6 Outline # Groundwater Hydrology ESS 315/POE 313 I. Groundwater Supply and Hydrogeological Properties Groundwater Supply -Global Hydrologic Cycle e -groundwater recharg = precipitation - (runoff + ET) Think about what factors influence soil infiltration? -National Use -Washington State Use Location and Distribution of Groundwater -zones of aeration, saturation and water table -aquifers vs aquicludes -springs Hydrologic Properties -porosity: ratio of the volume of pore spaces in a rock or other solid to the material’s total volume. -specific retention:ratio of volume of water retained to total volume of rock/soil -specific yield: water yielding capacity (volume of water, after saturation, that can be drained by gravity to the total volume of the aquifer, as a percentage) drained by gravity to the total -permeability: measure of velocity of a fluid as it flows through a porous medium. (Darcy’s Law ) Q = K x I x A ; Q rate of flow, K hydraulic conductivity, I hydraulic gradient, A cross-sectional area Groundwater Storage and Management -quantity of water stored in the basin and sustained yield -groundwater mining: amount of water withdrawn from aquifer exceeds aquifer’s sustained yield (e.g. High Plains aquifer) -saltwater intrusion:Ghyben-Herzberg lens Water Quality -potable water standards:(U.S. public health service) -dissolved substances -pollutants Conservation and A lternative Sources -conservation -desalinization -artifical recharge US Water Use Confined aquifer and potentiometric surface (height water will rise due to hydrostatic pressure). Groundwater overdraft in Florida. Implications for the survival of the Everglades. Solution weathering within karst landscapes results in very large conduits with potential high hydraulic conductivity. Overdraft can cause subsidence and collapse structures in karst aquifers. Sinkholes in karst landscapes. Ground- and surface water contamination sources. Subterrrestrial conduits within karst landscapes facilitate rapid migration of point source contaminents. Polluted surface waters can enter the groundwater system rapidly in karst landscapes.
Pages to are hidden for
"Groundwater"Please download to view full document