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					Technology update
Vought and Alenia go Global in South Carolina
Just a little over a week after the Boeing                                    Section 48       Section 48
                                                                              forward skin     forward body
7E7 officially became the 787 amidst                                                            assembly
growing orders, Alenia North America
and Vought Aircraft Industries held a
groundbreaking ceremony at the site                                                                            Aft body
where a joint venture of the two compa-
                                               Section 47
nies, Global Aeronautica, will support         skin
the new aircraft program.
    The new integration facility will be
located at the Charleston International                     Section 47
Airport in South Carolina, which was                        assembly
chosen for its access to a deep-water                                       Section 47 to 48 join
port, airport and rail-system infrastruc-
                                                                                                         Systems installation
ture, available land and workforce, and
                                              Vought will manufacture fuselage sections 47 and 48 at a facility co-located
economic incentives.
                                              with the Global Aeronautica facility, which will house the integration of parts
    Although Vought has been supplying        from Vought, Alenia Aeronautica, and other structural suppliers.
Boeing with commercial aircraft compo-
nents since the beginning of the 747                                                Boeing           35%
program, the company has had feelers                                                Japan            35%
out for at least four years to do “some-                                            Vought/Alenia    26%
                                                                                    Other            4%
thing really big, really dramatic” for a
major Boeing program, according to
Vern Broomall, Vice President and Chief
Technology Officer at Vought. The com-
pany was part of the Sonic Cruiser de-
velopment program, which lasted from
March 2001 to December 2002.                                                                                 fuselage
    “When the Sonic Cruiser was re-
placed by the 7E7,” said Broomall, “we
were very aggressive and determined
                                                                     Aft fuselage
                                                                     sections 47
                                                                     and 48
                                              Boeing has numerous partners involved in many different areas for the
                                              production of the 787, including the airframe. Global Aeronautica will be
                                              responsible for integration of more than 60% of the fuselage.

                                              from the beginning to get something                   marketplace. The partnership also re-
                                              substantial.”                                         duces the learning curve on manufactur-
                                                  Around the same time, Vought and                  ing such a composite-intensive aircraft,
                                              Alenia decided to leverage their long-                for which there are no precedents.
                                              term relationship to ensure victory.                      “There’s very little technology that
                                              “We’d been trying to find opportunities                we have developed together and with
                                              for some time that we could do togeth-                Boeing that we do not share on this
                                              er,” said Broomall. “We started talking               program,” said Broomall. “We have
                                              about the 7E7 and it looked like an op-               been moving the whole technology
The Global Aeronautica groundbreaking         portunity. It made sense to do it togeth-             ahead, significantly, together. It’s very
“represents the next step in solidifying      er rather than separately.”                           comfortable to share the output.”
our relationship with Alenia and support          The partnership is a win-win-win situ-                The joint-venture company will join
of our customer Boeing on the 787             ation for all three companies, allowing               and integrate fuselage sections from
program,” said Vought Chairman,
President, and CEO Tom Risley, second         Boeing to reduce its cycle time, concen-              Vought, Alenia Aeronautica of Italy, and
from the left. At the far right is Giuseppe   trate on satisfying airlines, integrate               other structural partners, which together
Giordo, President and CEO, Alenia North       aircraft parts, and modify the product to             represent more than 60% of the 787
America.                                      stay current with the requirements of the             fuselage. This integration work will

6                                                                                                                   Aerospace Engineering March 2005
     Technology update

    entail the joining of the majority of the     plished using Boeing’s new Large             fatigue during normal operation.
    fuselage sections and the installation        Cargo Freighter (LCF). The 747-based         Boeing says the use of composites on
    and testing of the associated system          LCF will conduct substantial operations      the 787 will result in a pressurization of
    elements.                                     from the Global Aeronautica and              a maximum altitude equivalent of 6000
        Vought will manufacture the last two      Vought facilities.                           ft during normal operation because
    fuselage sections, 47 and 48, of the              Boeing announced early in the de-        composites are not subject to the same
    787 structure, tapered parts that tend to     velopment stage of the 787 that the          fatigue conditions that limit the amount
    be more difficult to manufacture than          majority of its primary structure—includ-    of pressure cycles that can be applied
    straight cylinders, no matter how mas-        ing the fuselage and wing—would be           to an aluminum airplane. In essence,
    sive. The sections will be manufactured       made of composites, primarily the same       the difference in cabin pressure on the
    in a new 300,000-ft2 building that will       material it uses on the tail of the 777.     787 will result in less fatigue for pas-
    be co-located with the Global                 The increased use of composites on the       sengers and crew. More comfort is
    Aeronautica integration facility.             aircraft contributes to reductions in        found in the fact that because compos-
        Alenia Aeronautica will build the         weight and maintenance, but also in-         ites do not corrode, the humidity in the
    center fuselage sections 44 and 46 in         creases passenger comfort.                   787 cabin can be set higher and the
    its facilities in Italy and deliver them to       The primarily metal construction of      windows can be bigger. The 787 cabin
    the integration facility beginning in         most commercial airliners contributes to     will also be 350 mm wider than its
    2007. All major shipments to and from         a maximum altitude equivalent certifica-      “competition,” according to Boeing.
    the integration facility will be accom-       tion of 8000 ft to minimize structural                                   Jean L. Broge

    More board the Silent Aircraft
    The Cambridge University-MIT Institute’s                                                               During final
    “Silent Aircraft Initiative” has gained                                                                approach,
    momentum with the announcement that                                                                    conventional
    the UK’s Cranfield University, renowned                                                                 commercial airliners
                                                                                                           experience noise
    for its innovative approach to aero-                                                                   “hotspot” areas,
    space engineering, has become a mem-                                                                   which are hoped to
    ber of a research team that also in-                                                                   be radically changed
    cludes major manufacturers, airport                                                                    as a result of the team
    operators, and air-traffic-control organi-                                                              behind the Silent
    zations, all contributing to a three-year                                                              Aircraft Initiative.
                                                                                                           (Image courtesy of the
    program to design an airliner that is
                                                                                                           National Aerospace
    “radically” quieter than current passen-                                                               Laboratory—The
    ger aircraft.                                                                                          Netherlands.)
        According to Riti Singh, Head of the
    Department of Power, Propulsion, and
    Aerospace Engineering at Cranfield,
    “We often research the whole of an
    aircraft, or the whole of an engine,
    whereas typically university research
    focuses on one individual component or        issues such as designing an embedded         Aircraft research. “The radical noise
    process. We are also experienced in           propulsion system, a low-noise under-        reduction being pursued in the Silent
    designing unusual aircraft and taking         carriage system, and ways of creating        Aircraft Initiative requires a major re-
    them to the level of preliminary design.”     drag and high lift quietly as the aircraft   think of aircraft design, with the engines
        Such aircraft include an EU-funded        approaches an airport,” said Karen           and airframe much more closely cou-
    project to design a “Cryoplane,” a pas-       Willcox, of MIT, who leads the               pled than in a conventional aircraft,”
    senger aircraft that would burn liquid        Initiative’s integration research.           said Dowling.
    hydrogen. Cranfield has also applied               “Another major challenge is finding           A networked approach is an essen-
    some 150 man-years to research into           accurate models for predicting the per-      tial element of the project. “To achieve
    blended-wing body (BWB) concept air-          formance of an aircraft with such un-        a very large step-change in the perfor-
    craft. This flying-wing configuration is        conventional configurations,” said            mance of aircraft requires a radical,
    being taken as the starting point for         Wilcox. “These currently do not exist,       integrated approach,” said Nigel Birch,
    designs for the Silent Aircraft.              and this is an area where we hope that       Chief of Noise Engineering at Rolls-
        However, the BWB is just a start for      Cranfield will contribute.”                   Royce. “We are highly committed to the
    the design, which “will change consid-            At Cambridge, Ann Dowling leads          project.”
    erably as we work on tackling key             the Engineering Department’s Silent              Embedding engines within the

8                                                                                                             Aerospace Engineering March 2005
                       Technology update
                                                  It’s All About Finding Solutions to Customer Problems

  aircraft’s structure instead of hanging
  them below the wings is part of the re-
  search being carried out, with the proj-
  ect’s Engine Team examining the issues
  that would be involved in ducting air to
  them. The distorted airflow leads to
  very high loads on the fan blades that
  would be beyond the limit of current
  designs.                                        “Can I really count on my supplier to deliver product
     With the airframe of an aircraft in
  the final approach phase producing                 through the ups and downs of the business cycle?”
  aerodynamic noise similar to that of the
  mechanical and exhaust noise of its
  engines, the project’s Airframe Team is
  focusing on possible solutions for gener-
  ating the drag necessary to slow an
  aircraft for landing far more quietly
  than present designs allow. The whole
  undercarriage system including landing
  gear door design is central to this re-
  search work. The practicality of using
  steeper approaches at slower speeds is          “Can I count on my supplier to help me solve tough
  also a significant part of the Airframe
                                                           product development challenges?”
  Team’s remit.
                                   Stuart Birch

  bridges culture gap
  The aerospace industry has long de-
  pended on the success of collaborative
  engineering projects. Airbus, with part-
  ners and business associations across                  “Can I count on my supplier to provide
  the world, is a classic example of this                  Best in Class quality and service?”
  philosophy, which sees technological,
  design, and commercial expertise
  pooled, and financial investment                      Kaiser Aluminum answers each of those questions
  spread.                                                      with a consistent and resounding:
       But for collaborative projects to suc-
  ceed, one of the vital elements must be
  attaining, and maintaining, cross-com-
  pany, cross-cultural international com-
  munication and understanding. Without
  it, the establishment of cohesive and
  integrated targets, programs, process-
                                                   That’s what sets us apart from the competition.
  es, design, production, and any other
  element of aerospace engineering can
  be difficult, costly, frustrating, and even
       Although engineering per se uses a
  common basic language, relying on it
  to communicate a commercial message
  is not enough, according to Richard
  Pooley, a senior partner at Canning, an
  international management, training,
  development, and communication                                      For additional information,
  skills organization. Within the global                see the company’s web site at

                                                                              Circle 9
Aerospace Engineering March 2005                                                                               9
      Technology update

                                                                                                 for a new multinational team and help its
                                                                                                 members learn about the cross-cultural
                                                                                                 differences and similarities of their new
                                                                                                     At other times, a series of generic
                                                                                                 cross-cultural courses may be run to try
                                                                                                 and make staff realize that “the way we
                                                                                                 do things around here” is not necessarily
                                                                                                 the way that Klaus or François (or
                                                                                                 Françoise) do things there.
                                                                                                     “You can only handle cross-cultural
                                                                                                 differences properly if you understand
                                                  China East Airlines is using British Rolls-
                                                  Royce Trent 700 engine power for its           that you yourself are far from being a
         “It is easy to forget how deep           Airbus A330-300s. Pooley believes              neutral observer, but are starting with
         and ingrained your counterparts’         successful cross-cultural communication is     many ingrained prejudices and precon-
         attitudes (and yours) are likely to      vital for international deals.                 ceptions of your own,” he said. This
         be,” said Richard Pooley.
                                                                                                 stance is something that is particularly
                                                                                                 significant in the constantly evolving,
     aerospace industry, millions of dollars      cultures” and uses Canning to facilitate       high-technology environment that is aero-
     are lost every year when “mergers col-       training simulation.                           space engineering in the 21st century.
     lapse, tenders are lost, and international       “This [training] helps Rolls-Royce to          Pooley lists four key stages in achiev-
     teams cannot work together,” he said.        support, develop, and train its existing       ing practical expertise in dealing with
         Even after decades of collaborative      and potential sales team members,” he          cross-cultural differences. “First, know
     engineering experience, Pooley claims        said. “Rolls-Royce provides the techni-        yourself. Identify and be aware of what
     that it remains “rare” for senior execu-     cal sales and selling expertise through        constitutes your ‘normal’ behavior.
     tives to take cross-cultural differences     the guidance of members of their sales         What are your values? How do you see
     seriously when making decisions on           executive. Canning contributes by              the world? What kind of behaviors and
     mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures,       coaching the teams and team members            preconceptions in social and business
     and licensing agreements in the interna-     on how best to communicate with their          settings do you regard as the norm?
     tional area.                                 buyers, using real-life Rolls-Royce cus-       And understand that what you regard
         “There is plenty of evidence—even        tomers brought in to add to the reality        as the norm is not really an objective
     an embarrassing abundance of it—that         of the simulation. With recent successes       norm but only your take on it.
     cross-cultural differences are a major       with China East Airlines and All Nippon            “Second, understand the factors that
     reason why so many of these cross-bor-       Airlines worth $2 billion, the benefit to       have determined what your counter-
     der joint ventures or other types of busi-   Rolls-Royce is clear.”                         parts in different countries regard as the
     ness agreement fail,” he said.                   This year marks the 40th anniversary       norm. It is easy to forget how deep and
         Cross-cultural international communi-    of Canning’s involvement in helping or-        ingrained your counterparts’ attitudes
     cation and understanding is certainly        ganizations find and deliver the desired        (and yours) are likely to be.
     important when projecting the finer           mix of solutions to cross-cultural issues.         “Third, know how you are seen by
     points of a company’s technology and         Different deals require different solutions.   others, and, particularly important, be
     engineering to potential customers.              “Sometimes, the answer can lie in          aware of any negative perceptions they
     Mike Corne, Head of Marketing                providing a combination of intensive           might have about your culture.
     Services at Rolls-Royce Aero Engines,        language training and cross-cultural               “Fourth is to learn to adapt whilst
     says the company does recognize the          training for key personnel,” said Pooley.      remaining true to your own values.”
     importance of communication “across          “Or we may join in the kick-off meeting                                      Stuart Birch

     C130 helps the A400M program
     Risk-reduction flight trials for the new         The C130 is particularly well suited           As well as flight trials, Marshall will
     EuroProp International (EPI) TP400-D6        to checking engine performance and             also be responsible for the design and
     turboprop engine are to be carried out       control at low speeds, according to            installation of the necessary modifica-
     by Marshall Aerospace. The engine is         Marshall. When fitted to the A400M,             tions to the C130. Up to 750 param-
     destined for the Airbus Military A400M       the engine will be operated at cruise          eters will be measured during the tri-
     Military Transporter, but for the flight      speeds up to 0.72 IMN (indicated               als, which will begin next year and
     trials it will be installed on a Lockheed    Mach number). The C130 will allow              continue for 15 months.
     Martin C130. It will be flown for some        characteristics to be checked to 0.64             Marshall carried out a similar
     100 h to study in-flight characteristics.     IMN.                                           program for Lockheed Martin during

10                                                                                                              Aerospace Engineering March 2005
                                                                                                                                Technology update

                                                length of 42.2 m and wing span of                       increasing to 3550 nmi with a 20-t pay-
                                                42.4 m. Maximum take-off weight is                      load (both using long-range cruise
                                                expected to be 130 t, with a maximum                    speed and with full logistic reserves
                                                landing weight of 114 t. Maximum                        based on European Staff Requirement).
                                                payload is 37 t.                                        Tactical take-off distance is 3000 ft with
                                                   Maximum operating altitude would                     aircraft weight at 100 t and in soft
                                                normally be 37,000 ft with range carry-                 field, ISA, sea-level conditions.
                                                ing maximum payload of 1700 nmi,                                                             Stuart Birch

  Powered by four new engines from
  EuroProp International, the Airbus Military
  turboprop A400M is being designed to
  operate in harsh environmental conditions.

  development of the Rolls-Royce/Allison
  D2100 engine for the C130J.
      EPI is a European joint-venture com-
  pany, its members being Rolls-Royce,
  Snecma Moteurs, MTU Aero Engines,
  and Industria de Turbopropulsores.
      The four-engine A400M, scheduled
  to fly in early 2008, is predicted by
  Airbus to become “the most powerful
  Western turboprop” and will have both
  strategic and tactical mission perfor-
                                                   We have the motion solutions.™
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  a 17.5-m diameter Ratier-Figeac                  slip ring technology, servomotor and resolver design
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  propeller, with electrical de-icing along        Models are available in housed, through-bore, pancake and
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  the outer part of the blade leading              with your design team to select just                                    Build-to-Print Solutions
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  edge. Propeller control is integrated
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  ing capability upon automatic detec-
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  to Airbus.
      The A400M will have an overall

                                                                                                  Circle 11
Aerospace Engineering March 2005                                                                                                                            11
      Technology update

     Nedtech supports JSF technology
     The Dutch company Nedtech                    embarked on a program of full engine-
     Engineering has won a contract from          development testing, capping a
     Rolls-Royce for design work on the           successful Phase III Pre-System and
     F136 engine being developed with             Development Demonstration for the JSF
     General Electric for the Lockheed Martin     program. A second development en-
     F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF). Nedtech     gine for STOVL (short takeoff and verti-
     will focus on the design of what are         cal landing) operations is scheduled for
     termed “key structural parts” for the en-    testing shortly at GE’s Peebles, OH,
     gine. Another Dutch company, Philips         facility.
     Aerospace, is also involved with the             GE has responsibility for 60% of the
     F136, supplying fan cases and com-           program, including development of the
     pressor blisks.                              core compressor and coupled turbine
        The GE Rolls-Royce Fighter Engine         system components, controls, and ac-
     Team comprises GE Aircraft Engines           cessories. The remaining 40% is down
     in Cincinnati, OH, and Rolls-Royce           to Rolls-Royce, which is responsible for
     in Bristol, England, as well as              the front fan, combustor, stages 2 and 3
     Indianapolis, IN. According to Rolls-        of the low-pressure turbine, and the
     Royce, the contract for Nedtech              gearboxes. The two companies are
     confirmed the commitment to involve           jointly developing an integrated high-
     JSF partner nations in the F136’s            pressure/low-pressure counter-rotating        Nedtech Engineering is now involved in
                                                                                                the F136 engine program for the JSF, part
     development.                                 turbine design.
                                                                                                of a team that includes General Electric
        It was in July last year that the F136                                   Stuart Birch   and Rolls-Royce.

     Ultra cracks WIPS contract
     Ultra Electronics is to provide systems
     integration and controlling software
     plus associated electrical and electronic
     equipment for the Wing Ice Protection
     System (WIPS) of the Boeing 787. The
     system incorporates electro-thermal ice
     protection for the leading edge slats of
     the wings.
         GKN and Thermion Systems are in
     partnership with Ultra. Under a sepa-
     rate contract, GKN will provide electro-
     thermal heater mat assemblies, which
     incorporate Thermion material, for the
     aircraft’s slats. Thermion heaters are
                                                  Boeing’s 787 will use new ice-protection technology that is part of a team effort that
     made from finely dispersed metal-coat-        includes Ultra Electronics, GKN, and Thermion Systems.
     ed carbon-fiber elements and can be
     integrated into composite or polymer
     material structures.                         complete WIPS comprises controlling           cockpit equipment, airframe fatigue
         Ultra describes the electro-thermal      software, distributed power controllers,      monitoring, and missile support.
     WIPS as a new fuel-efficient approach         extending and retracting electrical har-      Thermion will also be supplying the
     to wing ice protection. It also avoids the   nesses, and the slat heater mats. The         propeller blade de-icers for the Airbus
     use of bleed air from the engines and        787 is scheduled to enter service in          Military A400M, while a number of
     the problems associated with channel-        2008.                                         other ice-protection applications on
     ing hot gas tubing through complex              Other areas of Ultra Electronics’          fixed and rotating wing aircraft are
     wing and fuselage structures, according      aerospace systems applications in-            currently under development.
     to Stratford, CT-based Thermion. The         clude airborne compressors, UAVs,                                             Stuart Birch

12                                                                                                              Aerospace Engineering March 2005
                                                                                                                   Technology update

  Extended family from Toulouse
  Airbus is to expand its airliner family       acquisition costs, maintenance costs,         life-limited parts are designed to have
  further with the addition of the A350,        and increased time on wing,” claims           the same long lives, thus leading to re-
  which will be based on the A330. There        Airbus. The engine has fewer compres-         duced maintenance costs.
  will be two versions of the A350: the         sor stages and some 50% fewer high-               The engine meets Stage 4 noise re-
  -800 with a typical seating configuration      volume airfoils than other engines of this    quirements and CAEP6 engine emissions
  of 245 passengers, and the -900 with a        class segment, adds the company, with         requirements “with margin.” The engine
  shorter range and seating 285 passen-         75% of all line replacement units able to     is FAR33 certified.
  gers. The new aircraft, slated to enter       be removed within 15 minutes, while all                                      Stuart Birch

                                                            T H E                       E V A N S

                                                  Hybrid Capacitor
  The new Airbus A350-900 will initially be
  powered by two General Electric GEnx
  72A1 engines that will use a pylon design
  originally developed for the A380.

  service in early 2010, will benefit from
  technologies, materials, and manufactur-
  ing processes used on the twin-deck                           75, 000 cv             vs          51,000 cv (µF•V)
  A380.                                           Actual size
      In effect, the two A350 variants with
  a range up to 8600 nmi (-800) will be
  longer-range A330s. Pilots of A330s will
  not require type conversion onto the
                                                  Compare… µF/g, µF/cc, µF/$$
  A350 due to Airbus’s cockpit-commonal-                                                 The Evans Hybrid® Capacitor, a unique
  ity philosophy.
      The initial A350s will be powered by
  two new-generation General Electric
                                                   Smaller,                           electrochemical electrolytic capacitor,
                                                                                      saves weight, volume and cost by providing
  GEnx 72A1 engines that Airbus says                                                  more than four times the
  use “new technologies to generate a
  double-digit improvement in fuel econo-
                                                   lighter                                                                Designed and
                                                                                      energy density of tantalum manufactured by the
                                                                                      wet slug capacitors.              Evans Capacitor
  my.” The engines will use a pylon design
  originally developed for the A380.
      The A350’s structure will incorporate
                                                   and more                              In two design styles, a
                                                                                      hermetic tantalum package
                                                                                                                      Company, known for
                                                                                                                         the Capattery ,
  the use of lightweight materials including
  CFRP (carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics)
  and aluminum-lithium alloys. The air-
                                                   powerful                           and a polypropylene pack-
                                                                                      age, Evans tantalum
                                                                                                                       the world's leading
  craft’s wing, which will be the responsi-
  bility of BAE Systems, will be largely
  manufactured using CFRP. The cabin will
                                                   capacitors.                        Hybrids are excellent for
                                                                                      avionics, power supplies, power filtering,
                                                                                      communications, weapons systems, medical
  use solid-state lighting. The aircraft will                                         applications, auto auxilliary systems and
  be assembled at Toulouse.
                                                                                      many very special uses. Hybrid Capacitors are
      Meanwhile, the 500-h flight-test pro-
  gram of the Airbus A318 powered by                                                  available in standard configurations and ratings
  new Pratt & Whitney PW6000A                      The Evans Capacitor Company        to 125V. Custom packaging, configurations
  (PW6124A) engines is under way, with             72 Boyd Avenue                     and ratings are available.
  certification scheduled for late this year.       East Providence, RI 02914-2107
      The engine is targeted particularly at
  short-haul, high-use operators and is de-
                                                   (401) 435-3555 Fax (401) 435-3558           Tech specs and pricing at
  signed to offer “significant reduction in                     

                                                                                       Circle 13
Aerospace Engineering March 2005                                                                                                             13
      Technology update

     Aerospace research expands in Asia
     Complex aerodynamic simulation and
     precision manufacturing systems will be
     two areas of focus at a newly estab-
     lished Rolls-Royce Singapore Advanced
     Technology Center. Rolls-Royce will work
     with Singapore’s Agency for Science,
     Technology, and Research (A*STAR) and
     its research institutes on “a broad portfo-
     lio of technology challenges.”
          Establishment of the center will ex-
     tend Rolls-Royce’s collaboration with
     universities and government institutes in
     several countries. “It will be the first in
     Asia and is unique as our first ‘one-
     stop’ technology center,” said Mike
     Howse, Rolls-Royce’s Engineering and
     Technology Director.
          Rolls-Royce has founded 24
     University Technology Centers over the
                                                   High-temperature materials will be one area of focus for Rolls-Royce and Singapore’s
     past 15 years in the UK, Germany,
                                                   A*STAR organization. Here, preparations are made for an engine blade-off test.
     Italy, Sweden, and the U.S., where sub-
     jects studied include high-temperature
     materials, vibration, fuel cells, and         basis—with no central base but with          aerodynamic design, materials science,
     noise. The company says that this work        much of the work allocated to specific        and modeling for fuel cells. Further proj-
     has achieved “rapid” delivery of new          A*STAR institutes.                           ects are anticipated in the area of man-
     technologies for product developments.           Initial projects will involve work        ufacturing systems and automation.
     The new center will operate on what           now under way in Singapore, embrac-                                        Stuart Birch
     Rolls-Royce describes as a “virtual”          ing high-performance computing for

     Managing Merlin’s health
     An advanced maintenance-manage-
     ment product is supporting UK Royal
     Navy and Royal Air Force three-en-
     gined EH101 Merlin helicopters. It is
     Aerosystems International’s (Ael)
     Sapphire, which has been accepted
     into service by AgustaWestland and
     the UK Ministry of Defence’s Merlin
     Integrated Project Team (IPT) as the
     core element of the Enhanced Health
     and Usage Diagnostic System
     (EHUDS), together with a Health and
     Usage Monitoring (HUM) processing
     application plus AgustaWestland’s
     Integrated Electronic Technical Manual
     (C-ITEP). According to Ael, the combi-
     nation forms “a coherent closed-loop
     maintenance-management environ-
     ment,” with EHUDS marking a step-
     change for the Ministry of Defence in
     the management of aircraft logistics
     because it facilitates an optimized           Ael’s Sapphire maintenance management is used in support of Royal Air Force and
                                                   Royal Navy Merlin helicopters.
     maintenance regime.

14                                                                                                             Aerospace Engineering March 2005
                                                                                                               Technology update

      Sapphire is Ael’s fourth-generation      error within the maintenance recording       to support the Sapphire software, says
  forward-deployable maintenance solu-         cycle.                                       Ael. The Sapphire architecture and im-
  tion, providing generic functionality to        Sapphire has been developed in            plementation follows the DII COE Java
  electronically track, manage, and re-        J2EE using commercially available tools      Development Guidelines prepared by
  cord aircraft configuration, asset status     and is compliant with the Open Systems       the Joint Interoperability and
  and location, and maintenance activi-        standards for J2EE application and the       Engineering Organization at the U.S.
  ties. It has been designed to enable the     requirements of MIL-STD-498 and RTCA-        Defense Information Systems Agency.
  maintainer to enter data in a “simple        DO/178B level C software. No propri-                                      Stuart Birch
  workflow process,” reducing human             etary software or hardware is required

  Boeing tests for attack
  In late January Boeing engineers com-            The program involved five different
  pleted all wind-tunnel testing for the EA-   wind-tunnel tests at several laboratories,
  18G electronic-attack aircraft under the     beginning in June 2004. The Boeing
  EA-18G System Development and                team conducted a total of 1412 h of
  Demonstration (SDD) program, validat-        wind-tunnel testing.
  ing that the F/A-18F airframe is suited          High-speed performance testing was
  to perform the electronic attack mission.    conducted on an 8% model at the Ames
  According to Mike Gibbons, EA-18G            Research Center transonic wind tunnel
  Chief Engineer for Boeing, the results       in Mountain View, CA. Configuration
  will be used to complete the detailed        testing and lateral-directional stability    Arnold Engineering Development Center
  design of the EA-18G weapon system           and control testing were also conducted      (AEDC) Lead Outside Machinist Larry
  and present it to the U.S. Navy at the       with the 8% model at Ames.                   Towry inspects the 10% scale EA-18G
                                                                                            parent aircraft and captive trajectory
  Critical Design Review next month.               Low-speed lift testing occurred at
                                                                                            system store models in the wind tunnel.

                                          Please visit us at SAE Booth #2027       Circle 15
Aerospace Engineering March 2005                                                                                                        15
       Technology update

                                                   for the ALQ-99 electronic jamming            the RF spectrum in the future, especially
                                                   pods, external 480-gal fuel tanks, and       in the area of communications counter-
                                                   the AIM-120C missiles were conducted         measures,” he said.
                                                   using 10% models at the Arnold                   The EA-18G was designed by an
                                                   Engineering Development Center in            industry team led by Boeing and
                                                   Tullahoma, TN.                               Northrop Grumman. It is expected to
                                                       The final test, using a new 16%           provide near-term capability and the
                                                   aerodynamic force and moment mod-            capacity to incorporate receiver ad-
                                                   el, analyzed the high angle of attack        vancements, integrated AESA (active
                                                   for the aircraft. The test gauged the        electronically scanned array) radar
                                                   upright and inverted high angle-of-at-       operations, next-generation jammers,
                                                   tack stability and control effects. It was   and other enhancements.
     The 10% EA-18G model in the AEDC 16-ft        conducted at the Langley Full Scale              The SDD program, which runs
     transonic wind tunnel is configured with       Tunnel, operated by Old Dominion             through early FY09, encompasses all
     ALQ-218 pods on the wing tips, an AGM-        University in Norfolk, VA.                   laboratory, ground test, and flight tests
     88 HARM on the left outboard station,             According to Bob Feldmann, EA-           for the EA-18G. First flight is expected
     480-gal fuel tanks on the inboard stations,
     and an ALQ-99 low-band pod on the             18G Program Manager for Boeing,              in September 2006. The EA-18G will
     centerline station.                           the EA-18G will provide improved ca-         reach initial operational capability in
                                                   pability and readiness, while offering       the Navy by 2009.
                                                   a dramatic reduction in operating and
                                                                                                                           Jean L. Broge
     the Boeing STOVL (short takeoff and           support costs.
     vertical landing) wind tunnel in                  “The electronic-attack system on the
     Philadelphia with a 15% model.                EA-18G provides the flexibility to coun-
     Separation and jettison characteristics       ter the threats of today and to dominate

                                                                   Circle 16

16                                                                                                            Aerospace Engineering March 2005

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