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History of psychology Name:G Stanley Hall. Profession:Psychologist and also an educator. Nationality:American. Year/Period of activity:February 1st,1844- April 24th,1924. Major contribution to psychology-He was the founder of psychology as a science and profession.He was also the founder of the first American psychology laboratory. Brief summary of theoretical approachto psychology-He was inspired by Wundt’s psychology book and then decided to read psychology.This eagerness enabled him to become a psychologist and also gave him the chance to become the first psychologist in America. Name:Sigmund Freud. Profession:Scientist,Psychologist and also Philosopher. Nationality:Austrian. Year/period of activity:6th May 1856 –September 23rd 1939. Major contribution to psychology:Freud created a method which was known as psychoanalysis for investigating and treating people with mind problem. Brief summary of theoretical approach to psychology-He made people believe that childhood experience affect the developing personality of children.As a result his investigation and treatment of mind lead him to favour certain clinical techniques inorder to cure mental illness. ARISTOTLE(384B.C.-322B.C.) OCCUPATION: Philosopher NATIONALITY: Greek PERIOD OF MAJOR ACTIVITY: (335 B.C.-323 B.C.) MAJOR CONTRIBUTION TO PSYCHOLOGY: The theory of proto-psychology (the nature of the mind, soul, and spirit). He wrote the first text on psychology called (para psyche). SUMMARY OF THEORITICAL APPROACH: Aristotle was a great philosopher that lived long ago. He provided useful information on the theoretical structure of the human mind and also related the mind to behavior, urges and impulses. He proposed that the mind was the center of the functioning of the body. He also proved that the soul is our link to the divine. He believed that the mind could exist independently of the body. Majorly he addressed the connection between the mind and behavior or impulses. PHSYCOLOGY Mr.Galbraith Olga Otten Psychology AP 1. Name: Burrhus Frederic Skinner. 2. Profession: A psychologist, behaviour analyst, operant conditioning, verbal behaviour, radical behaviourism and operant conditioning chamber. 3. Nationality: He was an American. 4. Year/period of activity: 1938-1990. 5. Major contribution to psychology: His major contribution was operant conditioning, which is the process of the organism "operating" on the environment, which in ordinary terms means doing what the world does. 6. Brief summary of theoretical approach to psychology. B.F.SKINNER was entirely based on "operant conditioning”, which in ordinary terms means doing what the world does or "operating" on the environment. During this "operating" the organism encounters a reinforcer, this stimulus has the effect of increasing the behaviour occurring just before the reinforcer. Therefore the operant conditioning is the behaviour followed by a consequence and the nature of the consequence modifies the organism’s tendency to repeat the behaviour in the future. CHARLES DARWIN Charles Darwin was born on February 12, 1809, in Shrewsbury, England and died at the Down House in Kent on April 19, 1882. He was born to Robert and Susannah Darwin. Robert was a successful physician whose father, Erasmus Darwin, had also been a physician but had made his name as a poet of the natural world. Susannah Wedgwood came from a family of potters; her father, Josiah Wedgwood, had made a small fortune making high-quality pottery. Both sides of Darwin's family were liberal in their politics and indifferent in their religion Darwin spent his childhood playing at The Mount, the Darwin home and estate in Shrewsbury. He was schooled at home by his sister Caroline until he was eight years old and Susannah died. He then spent a year at a day school and transferred to a boarding school, the Shrewsbury School, only a mile away from The Mount. There he studied, getting acceptable but unremarkable grades, until age sixteen, when his father sent him to the University of Edinburgh to study medicine. Darwin focused on collecting, hunting, and naturalizing instead of medicine. It was there that he first learned to study and collect beetles. The marine biologist Robert Grant took him under his wing. After two years, it was obvious that Darwin would not become a doctor, so with the help of his father Darwin transferred to the University of Cambridge to study for the clergy of the Anglican Church. There he became friends with the older botanist John Henslow. Soon after graduating, in 1831, Darwin was offered a position on board the HMS Beagle, a ship that was mapping the coast of South America on a two or three year voyage around the world. He eagerly accepted the opportunity and spent the next five years on board the Beagle, taking copious notes and sending thousands of samples and specimens back to Henslow in England for safe- keeping. When Darwin returned to England he found that Henslow and other geologists, zoologists, and botanists were fascinated by the specimens he had collected. He spent the next ten years cataloging and describing the discoveries he had made on his journey. He wrote books on coral reefs and volcanic islands, various papers, and a journal of his voyage. While working on these, he also started to think about a deeper, more important problem: the origin of species. He opened his first notebook on the topic in 1837, more than twenty years before he would finally be confident enough of his new theory of "evolution by natural selection" to publish it. In 1839, Darwin married Emma Wedgwood, his cousin, and they moved in to a house in London where Darwin could focus on his work. Unfortunately, his health started to fail mysteriously, so they moved to the country. They lived in a small village where Darwin could find peace and quiet. After completing his work on the results of the Beagle voyage, still not ready to publish his thoughts on evolution, Darwin turned to what seemed at first like a small, insignificant problem: the classification of different kinds of barnacles. Darwin soon became entangled in the enormous project of dissecting and describing all of the barnacles of the world for what eventually became a four- volume work. Eight years later, in 1854, he finally finished, and was able to turn back to the problem of evolution. In 1857, Alfred Russell Wallace sent Darwin a paper regarding the evolution of species. Wallace's theory was very similar to Darwin's. Wallace's paper and a sketch of Darwin's theory were presented at the Linnean Society. Darwin decided to produce an "abstract" of a longer book on evolution that he was working on, so as not to let anyone else take credit for an idea he had been developing for more than twenty years. The abstract was published in 1859 as On the Origin of Species, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. It was an immediate sensation, selling out the first printing within a day. Debates over the meaning of the theory for the nature of humanity began, though Darwin himself remained above the fray in his self-imposed isolation at Down House. His friends Joseph Hooker, the botanist, and especially Thomas Henry Huxley, the zoologist, defended his theory to the world while he continued to do research. In the 1860s, Darwin worked on three books. One was about variation under domestication, which he saw as being parallel to variation in the wild. Another was about the evolution of humanity and the role of sexual selection. The final one regarded the expression of emotions. The book on humanity and sexual selection, The Descent of Man, was published in 1871. Darwin expected it to cause a sensation with its claims that humans were descended from other animals, but most of the thunder had been stolen twelve years ago by the Origin. In 1872, The Expression of Emotions in Animals and Man was published. In his last decade, Darwin turned away from evolution and focused on the garden. His research on climbing plants and the geological role of earthworms turned his workshop into a virtual greenhouse and resulted in several books. The illness that had plagued Darwin throughout his life began to abate somewhat, so that although he was still not strong, he was able to enjoy his old age. By 1877, his theories were still controversial, but he was so well respected that the University of Cambridge gave him an honorary doctorate. In 1882, he weakened. Darwin died on April 19, 1882, at the Down House. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. From: http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/darwin/summary.html Name: Dorothea Dix Profession: Noted Social Reform Nationality: American Year/Period of activity: 1841 Major Contribution to Psych : Leader of the movement on treating mentally ill prisoners with some respect and being a part of the establishment of 32 out of 123 mental hospitals in the country. Brief Summary of theoretical Approach to psych: Dorothea travelled more than 10000 miles investigating prisons and how the mentally ill were being treated. “Rome was not built in a day” so it is said and so was Dorothea’s reformation of these appalling conditions where men and women chained to walls and floors in dark and filthy rooms with a stench of feces and urine. Dorothea would always gather information, investigating and obtaining facts about a particular establishment, and then she would effectively make known to the public the abuse of the mentally ill kept in those institutions. Results were slow but she did see asylums built in many states and others improved. Dorothea later joined the army as a superintendent of Female Nurses. Following the war she returned to her life’s work. At the age of 80 she went to live in a guest room in one of the mental hospitals in Trenton, New Jersey. She lived there for 5 years and then died on July 18, 1887. Name: Hermann Ebbinghaus Profession: Psychologist Nationality: German Year/Period of activity: 1878 Major Contribution to Psych: Developed the first scientific approach to the study of a higher psychological process (memory). Brief Summary of theoretical Approach to psych: Hermann conducted his 1st set of memory experiments in 1878 and later had the 2nd experiment in 1883. He was a lecturer at University of Berlin and opened an Experimental Psychology laboratory while there. He later moved in 1894 and became a professor at University of Breslau and established another Psychology Laboratory over there. Hermann was the co-founder of the Journal of Psychology and Physiology of the Sense Organs. Hermann also managed to develop a children’s intelligence test in 1897. He later moved to the University of Halle and there he died in 1908. Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov was born September 14, 1849. Died February 27,1936 CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOLOGY Ivan Pavlov's discovery and research on reflexes influenced the growing behaviorist movement, and his work was often cited in John B. Watson’s writings. Other researchers utilized Pavlov's work in the study of conditioning as a form of learning. His research also demonstrated techniques of studying reactions to the environment in an objective, scientific method. Career: Ivan Pavlov's primary interests were the study of physiology and natural sciences. He helped found the Department of Physiology at the Institute of Experimental Medicine and continued to oversee the program for the next 45 years. While researching the digestive function of dogs, Pavlov noted that dogs would salivate before the delivery of food. In a series of well-known experiments, he presented a variety of stimuli before the presentation of food, eventually finding that, after repeated association, a dog would salivate to the presence of a stimulus other than food. He termed this response a conditional reflex. Pavlov also discovered that these reflexes originate in the cerebral cortex of the brain. Pavlov received considerable acclaim for his work, including a 1901 appointment to the Russian Academy of Sciences and the 1904 Nobel Prize in Physiology. The Soviet government also offered substantial support for Pavlov's work, and the Soviet Union soon became a well-known center of physiology research. From: http://www.sparknotes.com/biography/darwin/summary.html Jean Piaget(1896-1980) OCCUPATION: Jean Piaget was a developmental psychologist and philosopher of epistemological studies with children. NATIONALITY: He was from Switzerland. PERIOD OF MAJOR ACTIVITY: His period of major activity in his career was from 1921- 1980. MAJOR CONTRIBUTION TO PSYCHOLOGY: He contributed immensely to psychology by creating the theory of genetic epistemology. SUMMARY OF THEORITICAL APPROACH: Jean Piaget created the the theory of Genetic Epistemology which is the study of the origins of knowledge. He also formed the process of qualitative development of knowledge meaning he discovered the roots of different varieties of knowledge since its basic form through to its zenith. He worked mostly on children and hence supporting the idea that children at various stages of growth think different from adults. Mary Whiton Calkins Profession: American philosopher and psychologist Nationality: American Year/Period of activity: 1894-1910 Major contribution to psychology: the concept of self-psychology Brief summary of theoretical approach to psychology: Her researches led her to the belief that psychology was a self evaluation. She even defined the field as being the science of the self in the reaction of the environment. Her three major concepts were the self, the object, and the relation between the self and the object. Carl Ransom Rogers Profession: Humanist and psychologist Nationality: American Year/Period of activity: 1951-1961 Major contribution to psychology: He developed the self-centered therapy Brief summary of theoretical approach to psychology: He believed that human all have a basic need to receive positive regard from people in their lives and if not they are likely to develop an unconditional self regard. The therapy that makes us accept ourselves by upbringing our qualities as well as our negative sides William James Philosopher,Psychologist United states The principles of psychology,writings on functionalism and pragmatism Year 1869-1907 Brief summery: James wrote comsdirbly on the concept of pragmatism. According to pragmatism, the truth of an idea can never be proven. James proposed we instead focus on what he call the " cash value" on usefulness,of an idea in addition to his own enormous influence , many of James student went on to home prosperous and influential career I psychology. Some of James students included "many whiten calking" edward thorn dike John Dewey. Margaret Floy Washburn Feminism,Psychology United states Years 1903-1931. First female American Psychologist Brief summery: Margaret was the first woman to ever receive a ho.D. In psychology. She was denied admission to Columbia because she was a woman, so she received her degree from Cornell university. She was a student of lilchener and was his first doctoral student. Her research focused on animal behavior and the animal mind. She also studied music motor theory, and leaning in animal. She became a professor, president of the APA and was a friend and mentor to many women. in the field she died of a cerebral hemorrhage in 1939, at the age of 69....... PHSYCOLOGY Mr.Galbraith Olga Otten Psychology AP 1. Name: Wilhelm Wundt. 2. Profession: He was a psychologist, philosopher and a physician. 3. Nationality: German. 4. Year/period of activity: 1879 – 1920. 5. Major contributions to psychology: His major contribution was that Wilhelm Wundt was best known for establishing the first psychology lab in Leipzig Germany. Generally considered the beginning of psychology as a field of science he’s known as the "father of experimental psychology”, as a founder he also took it as his right to define the first paradigm in psychology and structuralism. 6. Brief summary of theoretical approach to psychology. Wilhelm Wundt was the founder of psychology and he was the first to build a laboratory designed to exclusively study theories in psychology in Germany and this theory of structuralism parallels the modern definition of psychology. Structuralism is a theory that suggests that all experiences can be broken down into objectives and subjectives. Structuralism was an attempt to study the mental world with introspection, the tool that Descartes thought for the mental realm. It was attempted to use data to fit into the mechanical realm of science but this attempt failed and thus the scientific necessity of confirming results were not met.
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