Document Sample
					Law Enforcement and Compliance:

          Illegal logging

           Aniko M. Nemeth, REC
                 April 2009

Forest assets

1. Economic: wood/non-wood production;
2. Social: social and cultural functions
3. Environmental: biodiversity conservation,
   nutrient cycling, protection of microclimate

   + Global values: carbon storage, tourism and
   future genetic resource use


Definition of illegal logging

  Timber harvested, transported, processed and/or
  traded in contravention of the national laws of
  the country of harvest and certain international
  treaties such as the Convention on International
  Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).


Illegal logging may take place in a variety of ways

    • Extracting timber products without permission,
      including from reserves and protected areas
    • Gaining access to forests through corrupt dealings
    • Cutting protected species
    • Cutting more than the legally agreed limit.

Introduction: Causes of illegal logging
    Underlying causes are usually complex, and often lie
    outside the forestry sector

• Poverty
• Commercial exploitation of timber
• Corruption and general failure of governance
• Unclear, controversial or non-existent policies and
  legislation governing the use of forest resources
• Weak institutional structures
• Inability to monitor and enforce the regulations
• Interest groups benefiting from a status quo and actively
  resisting change

Consequences of illegal logging
• Environmental implications: loss of
  biodiversity, deforestation/forest degradation,
  desertification, climate change
• Economic and social consequences: revenue
  loss for the government, corruption, undermining
  the rule of law and good governance, contributing
  to organised crime, weakening the fabric of
• Cross-border impacts: tensions, hindering
  regional sustainable development

Consequences of illegal logging
• Undermining many essential elements of the
  European development objectives:

   - public sector financing
   - targeted development objectives (addressing
     poverty, peace, security, good governance)
   - the fight against corruption
   - sustainable development

    Actions: International response
     The World Bank: Forest Law Enforcement
     and Governance (FLEG)
•    2001 First Ministerial FLEG Conference for East
•    2002 Forest Strategy: Commitment to take action
     to curb illegal logging and other forest crimes
•    Regional ministerial FLEG initiatives:
         1.   2001- East Asia and the Pacific
         2.   2003 - Africa
         3.   2005 - Europe and North Asia.
         4.   Latin America and the Caribbean: activities for a potential
              FLEG initiative are under way

Actions: The European response
   The EU Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement,
                Governance and Trade (FLEGT)
• Support to timber–producing countries
• Activities to promote trade in legal timber (VPA)
• Promoting public procurement policies
• Support for private sector initiatives
• Safeguards for financing and investment
• Use of existing legislative instruments or adoption of
   new legislation to support the plan
• Addressing the problem of conflict timber

Measures to combat illegal logging and associated trade by influencing
both demand and supply.

• Partnership agreements with producer countries that support:
      - governance reforms
      - measures regulating and controlling timber trade
      - measures to verify the legality of products

• Measures to increase demand for legally sourced timber:
     - public procurement policies
     - private sector initiatives
     - financing and investment, e.g. lending criteria
     - awareness raising

FLEGT partnerships
• Binding agreements between the EU and partner
  countries: together stop illegal logging and improve forest

• Strengthen producer countries’ efforts to improve
  governance (capacity building, improved control and
  monitoring, transparency)

• Introduce export licences to the EU based on legality
  verification. Legality = compliance with appropriate laws
  of partner country

• Secure and improve EU market access

The key elements of Voluntary Partnership
Agreements (VPAs)

• Commitment to develop legal and administrative
  structures/systems to verify produced timber
• Legislative/regulatory reforms where relevant
• Monitoring
• Legality assurance system
• Social safeguards: mitigate negative impacts on poor
• Stakeholder involvement (capacity building for
  government/NGOs/private sector)
• Transparency measures
• Trade promotion
• Consultation and communications

Illegal logging: REC project
•   Fact-finding report on the magnitude, severity, practices
    and consequences of illegal logging in selected
•   Diagnostic audits to evaluate capacities to address the
    issue of illegal logging according to international
•   Action plan/concrete recommendations directed at
    specific institutions and relevant actors
•   Conferences and events to bring attention to the
    problem of illegal logging

Thank you for your attention.

      Aniko Mudra-Nemeth


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