LLL form is required when applicants
       have lobbying activities to disclose. PDF copies of all forms may be
       obtained at the Grants.gov website.

                                38 

 
    e) R & R Senior/Key Person Profile Form – Complete the R & R
       Senior/Key Person Profile Form for those key persons who will be
       performing the research. The principal purpose and routine use of
       the requested information are for evaluation of the qualifications of
       those persons who will perform the proposed research. For the
       principal investigator and each of the senior staff, provide a short
       biographical sketch and a list of significant publications (vitae) and
       attach it to the R & R Senior/Key Person Profile Form.


    f) R & R Project/Performance Site Locations Form – Complete all
       information as requested.


    g) R & R Other Project Information Form - Human Subject/Animal
       Use and Environmental Compliance.


       Human Subject Use. Each proposal must address human subject
       involvement in the research by addressing Field 1 and 1a of the R &
       R Other Project Information Form. If Field 1 indicates “Yes”, the Air
       Force must receive a completed OMB No. 0990-0263 form before a
       contract, grant, or cooperative agreement may be awarded to
       support research involving the use of human subjects. Attach the
       document to the R & R Other Project Information Form. If using
       Grants.gov, a completed OMB No. 0990-0263 form shall be
       attached in field 11 of the R & R Other Project Information Form.
       The OMB No. 0990-0263 is available electronically at:
       www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/assurance/OF310.rtf.




                              39 

 
    Refer any questions regarding human subjects to Gail Rosado of the
    Plans and Programs Directorate, Institutional Review Board (IRB) at
    gail.rosado@usafa.edu.


    Animal Use. Each proposal must address animal use protocols by
    addressing Field 2 and 2a of the R & R Other Project Information
    Form. If selected for award, additional documentation in accordance
    with Air Force standards will be required. For ease of offerors and
    consistency, additional proposal guidance may be found at the
    following web site
    www.wpafb.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=9388.


    Refer any questions regarding animal subjects to David Hale of the
    Department of Biology at david.hale@usafa.edu.


    Environmental Compliance. Federal agencies making contract,
    grant or cooperative agreement awards and recipients of such
    awards must comply with various environmental requirements. The
    National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.
    Sections 4321-4370 (a), requires agencies consider the
    environmental impact of “major Federal actions” prior to any final
    agency decision. With respect to those awards which constitute
    “major Federal actions,” as defined in 40 CFR 1508.18, federal
    agencies may be required to comply with NEPA and prepare an
    environmental impact statement (EIS) even if the agency does no
    more than provide grant funds to the recipient. Questions regarding
    NEPA compliance should be referred to the applicable USAFA
    Technical Program Manager. Most research efforts funded by
    USAFA will, however, qualify for a categorical exclusion from the
    need to prepare an EIS. Air Force instructions/regulations provide

                          40 

 
       for a categorical exclusion for basic and applied scientific research
       usually confined to the laboratory, if the research complies with all
       other applicable safety, environmental and natural resource
       conservation laws. Each proposal shall address environmental
       impact by filling in fields 4a through 4d of the R & R Other Project
       Information Form. This information will be used by USAFA to make
       a determination if the proposed research effort qualifies for
       categorical exclusion.


       Abstract - Include a concise (not to exceed 300 words) abstract
       describes the research objective, technical approaches, anticipated
       outcome and impact of the specific research. In the header of the
       abstract include the Technical Program Manager’s name who should
       receive the proposal for consideration and evaluation. Attach the
       Abstract to the R & R Other Project Information form in field 6.


    h) R & R Other Project Information Form - Project Narrative
       Instructions


       Project Narrative – Describe clearly the research including the
       objective and approach to be performed keeping in mind the
       evaluation criteria listed in Section V of this announcement. Also
       briefly indicate whether the intended research will result in
       environmental impacts outside the laboratory and how the proposer
       will ensure compliance with environmental statutes and regulations.
       Attach the proposal narrative to R & R Other Project Information
       form in field 7.


       Project Narrative - Statement of Objectives – Describe the actual
       research to be completed, including goals and objectives, on one-

                                41 

 
    page titled Statement of Objectives. This statement of objectives
    may be incorporated into the award instead of incorporating the
    entire technical proposal. Active verbs should be used in this
    statement (for example, “conduct” research into a topic, “investigate”
    a problem, “determine” to test a hypothesis). It should not contain
    proprietary information.


    Project Narrative - Research Effort – Describe in detail the
    research to be performed. State the objectives and approach and
    their relationship and comparable objectives in progress elsewhere.
    Additionally, state knowledge in the field and include a bibliography
    and a list of literature citations. Discuss the nature of the expected
    results. The adequacy of this information will influence the overall
    evaluation. Proposals for renewal of existing support must include a
    description of progress if the proposed objectives are related.


    Project Narrative – Principal Investigator (PI) Time. PI time is
    required. List the estimate of time the principal investigator and
    other senior professional personnel will devote to the research. This
    shall include information pertaining to other commitments of time,
    such as sabbatical or extended leave and proportion of time to be
    devoted to this research and to other research. Awards may be
    terminated when the principal investigator severs connections with
    the organization or is unable to continue active participation in the
    research. State the number of graduate students for whom each
    senior staff member is responsible. If the principal investigator or
    other key personnel are currently engaged in research under other
    auspices, or expect to receive support from other agencies for
    research during the time proposed for USAFA support, state the title
    of the other research, the proportion of time to be devoted to it, the

                           42 

 
    amount of support, name of agency, dates, etc. Send any changes
    in this information as soon as they are known. Submit a short
    abstract (including title, objectives and approach) of research and a
    copy of the budget for both present and pending research projects.


    Project Narrative – Facilities. Describe facilities available for
    performing the proposed research and any additional facilities or
    equipment the organization proposes to acquire at its own expense.
    Indicate government-owned facilities or equipment already
    possessed will be used. Reference the facilities contract number or,
    in the absence of a facilities contract, the specific facilities or
    equipment and the number of the award under which they are
    accountable.


    Project Narrative – Special Test Equipment. List special test
    equipment or other property required to perform the proposed
    research. Segregate items to be acquired with award funds from
    those to be furnished by the Government. When possible and
    practicable, give a description or title and estimated cost of each
    item. When information on individual items is unknown or not
    available, group the items by class and estimate the values. In
    addition, state why it is necessary to acquire the property with award
    funds.


    Project Narrative – Equipment. Justify the need for each
    equipment item. Additional facilities and equipment will not be
    provided unless the research cannot be completed by any other
    practical means. Include the proposed life expectancy of the
    equipment and whether it will be integrated with a larger assemblage
    or apparatus. If so, state who owns the existing apparatus.

                            43 

 
         Project Narrative – High Performance Computing Availability.
         Researchers are supported under a USAFA grant, contract or
         cooperative agreement and meet certain restrictions, are eligible to
         apply for special accounts and participation in a full-spectrum of
         activities within the DOD high performance computing modernization
         program. This program provides, at no cost to the user, access to a
         range of state-of-the-art high performance computing assets and
         training opportunities will allow the user to fully exploit these assets.
         Details of the capabilities of the program can be found at the
         following Internet address: www.hpcmo.hpc.mil. Researchers
         needing high performance cycles should address the utilization of
         this program to meet their required needs. USAFA Technical
         Program Managers will facilitate the establishment of accounts
         awarded.


    i)   R & R Budget Form - Estimate the total research project cost.
         Categorize funds by year and provide separate annual budgets for
         projects lasting more than one year. In addition to the R & R Budget
         forms available on Grants.gov, the budget proposal should include a
         budget justification for each year, clearly explaining the need for
         each item. Applicants who enter a fee on Part J of the budget will
         not be eligible to receive a grant or cooperative agreement. Should
         a grant be awarded USAFA will make payments to educational and
         non-profit recipients based upon a predetermined payment
         schedule. Payments will normally be made quarterly in advance of
         performance, based upon a spending profile which must be provided
         as part of the proposal. Payments should be limited to the amounts
         needed to conduct research during each respective period.
         Educational and Non-profit organizations shall submit a spending

                                 44 

 
         profile with their cost proposal. Attach the budget justification and/or
         spending profile to Section K of the R & R Budget form.


    3.) Other Submission Requirements
      Electronic proposals must be submitted through Grants.gov. There are
      several one-time actions your organization must have completed before
      it will be able to submit applications through Grants.gov. Should you
      have questions relating to the registration process, system
      requirements, how an application form works or the submittal process,
      call Grants.gov at 1-800-518-4726 or support@Grants.gov.


      Application Receipt Notices


      a) For Electronic Submission - The applicant’s approved account
         holder for Grants.gov will receive a confirmation page upon
         completing the submission to Grants.gov. This confirmation page is
         a record of the time and date stamp is used to determine whether
         the proposal was submitted by the deadline. After an institution
         submits an application, Grants.gov generates a submission receipt
         via email and also sets the application status to “Received”. This
         receipt verifies the Application has been successfully delivered to
         the Grants.gov system. Next, Grants.gov verifies the submission is
         valid by ensuring it does not contain viruses, the opportunity is still
         open and the applicant login and applicant DUNS number match. If
         the submission is valid, Grants.gov generates a submission
         validation receipt via email and sets the application status to
         “Validated”. If the application is not validated, the application status
         is set to "Rejected". The system sends a rejection email notification
         to the institution and the institution must resubmit the application



                                45 

 
                         package. Applicants can track the status of their application by
                         logging in to Grants.gov.


                 4.) Submission Due Dates and Times. This announcement remains
                     open until superseded or cancelled. Proposals may be submitted at any
                     time. For additional information regarding the BAA process and for
                     ease of offerors and consistency, USAFA has adopted the procedures
                     used in the ARFL BAA Guide for Industry at
                     www.wpafb.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=6790.


    V.   Application Review Information


         Proposals submitted under this BAA are evaluated through a peer or scientific
         review process. If selected for contract award, evaluation will be on a competitive
         basis according to Public Law 98-369, Competition in Contracting Act of 1984, 10
         USC 2361 and 10 USC 2374. If selected for grant/assistance instrument award,
         evaluation will use merit-based competitive procedures according to DoDGARS
         citation of 32 C.F.R Sec 22.315. Proposals will be evaluated by the appropriate
         USAFA Technological Program Manager. Additionally, proposals may be evaluated
         by outside evaluators retained by USAFA which may include support contractor
         personnel. Employees of commercial firms under contract to the Government may
         be used to administratively process proposals. These support contracts include
         nondisclosure agreements prohibiting their contractor employees from disclosing
         any information submitted by other contractors. Proposals submitted for a particular
         research area listed in Section I shall be evaluated under criteria as specified in
         their description. Subject to funding availability, all other proposals will be evaluated
         under the following four primary criteria, of equal importance, as follows:


         1. Technical merits of the proposed research.
         2. Potential relationship of the proposed research to the Department of Defense

                                                46 

 
    3. Potential for cadet involvement in the proposed research.
    4. The proposer’s, principal investigator’s, team leader's, or key personnel’s
       qualifications, capabilities, related experience, facilities, or techniques or a
       combination of these factors are integral to achieving USAF objectives.


    Other evaluation criteria used in the technical reviews, which are of lesser
    importance than the primary criteria and of equal importance to each other, are:


    1. The likelihood of the proposed effort to develop new research capabilities and
       broaden the research base in support of U.S. national defense.
    2. The proposer’s and associated personnel’s record of past performance.
    3. The realism and reasonableness of proposed costs.


    Following the evaluation, proposals will be placed in one of 3 categories.
    Category I proposals will be funded as possible, Category II would only be
    funded following those in Category I and proposals considered to be Category
    3 will not receive funding.


    Category I
       •   Proposal is well conceived
       •   Scientifically & technically sound
       •   Pertinent to program goals and objective
       •   Offered by a responsible contractor
       •   Competent staff
       •   Supporting resources
    Category II
       •   Scientifically or technically sound but requires further development
    Category III
       •   Not scientifically or technically sound or does not meet agency needs



                                           47 

 
          Offerors must indicate in their proposal, unless a match is required, if they are “not
          willing or able to cost share” or able to cost share and/or offer these
          facilities/equipment/etc.”


          Additional administrative information regarding submission of applications is
          contained in Section VIII. The technical and cost information will be analyzed
          simultaneously during the evaluation process.


          For conference support, please see the evaluation criteria listed under the heading
          of “Conferences and Workshops” under Section I of this announcement.


          Proposals may be submitted for one or more topics or for a specific portion of one
          topic. A proposer may submit separate proposals on different topics or different
          proposals on the same topic. The U.S. Government does not guarantee an award
          in each topic area. Further, be advised as funds are limited, otherwise meritorious
          proposals may not be funded. Therefore, it is important proposals show strength in
          as many of the evaluation areas as practicable for maximum competitiveness.


    VI.   Award Administration Information


          1. Award Notices. Should your proposal be selected for award, the contracting or
             grants/agreements officer will receive a letter from the Technical Program
             Manager stating this information. This is not an authorization to begin work.
             Your business office will be contacted by the grant/agreements or contracting
             officer to negotiate the terms of your award.


          2. Reporting Requirements. Grants and cooperative agreements typically require
             annual and final technical reports, financial reports and final patent reports.
             Contracts typically require annual and final technical and patent reports.
             Additional deliverables may be required based on the research being conducted.

                                                 48 

 
           Additional reporting requirements associated with certain awards will be based
           on the nature and source of funding.


VII.    Agency Contacts


        Should you have questions about a technical research area contact the Technical
        Program Manager listed for the research topic areas listed in Section I.


        ** Important Notice Regarding Questions of a Business Nature ** All questions shall
        be submitted in writing by electronic mail. Questions presented by telephone call,
        fax message, or other means will not be responded to.


VIII.   Additional Information


        1. The cost of proposal preparation in response to this Announcement is not
           considered an allowable direct charge to any resulting award. Such cost is,
           however, an allowable expense to the normal bid and proposal indirect cost
           specified in FAR 31.205-18, or OMB Circular A-21, Cost Principles for
           Educational Institutions or OMB Circular A-122, Cost Principles for Nonprofit
           Organizations.


        2. Every effort will be made to protect the confidentiality of the proposal and any
           evaluations. The proposer must mark the proposal with a protective legend in
           accordance with FAR 52.215-1(e), Instructions to Offerors – Competitive
           Acquisition (Jan 2004), if protection is desired for proprietary or confidential
           information.


        3. Offerors are advised employees of commercial firms under contract to the
           Government may be used to administratively process proposals. These support



                                               49 

 
       contracts include nondisclosure agreements prohibiting their contractor
       employees from disclosing any information submitted by other contractors.


    4. Only contracting or grants officers are legally authorized to bind the government.


    5. Responses should reference Broad Agency Announcement USAFA-BAA-2009-
       1.


    6. Prospective awardees shall be registered in the CCR database prior to award,
       during performance and through final payment of any award resulting from this
       announcement. Offerors may obtain information on registration and annual
       confirmation requirements via the Internet at www.ccr.gov or by calling 1-866-
       606-8220.


    7. USAFA expects the performance of research funded by this announcement to
       be fundamental. DoD Directive 5230.24 and DoD Instruction 5230.27 define
       contracted fundamental research in a DoD context as follows:


       “Contracted Fundamental Research. Includes [research performed under] grants
       and contracts are (a) funded by budget Category 6.1 ("Research"), whether
       performed by universities or industry or (b) funded by budget Category 6.2
       ("Exploratory Development") and performed on-campus at a university. The
       research shall not be considered fundamental in those rare and exceptional
       circumstances where the 6.2-funded effort presents a high likelihood of
       disclosing performance characteristics of military systems or manufacturing
       technologies are unique and critical to defense and where agreement on
       restrictions have been recorded in the contract or grant."


    8. Indirect Cost Limitation for Basic Research Awards Notices:



                                          50 

 
    The purpose of this notice is to make potential proposers aware of the Indirect
    Cost Limitation for Basic Research Awards set forth in Section 8109 of the
    Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2009 (P.L. 110-329). Section 8109
    of the DoD Appropriations limits payments of negotiated indirect cost rates on
    contracts, grants and cooperative agreements (or similar arrangements), which
    are funded with FY 2009 Basic Research appropriations to not more than 35
    percent of the total cost of the instrument. This limitation also applies to any
    new award made by another Federal agency to a non-Federal entity on behalf of
    the DoD using FY 2009 Basic Research appropriations.


       •   The restriction on payment of indirect costs applies to all FY 2008 or
           FY2009 Basic and Applied Research appropriations obligated by any
           award – i.e., procurement contract, grant, cooperative agreement, or any
           other obligation arrangement – to a non-Federal entity or awardee on or
           after 14 November 2007.


       •   The limitation on payment of indirect costs applies to an award entered
           into at the prime level only and does not flow down to subordinate
           instruments.


       •   For the restriction on payment of indirect cost as a percentage of total
           cost, “total cost” has the meaning given in the Government-wide cost
           principles apply to the particular awardee (2 CFR part 220, 225, or 230, or
           48 CFR part 31). “Indirect costs” are all costs of a prime award are
           Facilities and Administration costs (for awardees subject to the cost
           principles in 2 CFR part 220) or indirect costs (for awardees subject to the
           cost principles in 2 CFR part 225 or 230 or 48 CFR part 31.




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