Trends in Functional Programming and Its Languages by IEEEComputerSociety


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									Trends in Functional Programming and Its Languages

In the computer science domain, functional programming is a programming paradigm that looks at computation as
the estimation of mathematical function and averts state and mutable information. It gives emphasis on the
application of functions, in comparison with the imperative programming style that gives emphasizes changes in the
state. The “lambda calculus” offers the model for functional programming. Simultaneously, the new age functional
languages can be viewed as add-ons to the lambda calculus.

Functional Programming Languages

Both the original APL and Lisp which are yet not completely functional were essential in the development of
functional programming. The upgraded version of Lisp for instance Scheme and variants of APL did offer total
functional assistance. Few other functional languages are Haskell, ML and Erlang. The functional programming
languages, have been largely emphasized in academia than in commercial software development spheres.
However, functional programming languages that are used extensively in commercial and industrial applications
comprise the following:
       Erlang
       OCaml
       Haskell
       Scheme

Other domain-specific programming languages include the following:
       R (statistics)
       Mathematical (symbolic math)
       J and K (financial analysis)
       XSLT (XML)

Functional programming in non-functional languages
Today it is possible to deploy a functional programming style in languages that are conventionally not considered as
functional languages. Selected non-functional languages have scrounged certain features from functional
programming languages, like high-order functions and list comprehensions. This makes it simpler to adopt a
functional style when using these languages. Other functional constructs for instance high-order functions and lazy
lists can be attained in C++ through libraries. On the other hand, widespread declarative domain specific languages
such as Lex/Yacc and SQL, though not always Turning-complete, utilize certain elements of functional programming,
especially in case of eschewing mutable values.

As there is much more happening in the functional programming landscape, the best way to have access to some of
the best resources is to log in to any online digital library and read the computer articles posted by them. These
articles carry the latest information from IT experts and analysts. This information can be used in your academic
projects as well as information technology training sessions and workshops. Furthermore, there are also online
computer society forums that feature useful articles on functional programming and its changing trends along with
other interesting articles and news feeds on computer science.

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