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					The prepositional
By Stefan Heineck and
Dennis Karwatzki
 Functions of PP
 What is PP?
 Simple and complex prespostions
 Prepositional Meanings
 Denoting spatial relations (Dimension,
  Time and others)
Functions of PP
   PP consist of a preposition and a complement:
   NP
     On   the table
   Wh-clause
     From   what he said
   Ing-clause
     By   signing a peace treaty
Functions of PP
   Postmodifier in a NP
     The   people on the bus were singing
   Adverbial
     The   people were singing on the bus
   Complementation of a verb or an adjective
     We  were looking at his awful paintings (verb)
     I am sorry for his parents (adjective)
Functions of PP
   Nominal functions
     Between    5 and 6 will be fine
   Adjective nature of PP
     That   is an out-of-order telephone
What is a PP?
   3 features: You cannot combine a
    preposition with:
    a  that-clause
     an infinitive clause
     a personal pronon
                             at that she noticed him
    He was surprised         at to see her
                             at she
What is a PP?
   Sometimes an omission is impossible:

                          the meeting
I am looking forward to   meeting you
                          what you will say
Simple and complex prepositions

   Simple prepositions:
     a) monosyllabic: as, but, for, on, out, up, with
     b) polysyllabic: a‘bout, be‘fore, in‘side, un‘til
     c) marginal: minus, plus, grant
     d) stressing: e.g. from [frəm, frQm]
         Where is he from?
         He is from New Jersey!
Simple and complex prepositions

   Complex prepositions:
     a) two word sequence: except for, next to
     b) three word sequence:
         Prep. 1 + Noun + Prep.2
         In      + terms + of
         Prep. 1 + adjective + Prep.2
         As      + far       + as
      Prepositional Meanings
 Preposition expresses a relation between
  two entities, one being that represented by
  the prepositional complement
 E.g.
     „the man is growing a red beard“
     „the man who has the red beard“
     „the man with the red beard“
Prepositions denoting spatial relations

   Dimension
     Destinaton,
     Dimension-Types
       Point (0)
       line and surface (1 and 2)

       area or volume (2 and 3)
Dimensional orientation of prepositions of space
Dimension-types: Line, Surface, Area, Volume

Line: Rostock is situated on the coast
Surface: A poster was pasted on the wall
Area: … in the world
Volume: … in the stadium
         Contrast between on and in
            „surface“ or „area“ ?
         Watch the following example

The frost made patterns on the window.
Which kind of dimension ?
[window = glass surface]
A face appeard in the mirror.
[mirror = framed area]
     Contrast between on and in, create examples
               for „surface“ and „volume“
                 What is the argument !

She was sitting … the grass
She was sitting on the grass
[surface, the grass is short]
She was sitting … the grass
She was sitting in the grass
[volume, the grass is long]
      Prepositions denoting time
   At, on and in as prepositions of „time position“
   Similar to the prepositons of position
   Time sphere is dealing with two dimension-types

                    Point of time
                    Period of time
    Prepositions denoting time
At is used for points of time and also
idiomatically for holiday periods e.g.:
at ten o‘clock, at 6.00 p.m., at noon
at Christmas, at Easter

The reference is to the season of
Christmas/Easter, not the day itself
    Prepositions denoting time
On is used for referring to days as periods of
time, e.g.:
on Monday, on the following day, on May the first

In or, less commonly, during is used for periods
longer or shorter than a day, e.g.:
in the evening, in 1969, during the week
            Other Prepositions
about, above, across, after, along, among, around,
at, before, beside, between, against,within,without,
beneath, through, during, under, into, over, to,with,
of,off, toward, up, on, near, for, from,except, in, by,
behind, below, down, in front of, due to, inside,on
top of, close by, upon, via, away from, than, since,
despite, amid, aside, until, out of, close to, while,
till, throughout,up to, like, in spite of, for all, with all
     That‘s it

Thanks for listening!
 Quirk et al. (1995): A comprehensive
 grammar of the English language.
 Longman, London.

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