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THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY Department of Political Science Fall 2008 Political Science 289.13: Japanese Politics (Thursdays 5:10-7:00) Professor Mike Mochizuki Office: Suite 503, 1957 E Street (Sigur Center for Asian Studies) Office Hours: Tuesdays, 2:30-5:00 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Telephone: 202-994-5886, 994-7074 Course Description According to some observers, Japan is now undergoing a political, economic, and social transformation almost as profound as that of the post-World War II period and perhaps even the Meiji era. Of course, the depth and pace of change are debatable points. This seminar seeks to understand the current dynamics of political change by placing contemporary Japan in a broader historical and comparative context. It will examine Japan’s path to modernity and the impact this pattern of development has had on the nation’s democratization, political economy, and political institutions in the post-1945 period. The course will analyze how Japan has been dealing with challenges common to advanced industrial democracies (e.g. industrial change and globalization, expansion and maintenance of social welfare, and the management of political competition and social conflict). Finally, the seminar will evaluate Japan’s democracy in terms of the robustness of civil society, the acceptance of social pluralism, and the current debate about national identity and constitutional revision. Course Requirements The course has the following three sets of requirements: 1. Regular class attendance and active participation in the discussions based on the required readings. Students will be asked to make brief presentations to kick off the discussions. Each student must submit one discussion question that is provoked by the readings prior to each session. This discussion question should be posted in the relevant “discussion board” forum on Blackboard by 8:00am on Thursday. 2. Two "think pieces" of no more than 1,800 words in length. These papers may be one of the following three types: (1) explanatory (explanation of a particular aspect or puzzle of Japanese politics or public policy), (2) theoretical (evaluation of the utility of one or more theories in understanding some feature of Japanese politics or public policy), and (3) policy analysis (definition of a concrete policy problem and evaluation of possible policy responses or the policy lessons of a historical event). Students will write these 2 papers for two of the four segments of the course: (a) political development, (b) political institutions and processes, (c) political economy, and (d) societal change and national identity. Depending on your choice of topics, these papers may be due on two of the following three dates: Oct. 9, Nov. 6, Dec. 4. You have the option of writing three papers and having the best two papers count for your final grade. 3. Take-home final examination (handed out on the last day of class) or a 20-25 page research paper. Students choosing to write a research paper must submit a proposed research topic by Oct 2nd and a preliminary outline and list of sources by Nov 6th. The due date for the take-home final or research paper is Dec 16th (Tuesday). Course grades will be calculated in the following manner: • Short papers (2 @ 20% each) 40% • Final exam or research paper 45% • Class attendance and participation 15% Course Readings The following books have been ordered for purchase at the GW bookstore: • Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan. • T. J. Pempel, Regime Shift: Comparative Dynamics of the Japanese Political Economy. • Ethan Scheiner, Democracy Without Competition in Japan: Opposition Failure in a One-Party Dominant State. The other readings are posted in “electronic reserves” of the course Blackboard site. Schedule of Topics and Readings Week 1 Introduction (Sept. 4) Japan’s Political Development Week 2 The Meiji Order and Political Modernization (Sept. 11) • Kenneth B. Pyle, “Profound Forces in the Making of Modern Japan,” Journal of Japanese Studies Vol. 32, No. 2 (2006), pp. 393-418. • Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan, pp. 1-137. • John Whitney Hall, “A Monarch for Modern Japan,” in Robert Ward (ed.), Political Development in Modern Japan, pp. 11-64. • Bernard Silberman, “Bureaucratization of the Meiji State: The Problem of Succession in the Meiji Restoration, 1868-1900,” Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 35, No. 3 (May 1976), pp. 421-430. • Bernard Silberman, “Bureaucratic Development and the Structure of Decision- making in Japan, 1868-1925,” Journal of Asian Studies Vol. 29, No. 2 (Feb 1970), pp. 347-362. 3 Week 3 Breakdown of Democratization (Sept. 18) • Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan, pp. 139-225. • Barrington Moore, Social Origins of Dictactorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World, chapters 5 and 8. • Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., “The Bureaucracy as a Political Force, 1920-45,” R.P. Dore and Tsutomu Ouchi, “Rural Origins of Japanese Fascism,” Kentaro Hayashi, “Japan and Germany in the Interwar Period,” and Edwin O. Reischauer, “What Went Wrong?” in James William Morley (ed.), Dilemmas of Growth in Prewar Japan. Week 4 Postwar Political Order (Sept. 25) • Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan, pp. 226-243. • John W. Dower, "Yoshida in the Scales of History," in John W. Dower, Japan in War & Peace, pp. 208-241. • T. J. Pempel, Regime Shift: Comparative Dynamics of the Japanese Political Economy, pp. 1-110. • Ikuo Kabashima and Terry MacDougall, “Japan: Democracy with Growth and Equity,” in James W. Morley (ed.), Driven By Growth, pp. 275-309. • Sheldon Garon and Mike Mochizuki, “Negotiating Social Contracts,” in Andrew Gordon (ed.), Postwar Japan as History, pp. 145-166. Political Institutions and Processes Week 5 End of “the 1955 System” and the Limits of LDP Renewal (Oct. 2) • T. J. Pempel, Regime Shift: Comparative Dynamics of the Japanese Political Economy, pp. 113-219. • Ellis S. Krauss and Robert Pekkanen, “Explaining Party Adaptation to Electoral Reform: The Discreet Charm of the LDP?” Journal of Japanese Studies Vol. 30, no. 1 (2004). Pp. 1-34. • Ellis S. Krauss & Benjamin Nyblade, “’Presidentialization’ in Japan?: The Prime Minister, Media and Elections in Japan,” British Journal of Political Science Vol. 35 (2005), pp. 357-368. • Nobuhiro Hiwatari, “Japan in 2005: Koizumi’s Finest Hour,” Asian Survey Vol. 46, No. 1 (Jan-Feb 2006), pp. 22-36. • Kristi Govella & Steven Vogel, “Japan in 2007: A Divided Government,” Asian Survey Vol. 48, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 2008), pp. 97-106. Week 6 Opposition Politics (Oct. 9) • Ethan Scheiner, Democracy Without Competition in Japan: Opposition Failure in a One-Party Dominant State, entire book. • Mari Miura, Kap Yun Lee, and Robert Weiner, “Who Are the DPJ?: Policy Positioning and Recruitment Strategy,” Asian Perspective Vol. 29, No. 1 (2005), pp. 49-77. 4 Week 7 Parliamentary and Bureaucratic Politics (Oct. 16) • Maurice Wright, “Who Governs Japan? Politicians and Bureaucrats in the Policy- making Process,” Political Studies Vol. 47 (December 1999), pp. 939-954. • Ko Mishima, “The Changing Relationship between Japan’s LDP and the Bureaucracy: Hashimoto’s Administrative Reform Effort and Its Politics, “ Asian Survey vol. 38 (Oct. 1998), pp. 968-985. • Ko Mishima, “The Failure of Japan’s Political Reform,” World Policy Journal (Winter 2005/06), pp. 47-54. • Tomohito Shinoda, “Japan’s Cabinet Secretariat and Its Emergence as Core Executive,” Asian Survey Vol. 45, No. 5 (2005), pp. 800-821. • Tomohito Shinoda, “Japan’s Top-Down Policy Process to Dispatch the SDF to Iraq,” Japanese Journal of Political Science Vol. 7, No. 1 (2006), pp. 71-91. • Frances Rosenbluth, Jun Saito, & Annalisa Zinn, “Japan’s New Nationalism: International and Domestic Politics of an Assertive Foreign Policy.” Japan’s Changing Political Economy Week 8 The Developmental State and Its Critiques (Oct. 23) • Gregory W. Noble, “The Japanese Industrial Policy Debate,” in Stephen Haggard and Chung-in Moon (eds.), Pacific Dynamics: The International Politics of Industrial Change, pp. 53-95. • Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925-1975, chapters 1 & 9 “The Japanese ‘Miracle’” and “A Japanese ‘Model’”), pp. 3-34, 305-324. • Michael L. Gerlach, Alliance Capitalism: The Social Organization of Japanese Business, chapters 1 & 8 (“Overview” and “Alliance Capitalism and the Japanese Economy”), pp. 1-38, 246-270. • Richard Katz, “The System that Soured: Toward a New Paradigm to Guide Japan Policy,” Washington Quarterly Vol. 21, No. 4 (Autumn 1998), pp. 43-78. • Chalmers Johnson, “Japanese ‘Capitalism’ Revisited,” JPRI Occasional Paper No. 22 (August 2001). • Aurelia George Mulgan, “Japan’s Interventionist State: Bringing Agriculture Back In,” Japanese Journal of Political Science Vol. 6, No. 1 (2005), pp. 29-61. Week 9 Reforming Japanese Capitalism (Oct. 30) • Richard Katz, “Japan’s Phoenix Economy, “ Foreign Affairs, Vol. 83, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 2003), pp. 114-129. • Yves Tiberghien, “Navigating the Path of Least Resistance: Financial Deregulation and the Origins of the Japanese Crisis,” Journal of East Asian Studies Vol. 5 (2005), pp. 427-464. • Steven K. Vogel, Japan Remodeled: How Government and Industry Are Reforming Japanese Capitalism chapter 5 “Corporate Restructuring Japanese Style,” pp. 115-156. • Leonard J. Schoppa, Race for the Exits: The Unraveling of Japan’s System of Social Protection, chapter 6 (“Case Studies of Economic Reform”), pp. 112-149. 5 • Patricia Maclachlan, “Post Office Politics in Modern Japan: The Postmasters, Iron Triangles, and the Limits of Reform, Journal of Japanese Studies 30 (2004), 281- 313. • Gregory W. Noble, “Front Door, Back Door: The Reform of Postal Savings and Loans in Japan,” The Japanese Economy Vol. 33, No. 1 (Spring 2005), pp. 107- 23. Week 10 Social Policy Reform (Nov. 6) • Priscilla A. Lambert, “The Political Economy of Postwar Family Policy in Japan: Economic Imperatives and Electoral Incentives,” Journal of Japanese Studies Vol. 33, No. 1 (2007), pp. 1-28. • Leonard J. Schoppa, Race for the Exits: The Unraveling of Japan’s System of Social Protection, chapter 7 (“The Policy Impact of Exit by Women”), pp. 150- 182. • Kenzo Yoshida, Yung-Hsing Guo, & Li-Hsuan Cheng, “The Japanese Pension Reform of 2004: A New Mode of Legislative Process,” Asian Survey Vol. 46, No. 3 (May/June 2006), pp. 381-400. • Naoki Ikegami & John Creighton Campbell, “Health Care Reform in Japan: the Virtues of Muddling Through,” Health Affairs Vol. 18, No. 1 (1999), pp. 56-75. • Naoki Ikegami & John Creighton Campbell, “Japan’s Health Care System: Containing Costs and Attempting Reform,” Health Affairs Vol. 23, No. 1 (2004), pp. 26-36. Societal Change and National Identity Week 11 Social Diversity, Equality and Transformation (Nov. 13) • Frank K. Upham, “Unplaced Persons and Movements for Place,” and Sandra Buckley, “Altered States: The Body Politics of ‘Being-Woman,’” in Andrew Gordon (ed.), Postwar Japan As History, pp. 325-372. • William W. Kelly & Merry White, “Students, Slackers, Singles, Seniors, and Strangers: Transforming a Family-Nation,” in Peter J. Katzenstein & Takashi Shiraishi (eds.), Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism, chapter 3, pp. 63-82. • Yasuo Takao, “Japanese Women in Grassroots Politics: Building a Gender-Equal Society from the Bottom Up,” Pacific Review Vol. 20, No. 2 (June 2006), pp. 147-172. • Joshua Hotaka Roth, “Political and Cultural Perspectives on Japan’s Insider Minorities,” Japan Focus, April 10, 2005. • Apichai W. Shipper “Criminals or Victims? The Politics of Illegal Foreigners in Japan,” Journal of Japanese Studies 31 (2005), pp. 299-327. • Mary Alice Haddad, “Transformation of Japan’s Civil Society Landscape,” Journal of East Asian Studies Vol. 7 (2007), pp. 413-437. 6 Week 12 Historical Memory and Nationalism (Nov. 20) • Roger Jeans, “Victims or Victimizers? Museums, Textbooks, and the War Debate in Contemporary Japan,” Journal of Military History 69 (January 2005), 149-195. • Daiki Shibuichi, The Yasukuni Shrine Dispute and the Politics of Identity in Japan,” Asian Survey Vol. 45, No. 2 (Mar/Apr 2005), pp. 197-215. • Kazuhiko Togo, “A Moratorium on Yasukuni Visits,” Far Eastern Economic Review June 2006, pp. 5-15. • Rikki Kersten, “Revisionism, Reaction and the ‘Symbol Emperor’ in Post-war Japan,” Japan Forum Vol. 15, No. 1 (2003), pp. 15-31. • Mayumi Itoh, “Japan’s Neo-Nationalism: The Role of the Hinomaru and Kimigayo Legislation,” JPRI Working Paper No. 79 (July 2001). Week 13 Constitutional Revision (Dec. 4) • Helen Hardacre, “Constitutional Revision and Japanese Religions,” Japanese Studies Vol. 25, No. 3 (December 2005), pp. 235-247. • Satoko KOGURE, “Turning back the clock on gender equality: Proposed Constitutional revision jeopardizes Japanese women's rights.” • HANAOKA Nobuaki, “The Long Road to Amending the 1947 Constitution,” Japan Echo Vol. 32, no. 4 (August 2005). • Mayumi Itoh, “Japanese Constitutional Revision: A Neo-Liberal Proposal for Article 9 in Comparative Perspective,” Asian Survey Vol. 41, No. 2 (Mar/Apr 2001), pp. 310-327. • Patrick J. Boyd & Richard J. Samuels, “Nine Lives?: The Politics of Constitutional Reform in Japan,” East-West Center Policy Studies #19 (2005). • Christopher Hughes, “Why Japan Could Revise Its Constitution and What It Would Mean for Japanese Security Policy,” Orbis Vol. 50 (2006), pp. 725-744.
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