SELECTION by dffhrtcv3


									     Performance Appraisal
  It is the process of reviewing an individual’s
performance in a job and assessing his potential
            for future improvements.

It is the systematic evaluation of an individual
with respect to his performance on the job and
         his potential for development
Hierarchical chart for Performance Appraisal


         Team Goals


  Appraisal           Feedback
                                            Learning and
                                           Development Plan
Performance Appraisal Linked to Job Analysis

   Job Analysis          Performance           Performance
                           Standard              Appraisal

 Describes work and
      personal             Translate job          Describes the
    requirement           requirement into         job related
 for a particular job   levels of acceptable   Strength & weakness
                          Or unacceptable       Of each individual
    Objectives of Performance Appraisal

-Increase of salary.
-feedback oriented.
-Improves Pressure.
-Imparts the need for Training and Development
     Reasons of Performance Appraisal
-It creates and maintains satisfactory performance
-Contribute to the employee’s growth and
-helps the superiors to understand their
-Facilitates fair compensation and incentives.
-Helps in Decision making, log off, and
-Ensure Organizational Effectiveness.
-Present grievances and in disciplinary activities.
        Who will appraise

-direct supervisors.
HR managers
           Evaluation Process
             Establish performance standard

      Communicate Performance expectations.

Measure actual performance through oral communication, etc.

       Compare actual performance with standards.

          Discuss the appraisal with employees.

        If necessary, initiate corrective actions
  Different methods of performance Appraisal

 Traditional                                       Modern
  Methods                                          Methods
-Ranking Method.
-Paired Comparison Method.                         -MBO
-Grading Method.                                    -BARS
-Forced Distribution Method.                        -Human asset Anchoring system.
-Forced Choice method.
-Checklist Method.                                 -Assessment Centre.
-Critical incident Method.                         -360 Degree feedback
-Graphic Rating Scale or Line Rating scale method.
-Essay method (Narrate the employee detail in essay type)
-Field review method.
-Confidential Method
Ranking Method:             Here the employees are appraised on the basis of
   a Specific rank allocated to them after the performance assessment is over
   and the rewards follow up the evaluation process of Ranking, accordingly.

Paired Comparison Method: The following formulas are used for the
   comparison process: n(n-1)/2

e.g.    A, B, C,D E.
IF n=5, to be appraised; then putting n=5 it comes to 10 the result. Hence 10
   pairs are to be made to compare the entire system.

Any 10 pairs are made to compare, for example, A with B, A with C, A with
   D, A with E, B with C, B with D, B with E, C with D, C with E and D with
             Graphic Rating Scale Method

-5 different scales of Performances are there.
-these are termed as continuum scales.
-qualities, quantities, attitudes and
  performances are measured here.
-continuous supervision and monitoring is done.
-done by the immediate supervisor.
              (Management By Objectives)

It is described by a process where the superiors merge in an
   Organization and jointly identify the common goals, defines each
   individual’s major area of responsibility in terms of results

MBO Consists of:          -Set Organizational goals.
                         -Jointly setting of the Corporate
  Objectives and the goals together.
                         -Performance Review from time to time.
                         -Feedback analyzed.
                        -Continuous evaluation Process.
               Benefits of MBO

-Increase Employee Motivation.
-Increase Competition.
-Results in means end chain.
-Reduces role conflict and role ambiguity.
-MBO forces and aids in planning.
-Helps Young managers to develop personal
-Over all the best method of Joint management
  rule policy
           (Behavior Anchor rating Scale)

•   5 Steps
•   Generally Critical incidents are looked into.
•   Develop performance Dimensions.
•   Reallocate Incidents.
•   Scaling the incident.
•   Developing the final BARS instrument.
•   Finally implementing the Technology.
          360 Degree Feedback
• The feedbacks are taken on absolute Parameters.
• A systematic collection of performance data on individuals
  and group.
• It is derived from a number of stakeholders.
• It provides a formalized communication links between
  employees and their customers.
• It compares an employees perceptions with that of others.
• It is most effective in identifying and measuring the
  employees interpersonal skills, customer satisfaction and
  team building skills.
                   Assessment Centers
-A central location where managers may come together to have
  their participation in job related exercises evaluated by
  trained observers. Mostly used for executives hiring.
-Now they are used to evaluate executive hiring or supervisory
-Evaluation is done on the basis of observation for 1 to 3 days
  on the behavior of the employees across a series of selected
  exercise or work sample.
-Assesses participate in basket exercise, work groups,
  computer simulations, role playing etc.
-The characters assessed are: persuasive ability, communicable
  ability, planning and Organizational ability, self confidence,
  energy level, decision making, administrative ability,
  creativity and mental alertness.
             Advantages of Assessment Centre

-Performance Improvement.
-Compensation Adjustments.
-Placement decision.
-Career Planning and development.
-Feedback to HR.


                 -Faulty Managerial Assumptions.
                     -Judgmental mistakes.
               Quality Circle

A voluntary group of people to meet
  together on a regular basis to identify,
  analyze and solve quality, productivity,
  cost, reduction, safety and other problems
  in their work area leading to improvement
  in their performance and enrichment of
  their work life.
The generally regarded ideal size of the
  quality circle is around 10 members.
                 THE STRUCTURE
                              Top mgmt

                      Steering committee



             Objectives Of QC
-Reduce errors and enhance quality and
-Create problems on capacity solving.
-Increase employee motivation.
-Promote effective Team work.
-Improve Communications among members.
-Develop harmonious industrial relationship.
                Process Of Quality Control

It is a group of people who meet at regular basis (once or
   twice in a week) to solve work related problems.

The Process involves:
                  -Identification of Problems.
                  -Selection Of Problems.
                  -Problem Analysis.
                  -Recommendation of the top management.
                  -Implementing the act accordingly.
                  -Reassessment of the Process.
                  -Continuous Improvement.
  Reasons of Failure of Quality Control
-Lack of commitment and support from top
-Lack of commitment /ability of the facilitators
  and the leaders.
-Lack of sufficient knowledge about QC
-Opposition from Trade Unions.
-Wrong notion about Quality Control.
JIT (Just In Time)
           Recruitment Process:

•   -Recruitment Planning.
•   -Strategy Development.
•   -Searching (Recruitment Sources)
•   -Screening.
•   -Evaluation and Control.
       Recruitment Planning:

     1.No of Contacts-Yield ratio.

2.Type of Contacts: It is entirely based
      on Job Description and Job
Strategy Development:               It involves a device
or strategy for recruitment of the candidates in the

-Where to hire?
-What type of recruitment method is to be used?
-Which geographical area is to be considered for
-What source of recruitment is to be practiced?
                      Contacting Sources:
Starts with 2 persons: Recruiter and recruit
TWO Prospects:

Realistic Job Preview: It carries info. About job performance, job
   satisfaction,absenteeism,personal turnover, compensation procedure, promotional

Job Compatibility: It is the difference b/w job characteristics, and the
   applicant’s preference for the job.
      Methods of contacting applicants:
 Managerial/Technical:         Operational:

 -advertisement          - Public employment exchange .
-campus recruitment      -Labor Union.
-Job fair                 -Employee Referrals.
-Consulting firms        -gate Hiring.
-Personal contacts       -Labor contracts.
-Interest groups
           Application Pool

It is the pooling of Application. The main
  attraction is to attract as many applicants
  as possible to have flexibility in the
  selection. The various applicants are
  pooled together, which become the basis
  of selection.
         Effectiveness of Recruitment
-Direct Method
-Indirect Method
-Third Party Method
-Employee Referrals.

-Well defined Recruitment policy.
-A Proper Orgn. Structure.
-A well laid down procedure for locating potential Job Seekers.
-A continuous assessment of effectiveness of recruitment program me.
-A good and optimum job analysis.
Advantages of Selection Test:
-Predicts future performance.
-Serves as unbiased tools.
-Uncovered what not covered by other devices.

-Cannot make 100% predictions on individuals on the job prospects.
-Suitable only for large number of candidates.
      Developing the TEST Program me.

-Deciding the Objectives of Testing.
-Choosing Test to measure the
-Administering the Test.
Analyzing the Result.
         Selection interview
• Interview is a purposeful exchange of ideas.
• Interview is conversation with a purpose
    – Verifies the information obtained through
      application form.
    – Helps to obtain additional information from the
    – Give the candidate necessary facts an information
      about the job and the organisation
    – To establish rapport or to promote the company’s
                     Definition: (Bringham)
  An attempt to secure the maximum number of info. from the candidate,
                concerning his/her suitability for the job.

 -Verify the information.
-Helps to attain additional Information.
-Gives the candidate necessary info about the job design and the Orgn.
-Establishes mutual understanding b/w employee and employer for
   company image.
-Only way to see an applicant in action in all respect.
-the way he reacts, responds, the effect of personality on others.
-the best way to get performance, motivation, initiative, stability, work
   habits and judgments.
            Types Of Interview:

-One to One.
Stressed Interview.
   Steps in the Process of Interview:

                          Physical       Conducting
Preparation of            Setting        INteview

      Finalizing the Evaluation
                                       the Interview
       Preparation Of Interview:

-Defining the Objectives of Interview.
-Determining the Methods of Interview.
-Determining the No. of candidates for
  the Interview.
-Preparing the brief resume of the
-Working out the administrative details.
    Conducting the Interview
-Establishing the rapport.
-Soliciting the Information.
-Recording the Information.
Implementing the records in reality.
    Interview types in detail
• Informal Interview: This may take
  place anywhere. The employer or a
  manager in the
• personnel department, may ask a few
  questions, like name, place of birth,
• experience, etc. It is not planned
• Formal Interview: Place of the interview are stipulated by
  the employment office.

• Planned Interview: This is a formal interview carefully
  planned. The interviewer has a plan of action worked out in
  relation to time to be devoted to each candidate, type of
  information to be sought, information to be given, the
  modality of interview and so on.

• Patterned Interview: This is also a planned interview but
  planned to a higher degree of accuracy. A list of questions
  and areas is carefully prepared. The interviewer goes down
  the list of questions, asking them one after another.
•   Non-directive Interview: This is designed to let the interviewee speak
    his mind freely.
•   The interviewer is a careful and patient listener,
•   The idea is to give the candidate complete freedom to 'sell' himself
    without encumberances of the interviewer's questions.

•   Depth Interview: This is designed to intensively examine the candidate's
    background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on a particular
    subject of special interest to the candidate.

•   Stress Interview: This is designed to test the candidate and his conduct
    and b&aviour by putting him under conditions of stress and strain

•   Panel Interview: This is done by members of the interview board or a
•   committee. This is done usually for supervisory and managerial positions
      Guidelines for Effective Interview

-Time Management.
-Competent, Trained and Experienced Interviewer.
-Specific set of Guidelines for Interviewers to be
-Resumes should be prepared and the same made
  readily available before the Interview Starts.
-Should not end abruptly.
-Definition from Book.
It Starts with “Induction Program me”

Definition of Induction Program me”-A technology by which new
   employee is rehabilitated into the changed surrounding and introduced to
   the practices, policies of the Organization.

Michael Armstrong: It is a process of receiving and welcoming the employee
   when he first joins a company and impart the basic information he needs to
   settle down quickly and happily at work.

Phases of IP:            -General Induction.
                         -Specific Induction.
                         -Follow up Induction.
          Objectives of IP

-Reduces Anxiety.
-Familiarize the new Employee.
-Reduce Exploitations.
-Reduce Cultural Shock.
-Build a healthy work atmosphere.
               Contents of IP
Informal Induction:-Supervisory system.
                     -buddy or sponsor system.

Formal Induction:: -Brief History.
                     -Mission, Vision, Objective, history.
                     -Policies and Procedures.
                     -Rules and regulations.
                     -Orgn.Structure and authority relationship.
                     -Terms and conditions of job.
                     -Welfare measures and safety.
                     -Expectations from the Employees.
Assignment Classification-Model for Placement

  Individual Profile                             Job Profile

            Group Profile                      Job Family

                          Matching group profile
                          and job profile

                         If Matched-then

                        Assign the individual to job

                       Assign the individual to specific job
    Benefits of Induction Program me

-Reduces the anxiety, nervousness, absenteeism and
  employee turnover.
-Minimize the reality Shock.
-Integrate the new Employee in the Organization.
-Foster the feelings of belongingness in the
-Binds the new entered and the present employee as
  a team.
    How to make IP Effective
-Receiving the new employee heartily.
-Determining the employee need for information.
-Determining how to present the information.
-Delivering Induction training by the proper
-Evaluating the process of IP individually in the
  proper sequence.

Reasons for employee movement within

-To improve the effectiveness of employee in the Orgn.
-To satisfy both the employee and Organizational needs.
-To provide for career and succession planning.
-To effect changes in job and Organizational structure.
-To ensure discipline and make organizational rewards
  contingent on employee performance.

It is the upward or vertical movement of an employee in an
   Organization to another job which commands better pay, wage,
   better status/prestige and higher opportunities with challenges
   , responsibilities and authorities with better working
   environment, hours of work, and facilitation with a higher rank.

Types of Promotion:

1.Vertical         (4)Multiple Chain Promotion(multiple parameters
                      like location, or job design etc.)
2.Horizontal      (5)Up or Out( Either promoted or made out)
3.Dry Promotion (No increase in salary)
               Purposes of Promotion:
-To recognize on employee skill and knowledge.
-To oblige it to improve Organizational effectiveness .
-To reward & motivate employee to higher productivity.
-Develop competitive spirit.
-Build loyalty.
-Promote employee satisfaction and build morale.
-Promote good effect on human relation.
-Increase sense of belongingness.
-To attract trained , competent and hard working people.
                      Promotional Policies:

Seniority Vs Merit:
Seniority:                                 Merit:
-Length of Service.          -Must provide equal opportunity.
-on the basis of age.        -Must be applied to all.
-Occupational sensitivity.   -Must be fair and impartial.
                             -Basis of promotion must be clear and
   precise.                   -Must be correlated with career planning.
                             -Must be on trial basis.
                             -Policy must be of good blending of
   promotions , made from both inside and outside the organization.
             Bases Of Promotion
•   -Seniority
•   -Merit.
•   -Education and Technical qualification.
•   -Training.
•   -Career and succession Plan.
•   -Performances.
•   -Other Potential Considerations.
   Deciding the Promotion Policy
-Management must have the realistic opportunity which
   would encourage the promising employees to take the
risk involved in moving upward.
-Must provide promotion to the employee, doing outstanding
   job but unwilling to take new responsibility.
-Must reward excellences.
-Strike Off balance b/w internal sources of personal
   promotion and external sources on one hand and b/w merit
   and ability on the other hand.
         Promotion procedure

-Adhering strictly to the Policy statement.
-Establish a plan of Job.
-True transfer routes(Promotion chart, operation
  chart, fortune sheet)
-Prepare Employee for advancement.
-Communicate the promotional policy, transparently.
-Detailed personal and service records are to be
  maintained and kept ready for use.

Definition- “Trippo”-It is a change in
 job accompanied by a change in the
 place of job of an employee
 without a change in the status,
 responsibility and remuneration.
          Need of Transfer
•   To meet the Organizational needs.
•   To satisfy the employee needs.
•   To utilize the employees at best.
•   To make employee more versatile.
•   To adjust the work force.
•   To provide relief to stressed
         Types Of Transfer

-Production Transfer(Anything other than position)
-Remedial Transfer (Compensate the loss)
-Replacement Transfer(Position…)
-Versatile Transfer(Job rotation)
-Shift Transfer.
-Penal Transfer(Penalise or punish)

It is a situation when the service
agreement of an employee with an
Organization comes to an end and the
  employee leaves the Organization.
       Types of Separation



Log Off-No Production, the company is shut
 down for a certain period due to no
Retrenchment- Economic breakdown-
 permanently the employees are unemployed.

Dismiss-Sacked for some reason.

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