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					                     THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
                           Department of Political Science
                                    Fall 2008

                       Political Science 289.13: Japanese Politics
                                  (Thursdays 5:10-7:00)

Professor Mike Mochizuki
Office: Suite 503, 1957 E Street (Sigur Center for Asian Studies)
Office Hours: Tuesdays, 2:30-5:00
E-mail: mochizuk@gwu.edu
Telephone: 202-994-5886, 994-7074

Course Description

According to some observers, Japan is now undergoing a political, economic, and social
transformation almost as profound as that of the post-World War II period and perhaps
even the Meiji era. Of course, the depth and pace of change are debatable points. This
seminar seeks to understand the current dynamics of political change by placing
contemporary Japan in a broader historical and comparative context. It will examine
Japan’s path to modernity and the impact this pattern of development has had on the
nation’s democratization, political economy, and political institutions in the post-1945
period. The course will analyze how Japan has been dealing with challenges common to
advanced industrial democracies (e.g. industrial change and globalization, expansion and
maintenance of social welfare, and the management of political competition and social
conflict). Finally, the seminar will evaluate Japan’s democracy in terms of the robustness
of civil society, the acceptance of social pluralism, and the current debate about national
identity and constitutional revision.


Course Requirements

The course has the following three sets of requirements:

1. Regular class attendance and active participation in the discussions based on the
required readings. Students will be asked to make brief presentations to kick off the
discussions. Each student must submit one discussion question that is provoked by the
readings prior to each session. This discussion question should be posted in the relevant
“discussion board” forum on Blackboard by 8:00am on Thursday.

2. Two "think pieces" of no more than 1,800 words in length. These papers may be one
of the following three types: (1) explanatory (explanation of a particular aspect or puzzle
of Japanese politics or public policy), (2) theoretical (evaluation of the utility of one or
more theories in understanding some feature of Japanese politics or public policy), and
(3) policy analysis (definition of a concrete policy problem and evaluation of possible
policy responses or the policy lessons of a historical event). Students will write these
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papers for two of the four segments of the course: (a) political development, (b) political
institutions and processes, (c) political economy, and (d) societal change and national
identity. Depending on your choice of topics, these papers may be due on two of the
following three dates: Oct. 9, Nov. 6, Dec. 4. You have the option of writing three papers
and having the best two papers count for your final grade.

3. Take-home final examination (handed out on the last day of class) or a 20-25 page
research paper. Students choosing to write a research paper must submit a proposed
research topic by Oct 2nd and a preliminary outline and list of sources by Nov 6th. The
due date for the take-home final or research paper is Dec 16th (Tuesday).

Course grades will be calculated in the following manner:
          • Short papers (2 @ 20% each)                   40%
          • Final exam or research paper                  45%
          • Class attendance and participation            15%


Course Readings

The following books have been ordered for purchase at the GW bookstore:
• Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan.
• T. J. Pempel, Regime Shift: Comparative Dynamics of the Japanese Political
   Economy.
• Ethan Scheiner, Democracy Without Competition in Japan: Opposition Failure in a
   One-Party Dominant State.
The other readings are posted in “electronic reserves” of the course Blackboard site.


Schedule of Topics and Readings

Week 1 Introduction (Sept. 4)

Japan’s Political Development

Week 2 The Meiji Order and Political Modernization (Sept. 11)
  • Kenneth B. Pyle, “Profound Forces in the Making of Modern Japan,” Journal of
      Japanese Studies Vol. 32, No. 2 (2006), pp. 393-418.
  • Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan, pp. 1-137.
  • John Whitney Hall, “A Monarch for Modern Japan,” in Robert Ward (ed.),
      Political Development in Modern Japan, pp. 11-64.
  • Bernard Silberman, “Bureaucratization of the Meiji State: The Problem of
      Succession in the Meiji Restoration, 1868-1900,” Journal of Asian Studies Vol.
      35, No. 3 (May 1976), pp. 421-430.
  • Bernard Silberman, “Bureaucratic Development and the Structure of Decision-
      making in Japan, 1868-1925,” Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 29, No. 2 (Feb
      1970), pp. 347-362.
                                                                                       3



Week 3 Breakdown of Democratization (Sept. 18)
  • Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan, pp. 139-225.
  • Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictactorship and Democracy: Lord and
      Peasant in the Making of the Modern World, chapters 5 and 8.
  • Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., “The Bureaucracy as a Political Force, 1920-45,” R.P.
      Dore and Tsutomu Ouchi, “Rural Origins of Japanese Fascism,” Kentaro
      Hayashi, “Japan and Germany in the Interwar Period,” and Edwin O. Reischauer,
      “What Went Wrong?” in James William Morley (ed.), Dilemmas of Growth in
      Prewar Japan.

Week 4 Postwar Political Order (Sept. 25)
  • Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan, pp. 226-243.
  • John W. Dower, "Yoshida in the Scales of History," in John W. Dower, Japan in
      War & Peace, pp. 208-241.
  • T. J. Pempel, Regime Shift: Comparative Dynamics of the Japanese Political
      Economy, pp. 1-110.
  • Ikuo Kabashima and Terry MacDougall, “Japan: Democracy with Growth and
      Equity,” in James W. Morley (ed.), Driven By Growth, pp. 275-309.
  • Sheldon Garon and Mike Mochizuki, “Negotiating Social Contracts,” in Andrew
      Gordon (ed.), Postwar Japan as History, pp. 145-166.


Political Institutions and Processes

Week 5 End of “the 1955 System” and the Limits of LDP Renewal (Oct. 2)
  • T. J. Pempel, Regime Shift: Comparative Dynamics of the Japanese Political
      Economy, pp. 113-219.
  • Ellis S. Krauss and Robert Pekkanen, “Explaining Party Adaptation to Electoral
      Reform: The Discreet Charm of the LDP?” Journal of Japanese Studies Vol. 30,
      no. 1 (2004). Pp. 1-34.
  • Ellis S. Krauss & Benjamin Nyblade, “’Presidentialization’ in Japan?: The Prime
      Minister, Media and Elections in Japan,” British Journal of Political Science Vol.
      35 (2005), pp. 357-368.
  • Nobuhiro Hiwatari, “Japan in 2005: Koizumi’s Finest Hour,” Asian Survey Vol.
      46, No. 1 (Jan-Feb 2006), pp. 22-36.
  • Kristi Govella & Steven Vogel, “Japan in 2007: A Divided Government,” Asian
      Survey Vol. 48, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 2008), pp. 97-106.

Week 6 Opposition Politics (Oct. 9)
  • Ethan Scheiner, Democracy Without Competition in Japan: Opposition Failure in
      a One-Party Dominant State, entire book.
  • Mari Miura, Kap Yun Lee, and Robert Weiner, “Who Are the DPJ?: Policy
      Positioning and Recruitment Strategy,” Asian Perspective Vol. 29, No. 1 (2005),
      pp. 49-77.
                                                                                       4


Week 7 Parliamentary and Bureaucratic Politics (Oct. 16)
  • Maurice Wright, “Who Governs Japan? Politicians and Bureaucrats in the Policy-
      making Process,” Political Studies Vol. 47 (December 1999), pp. 939-954.
  • Ko Mishima, “The Changing Relationship between Japan’s LDP and the
      Bureaucracy: Hashimoto’s Administrative Reform Effort and Its Politics, “ Asian
      Survey vol. 38 (Oct. 1998), pp. 968-985.
  • Ko Mishima, “The Failure of Japan’s Political Reform,” World Policy Journal
      (Winter 2005/06), pp. 47-54.
  • Tomohito Shinoda, “Japan’s Cabinet Secretariat and Its Emergence as Core
      Executive,” Asian Survey Vol. 45, No. 5 (2005), pp. 800-821.
  • Tomohito Shinoda, “Japan’s Top-Down Policy Process to Dispatch the SDF to
      Iraq,” Japanese Journal of Political Science Vol. 7, No. 1 (2006), pp. 71-91.
  • Frances Rosenbluth, Jun Saito, & Annalisa Zinn, “Japan’s New Nationalism:
      International and Domestic Politics of an Assertive Foreign Policy.”


Japan’s Changing Political Economy

Week 8 The Developmental State and Its Critiques (Oct. 23)
  • Gregory W. Noble, “The Japanese Industrial Policy Debate,” in Stephen Haggard
      and Chung-in Moon (eds.), Pacific Dynamics: The International Politics of
      Industrial Change, pp. 53-95.
  • Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial
      Policy, 1925-1975, chapters 1 & 9 “The Japanese ‘Miracle’” and “A Japanese
      ‘Model’”), pp. 3-34, 305-324.
  • Michael L. Gerlach, Alliance Capitalism: The Social Organization of Japanese
      Business, chapters 1 & 8 (“Overview” and “Alliance Capitalism and the Japanese
      Economy”), pp. 1-38, 246-270.
  • Richard Katz, “The System that Soured: Toward a New Paradigm to Guide Japan
      Policy,” Washington Quarterly Vol. 21, No. 4 (Autumn 1998), pp. 43-78.
  • Chalmers Johnson, “Japanese ‘Capitalism’ Revisited,” JPRI Occasional Paper
      No. 22 (August 2001).
  • Aurelia George Mulgan, “Japan’s Interventionist State: Bringing Agriculture
      Back In,” Japanese Journal of Political Science Vol. 6, No. 1 (2005), pp. 29-61.

Week 9 Reforming Japanese Capitalism (Oct. 30)
  • Richard Katz, “Japan’s Phoenix Economy, “ Foreign Affairs, Vol. 83, No. 1
      (Jan/Feb 2003), pp. 114-129.
  • Yves Tiberghien, “Navigating the Path of Least Resistance: Financial
      Deregulation and the Origins of the Japanese Crisis,” Journal of East Asian
      Studies Vol. 5 (2005), pp. 427-464.
  • Steven K. Vogel, Japan Remodeled: How Government and Industry Are
      Reforming Japanese Capitalism chapter 5 “Corporate Restructuring Japanese
      Style,” pp. 115-156.
  • Leonard J. Schoppa, Race for the Exits: The Unraveling of Japan’s System of
      Social Protection, chapter 6 (“Case Studies of Economic Reform”), pp. 112-149.
                                                                                      5


   •   Patricia Maclachlan, “Post Office Politics in Modern Japan: The Postmasters, Iron
       Triangles, and the Limits of Reform, Journal of Japanese Studies 30 (2004), 281-
       313.
   •   Gregory W. Noble, “Front Door, Back Door: The Reform of Postal Savings and
       Loans in Japan,” The Japanese Economy Vol. 33, No. 1 (Spring 2005), pp. 107-
       23.

Week 10 Social Policy Reform (Nov. 6)
  • Priscilla A. Lambert, “The Political Economy of Postwar Family Policy in Japan:
      Economic Imperatives and Electoral Incentives,” Journal of Japanese Studies
      Vol. 33, No. 1 (2007), pp. 1-28.
  • Leonard J. Schoppa, Race for the Exits: The Unraveling of Japan’s System of
      Social Protection, chapter 7 (“The Policy Impact of Exit by Women”), pp. 150-
      182.
  • Kenzo Yoshida, Yung-Hsing Guo, & Li-Hsuan Cheng, “The Japanese Pension
      Reform of 2004: A New Mode of Legislative Process,” Asian Survey Vol. 46, No.
      3 (May/June 2006), pp. 381-400.
  • Naoki Ikegami & John Creighton Campbell, “Health Care Reform in Japan: the
      Virtues of Muddling Through,” Health Affairs Vol. 18, No. 1 (1999), pp. 56-75.
  • Naoki Ikegami & John Creighton Campbell, “Japan’s Health Care System:
      Containing Costs and Attempting Reform,” Health Affairs Vol. 23, No. 1 (2004),
      pp. 26-36.


Societal Change and National Identity

Week 11 Social Diversity, Equality and Transformation (Nov. 13)
  • Frank K. Upham, “Unplaced Persons and Movements for Place,” and Sandra
      Buckley, “Altered States: The Body Politics of ‘Being-Woman,’” in Andrew
      Gordon (ed.), Postwar Japan As History, pp. 325-372.
  • William W. Kelly & Merry White, “Students, Slackers, Singles, Seniors, and
      Strangers: Transforming a Family-Nation,” in Peter J. Katzenstein & Takashi
      Shiraishi (eds.), Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism, chapter
      3, pp. 63-82.
  • Yasuo Takao, “Japanese Women in Grassroots Politics: Building a Gender-Equal
      Society from the Bottom Up,” Pacific Review Vol. 20, No. 2 (June 2006), pp.
      147-172.
  • Joshua Hotaka Roth, “Political and Cultural Perspectives on Japan’s Insider
      Minorities,” Japan Focus, April 10, 2005.
  • Apichai W. Shipper “Criminals or Victims? The Politics of Illegal Foreigners in
      Japan,” Journal of Japanese Studies 31 (2005), pp. 299-327.
  • Mary Alice Haddad, “Transformation of Japan’s Civil Society Landscape,”
      Journal of East Asian Studies Vol. 7 (2007), pp. 413-437.
                                                                                     6


Week 12 Historical Memory and Nationalism (Nov. 20)
  • Roger Jeans, “Victims or Victimizers? Museums, Textbooks, and the War Debate
      in Contemporary Japan,” Journal of Military History 69 (January 2005), 149-195.
  • Daiki Shibuichi, The Yasukuni Shrine Dispute and the Politics of Identity in
      Japan,” Asian Survey Vol. 45, No. 2 (Mar/Apr 2005), pp. 197-215.
  • Kazuhiko Togo, “A Moratorium on Yasukuni Visits,” Far Eastern Economic
      Review June 2006, pp. 5-15.
  • Rikki Kersten, “Revisionism, Reaction and the ‘Symbol Emperor’ in Post-war
      Japan,” Japan Forum Vol. 15, No. 1 (2003), pp. 15-31.
  • Mayumi Itoh, “Japan’s Neo-Nationalism: The Role of the Hinomaru and
      Kimigayo Legislation,” JPRI Working Paper No. 79 (July 2001).

Week 13 Constitutional Revision (Dec. 4)
  • Helen Hardacre, “Constitutional Revision and Japanese Religions,” Japanese
      Studies Vol. 25, No. 3 (December 2005), pp. 235-247.
  • Satoko KOGURE, “Turning back the clock on gender equality: Proposed
      Constitutional revision jeopardizes Japanese women's rights.”
  • HANAOKA Nobuaki, “The Long Road to Amending the 1947 Constitution,”
      Japan Echo Vol. 32, no. 4 (August 2005).
  • Mayumi Itoh, “Japanese Constitutional Revision: A Neo-Liberal Proposal for
      Article 9 in Comparative Perspective,” Asian Survey Vol. 41, No. 2 (Mar/Apr
      2001), pp. 310-327.
  • Patrick J. Boyd & Richard J. Samuels, “Nine Lives?: The Politics of
      Constitutional Reform in Japan,” East-West Center Policy Studies #19 (2005).
  • Christopher Hughes, “Why Japan Could Revise Its Constitution and What It
      Would Mean for Japanese Security Policy,” Orbis Vol. 50 (2006), pp. 725-744.

				
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