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					SOLAR INDUSTRIAL
PROCESS HEAT
                                Dr. B.F. TCHANCHE
          Agricultural University of Athens, Greece
           tfb@aua.gr OR tfb_tchanchef@yahoo.fr
Overview
       Introduction

       System components

       Solar thermal collectors

       Market potential

       System design

       Examples

       System cost

       Barriers

       African context

       Conclusion


                                   ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11   2
Introduction
                                                      Annual solar radiation -
                                                      © Meteotest, Berne, Switzerland




                   PV panels

                               Batteries, inverter,
                                                              Electricity
                                   cables, etc


   Solar thermal
   collector                   Heat exchangers,
                                 storage tank,                Heat           Electricity
                                controllers, etc


PV-T
                                                               ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11      3
System Components

                       Water           Auxiliary
                       Vapor           heater/
                       Pressurized      boiler
                       water                                     Space heating
    Solar radiation
                       PCM
                       etc                                       Domestic hot
                                                                 water

                                                                 Industrial
                        Storage
        Solar                                      End-uses      processes
                         tank
       collector                                                 (cooling,
                                                                 heating, etc)
Flat plates
                                                                 Power
Evacuated tubes
                                                                 generation
Parabolic trough
etc
                      Control system




                                                    ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11       4
Solar thermal collectors

                Global Irradiance
                                       Reflection
                Ig 100%
                                       8%

                                                 radiation
  Glass cover
                                                                  Forced
                                                                  convection

                       Absorption 2%

                                                               Free
                                                               convection




                                                             Usable heat
  insulation                   Heat conduction
                                                             (<60%)




                Collector operating principle – flat plate
                (photo-thermal conversion)



                                                               ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11   5
Solar thermal collectors




Unglazed flat plate       Double glazed flat plate     Evacuated tube




Hot Air solar collector    single glazed flat plate       Parabolic trough


                                                      ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11   6
Solar thermal collectors




                 Maximum reflector collector     Combined heat and power
 CPC collector                                   solar collector (CHAPS)
                 (mareco)




  heliostat      Compact linear fresnel reflector Paraboloidal dish reflector


                                                 ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11         7
  Solar thermal collectors
 Type                     T [C]     Concentra    Tracking
                                     tion ratio
 Air collector            0-50           1           -
 Pool collector           0-50           1           -
 Reflector collector      50-90          -           -
 Solar pond              70 – 90         1           -
 Solar chimney           20 – 80         1           -
 Flat plate collector   30 – 100         1           -
 Advanced Flat Plate     80-150          1           -
 collector
 Combined heat and       80-150        8-80       One-axis
 power solar
 collector (CHAPS)
 Evacuated tube         90 – 200         1           -
                                                             Efficiency vs temperature ranges (1kW/m2)
 collector
 Compound                70-240         1-5          -              Temperature and Applications
 Parabolic CPC
 Fresnel reflector      100 – 400     8 – 80      One-axis   Low temperature solar collectors (T<80 ºC)
 technology                                                     Heating (swimming pool, hot water, space)
 Parabolic trough       70 – 400      8 – 80      One-axis
 Heliostat field +      500 – 800      600 –      Two-axis   Medium Temperature collectors (80<T<400 ºC)
 Central receiver                      1000                      Process industrial heat!!
 Dish concentrators     500 - 1200     800 -      Two-axis
                                       8000                  High Temperature collectors (T>400 ºC)
Typical operating temperature and concentration ratio            Power generation
              for different solar collectors


                                                                              ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11         8
Market potential

     Final Energy Use of the EU-Industry   Industrial sectors
                                              Paper
                                              Food & beverage industries
                                              Textile industry
                                              Metal & plastic
                                              Chemical industry
                          Electricity
                             33%
                                           Processes
             Heat                             Drying
             67%                              Washing
                                              Cleaning
                                              Frying/cooking
                                              Liquid/solid heating/cooling
                                              Space heating/Cooling
                                              Sterilization
ESTIF – European Solar Thermal                Distillation
Industry Federation (www.estif.org)           etc


                                                   ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11     9
Market potential
      Industry             Process       Temperature (°C)
      Food industry      Sterilization       60-120
                        Pasteurization       60-80
                           Cooking           90-100
                          Bleaching          60-90
                           Washing           60-90
      Chemical              Soaps           200-260
                       Synthetic rubber     150-200
                       Processing heat      120-180
                      Pre-heating water      60-90
      Plastics           Preparation        120-140
                          Distillation      140-150
                          Separation        200-220
                          Extension         140-160
      Textile         Bleaching, dyeing      60-90
                      Drying, degreasing    100-130
                            Fixing          160-180
                           Pressing          80-100
                  Processes and temperature ranges
                          (kalogirou, 2003)


                                                 ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11   10
System design example

          Solar collector                          Boiler
                            Buffer solar
                            storage tank




                                              90 ºC

                                                                        Heater


                                           70 ºC
            Heat
            exchanger                                  Bath



Industrial bath
Ref. SOPRO


                                                   ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11        11
System design example

                                                   Gas/liquid heat
         Air solar collector                       exchanger           Hot air for
                                 Fan         Fan                       the process




Ambient air




Air pre-heating for an open drying process
Ref. SOPRO                                                 Boiler


                                                    ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11      12
Examples
           Metal processing company Steinbach & Vollman,
           Germany (2008)

           Solar coll: vacuum tube, 400 m2, 280 kW
           Storage: 9 m3
           Design: bath heating, heating, domestic hot water
           Temperature: 60 - 80 ºC
           Energy savings: 30-35% (gas reduction)
           Capital cost: 240,000 € (50% subsidies)
           Payback period: 7 years (Subs. Incl.)

           Brewery, Neumarkteur Lammsbrau Gebr.
           Ehrensperger e.K., Germany (2000)

           Solar coll.: single glazed flat plate, 72 m2, 50 kW
           Design: air preheating (drying process)
           Storage: no
           Temperature: up to 60 ºC




                                       ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11    13
System Cost

                                             In Europe
            Investment Cost
                                                Capital cost: 180-500 €/m2
              Distribution
                           Collector field      Heat: 2-8 c€/kWh
      6%
           3%                                Capital cost
                           Piping
 11%
                                                location (solar resource, local
                           Planning
                                             wages)
                     53%
                           Storage & Heat         Application (temperature, load
                           exchangers        profile)
14%                        Control system
                                                 System concept
14%
                           Others                Size of the system

                                                 System components

Ref: SOPRO project


                                                       ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11       14
Barriers/Obstacles
Identified obstacles
   Awareness (not known by public, decision makers)

   Resistance (new tech & “business as usual attitude” of managers)

   High investment cost (as most renewable energy technologies)

   Lack of standard technology (designs, materials)

   Lack of suitable planning guidelines & tools

   Lack of training & education


How to overcome the barriers

   Information campaign

   More demo projects (references)

   Subsidies

   Training (workshops, seminars,…)


                                                            ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11   15
African context
                     Industries
                     - agro-food & beverage
                     - textile
                     - chemical


                     Conservation of
                     agricultural products
                      - drying
                      - refrigeration


                     Buildings
                     - Air conditioning (60% of
                     energy consumption)



The solar resource




                       ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11     16
African context
Major obstacles
-   lack of technology
-   high upfront cost
-   lack of subsidies
-   lack of appropriate energy policy
-   lack of skilled workers
-   lack of research facilities



Benefits for countries
-   landlocked countries/oil imports (energy security)
-   development of remote areas (PV + solar thermal)
-   more jobs
-   less CO2 emissions




                                                         ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11   17
More …

Potential of Solar Heat in Industrial Processes. – POSHIP - 2001

SO-PRO Project (http://www.solar-process-heat.eu/)- 2009/28
months

IEA –SHC (solar cooling & heating): Tasks 33, 38 and Task 49 “Solar
Process Heat for Production and Advanced Applications” – begin
January 2012. (http://www.iea-shc.org/)

MEDISCO project – (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt) http://www.medisco.org




                                                 ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11   18
Conclusion

Low temperature solar heating (swimming pools, space heating,
domestic hot water) well known and mature!

High temperature thermal applications are under development
for electricity generation since the 1980s(CSP)!

Medium temperature solar applications are at the infancy stage
(start 2000) despite the huge potential that exist in industries and
buildings.
Major technology in the coming decades provided the barriers are
overcome:
     More research
     Financial support
     Increase awareness (managers, policy makers)



                                                 ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11   19
ANSOLE WEBINAR 27/9/11   20

				
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