In Physical education by wuzhenguang

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           Developed by PENZ
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     • Third level
       for use by PENZ members
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                                     1
Section 1 Physical education – education for life
Section 2 Physical education – the benefits
Section 3 Physical education’s place in education
          and contribution to the 2007 Curriculum
Section 4 The potential of physical education
          within the school
Section 5 Physical education and physical
          activity - the relationship
Section 6 Exploding the myths
              Section 1
Physical education is education for life
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• Click a fundamental aspect of human development
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   – …develops people…individually and as groups
     Second level
      • Third level
         practice of
    “The – Fourth levelphysical education and sport is a
    fundamental right for all”.
             » Fifth level

    “Physical education and sport form an essential element
    of lifelong education in the overall education system”.
                      International Charter of Physical Education and Sport




                                                                              5
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    Physical education, through the use of carefully
• Click to editphysical activity, contributes to the
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  – Second level of the whole person.”
    development
                                 Wuest and Butcher (2006)
     • Third level
        – Fourth level
            » Fifth level

                  Becoming physically educated
                  is part of education for life


                                                            6
In physical education, the focus is on movement and its
contribution to the development of individuals and communities.
By learning in, through, and about movement, students gain an
understanding that movement is integral to human expression
and that it can contribute to people’s pleasure and enhance their
lives. They learn to understand, appreciate, and move their
bodies, relate positively to others, and demonstrate constructive
attitudes and values. This learning takes place as they engage in
play, games, sport, exercise, recreation, adventure, and
expressive movement in diverse physical and social
environments. Physical education encourages students to
engage in movement experiences that promote and support the
development of physical and social skills. It fosters critical
thinking and action and enables students to understand the role
and significance of physical activity for individuals and society.
                                           NZ Curriculum (2007)
    ClickPhysical Educationtitle style
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      Provides learning experiences planned explicitly
•     from the HPE Curriculum
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       Is implemented in curriculum time
    – Second level
       Is explicitly planned to provide learning to gain
        • Third level
       knowledge, skills, attitudes
           – Fourth level
       Involves»learning “in, through and about”
                 Fifth level
       movement
       Has a focus on movement, and on the body
       Makes distinctive contributions to development of
       social and interpersonal skills, (not just the
       physical)
       Prepares students to cope with co-operation,
       competition, winning and losing
                                                           8
Teaches students the creative and spontaneous
ability to play and to be playful
Can teach students fairness and justice
Provides students with lifelong learning opportunities
through physical activity
Helps students develop respect for the body – their
own and others
Contributes to holistic development of the person
Develops understanding of exercise and its possible
relationship to health
Positively enhances self confidence and self worth
through movement contexts
    Physical education involves learning
                    Master title
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    in, through and

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      in movement /physical activity,
       by developing                          of movement
  – Second level physical skills in a rangeappreciate and
       contexts students learn to understand,
     • Third level own bodies
        move their
         – Fourth level
       through movement /physical activity
              » Fifth level
         using the context of movement to develop knowledge of
         themselves and other people, social skills and positive
         attitudes and values
       about movement /physical activity,
         by examining the scientific aspects of it and by learning
         about the social and cultural significance movement has
         for individuals, groups and communities
                                                                     10
Physical Education is unique,
     and offers unique learning opportunities:

Development of the whole person
     - by integrating physical, social, mental and
      emotional and spiritual development
Learning in, through and about movement
      - learning to move and moving to learn

For individual and group / community development


                   helps people develop to their potential :
                   physically, socially, mentally, emotionally,
                   spiritually, and provides learning for life
         Section 2
Physical education - the benefits
  Physical Education educates, and provides physical,
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    social, emotional, mental and spiritual benefits
      Physical benefits
• Click tophysical aspects text styles
      The
           edit Master of physical education:
   – Second level skills, agility, strength, co-ordination
      • develop motor
      • Third flexibility
         and level
       • improve level
          – Fourth cardio-respiratory functioning and can help
         reduces risk of high blood pressure and heart disease
              » Fifth level
       • reduce risk of colon cancer and diabetes and regulate
         blood sugar levels
       • can assist in weight management
       • help develop bone density, and to maintain the health
         of bones, muscles and joints
       • improves the ability to relax, rest and sleep
                                                             13
Social benefits
 Physical education…
 • provides for fun, friendships and social interactions
 • assists in social and cultural integration and
   understanding, - brings communities together
 • helps development of decision making skills and skills
   to meet new challenges
 • provides opportunities to develop leadership skills and
   ‘followship’ skills
 • assists with coping with success, disappointment and
   managing competition
 • provides opportunities for character development.
 • helps to minimise high risk behaviours.
         Some further info:
  Mental and emotional benefits
 Physical Education's Uniqueness
Physicaleducation…
 • helps to develop positive identity and self worth
   •The only subject area that focuses on the
 • promotes better thinking processes and speeds up
    body
   reaction time and alertness
   •Helps students to relax, laugh and enjoy life
                       develop respect for the
 • promotes the ability and others
    body – their own
 • improves mood states and feelings of optimism
   •Contributes to integrated holistic
 • reduces stress and anxiety and reduces depression
    development
 • provides opportunities to play, be expressive,
   •Develops understanding of exercise and
   creative and spontaneous
    its possible relationship to health
 • assists in rehabilitation and pain management
  •Positively enhances self confidence and
   self worth through movement contexts
Spiritual benefits
Physical education…
• assists in expressing beliefs, values and attitudes
• encourages achieving personal ambitions and goals
• provides a medium to express individual purpose in life
• helps develop a desire to contribute to others and
  society
• provides an opportunity to interact with and appreciate
  the environment
• provides avenues for people to dream and use their
  imagination
• helps people understand what it means to be human
Physical education contributes to holistic
development children and young people.
and has broad physical, social, mental
and emotional and spiritual benefits.
              Section 3
Physical education’s place in education
                  and
 contribution to the 2007 Curriculum
Physical education contributes to the holistic
development of the whole person.
Physical education makes a unique contribution to
the education of the child or young person. It enables
them to develop a range of knowledge, skills and
attitudes that are applicable in all aspect of their lives.
Physical education is education for life!
Physical education can make an enormous
contribution to the vision for “confident,
connected, actively involved, life-long learners”
(NZ Curriculum 2007 pg.8) who will contribute to the
future of New Zealand society.
The Physical Education Curriculum is
underpinned by concepts (socio-ecological
perspective, hauora, health promotion, attitudes
and values) that enable explicit teaching for and
development of the knowledge, skills and
attitudes to fulfil the vision of the 2007
Curriculum.
In Physical education, students develop confidence through:
- learning through movement
- opportunities to take on challenges
- working with a diverse range of other students
- developing a greater sense of self and self identity
- learning how to motivate themselves and to be organised and reliable
- learning about own
and other cultures                                          Vision
- opportunities to         Confident
                                                                                   Actively involved
                           Positive in their own identity
develop relationship                                             Participants in a range of life contexts
                           Motivated and reliable
                                                                  Contributors to the well-being of New
skills                     Resourceful
                                                                                               Zealand –
                           Enterprising and entrepreneurial
- opportunities to                                                       social, cultural, economic, and
                           Resilient
                                                                                           environmental
foster resilience and
provide ways to learn
to become
increasingly resilient
                               Connected                                                    Lifelong learners
                               Able to relate well to others                               Literate and numerate
                               Effective users of communication tools
                                                                                    Critical and creative thinkers
                               Connected to the land and environment                 Active seekers, users, and
                               Members of communities                                      creators of knowledge
                               International citizens                                 Informed decision makers



                                                        The New Zealand Curriculum (2007)
In Physical education, students develop the ability to connect through:
- learning through movement
- learning tolerance and respect for the rights of others,
- developing interpersonal and relationship skills
- understanding how to be inclusive and to accept diversity
- working co-operatively and collaboratively in a range of physical contexts
- having multiple opportunities
to work in groups with other
students to meet challenges                                    Vision
- experiencing and learning in Confident                                       Actively involved
                                Positive in their own identity
the outdoors                    Motivated and reliable
                                                                       Participants in a range of life
                                                                                             contexts
- being positive team and       Resourceful                         Contributors to the well-being of
                                Enterprising and entrepreneurial                      New Zealand –
group members                   Resilient                            social, cultural, economic, and
- working with a wide range                                                            environmental

of other students
                                                                                       Lifelong learners
                                                                                       Literate and numerate
                                         Connected
                                                                                          Critical and creative
                                         Able to relate well to others
                                                                                                       thinkers
                                         Effective users of communication tools
                                                                                  Active seekers, users, and
                                         Connected to the land and environment
                                                                                       creators of knowledge
                                         Members of communities
                                                                                  Informed decision makers
                                         International citizens
                                     Vision
  Confident                                                      Actively involved
  Positive in their own identity               Participants in a range of life contexts
  Motivated and reliable                       Contributors to the well-being of New
  Resourceful                                                                Zealand –
  Enterprising and entrepreneurial                     social, cultural, economic, and
  Resilient                                                              environmental




                                                                 Lifelong learners
  Connected                                                   Literate and numerate
  Able to relate well to others                        Critical and creative thinkers
  Effective users of communication tools                Active seekers, users, and
  Connected to the land and environment                       creators of knowledge
  Members of communities                                 Informed decision makers
  International citizens
                             The New Zealand Curriculum (2007)



Physical education teaches children and young people to
understand what being actively involved means. They learn how
to contribute through their experiences in active involvement.
They experience what can be achieved personally and collectively
through those experiences of being actively involved in a range of
movement contexts. Students learn to take action.
Physical education                                               Vision
                              Confident                                                     Actively involved
provides:                     Positive in their own identity             Participants in a range of life contexts
                              Motivated and reliable                     Contributors to the well-being of New
- multiple opportunities to   Resourceful                                                              Zealand –
                              Enterprising and entrepreneurial                   social, cultural, economic, and
understand the value of       Resilient                                                            environmental
becoming an
independent lifelong
learner
                                                                                         Lifelong learners
-learning experiences                                                                   Literate and numerate
                              Connected
that develop critical         Able to relate well to others                      Critical and creative thinkers
                                                                                  Active seekers, users, and
thinking skills               Effective users of communication tools
                                                                                        creators of knowledge
                              Connected to the land and environment
                              Members of communities                               Informed decision makers
 -learning activities that    International citizens
 teach and enable                                       The New Zealand Curriculum (2007)
 creative thinking and
 creative skills
-support for learners to actively seek knowledge in a range of learning contexts
- learning that will encourage lifelong activity uptake and a love of learning
Physical education provides unique
opportunities to engage students in learning
that will enable them to become confident,
connected, actively involved, life-long learners.

The explicit teaching of skills and positive
attitudes in physical education combined with
well-planned learning experiences equips
children and young people to understand and
contribute to the well being of themselves,
others and the communities in which they live.
                  Values
Physical education provides excellent learning
  opportunities for students to explicitly learn about:
  their own values and those of others
  values inhererent in sport and physical activity, and the
  significance of these
  the values of other groups and cultures.
  the links between values and actions
  expressing their own values
  Interpersonal skills to deal with disagreements that arise from
  differences in values to negotiate solutions
  making ethical decisions and acting on them

         The Attitudes and Values that underpin and are explicit in
         the Health and Physical Education learning area are…
Through their learning in health and physical            They will develop respect for
education, students will develop a positive and          the rights of other people,
responsible attitude to their own physical,              for example, through:
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mental and emotional, social, and spiritual well-        •acceptance of a range of
being that includes:                                     abilities;
•valuing themselves and other people;                    •acknowledgment of diverse
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•a willingness to reflect on beliefs;
•the strengthening of integrity, commitment,
                                                         viewpoints;
                                                         •tolerance, rangimarie, and
     – Second level
perseverance, and courage.                               open-mindedness

        • Third level
           – Fourth level
         Through learning in Physical Education,
               » Fifth level
         students learn a range of Attitudes and Values


They will develop care and concern for
other people in their community and for
the environment through:                            •They will develop a sense of
•cooperation and awhina;                            social justice and will
•applying aroha, manaakitanga, care,                demonstrate:
compassion, and mahi a ngakau;                      •fairness;
•constructive challenge and competition;            •inclusiveness and non-     27
•positive involvement and participation             discriminatory practices.
NZ Curriculum Values
Excellence                         Innovation, inquiry and curiosity
Diversity                          Equity
Community & participation Ecological sustainability
Integrity                         Respect



              Physical Education provides multiple learning
           opportunities for values to be encouraged, modelled,
         explored and developed. Pedagogy and teaching models
        specific to PE contexts allow for the exploration of values.

                   HPE Curriculum Underlying Context:
Attitudes and Values
 Positive and responsible attitude to their own well-being

 Respect for rights of others

 Care and concern for people and their communities the environment

 Sense of social justice
•Physical education explicitly contributes to the development of the key
 competencies
•Health and Physical Education Curriculum underlying concepts and
 achievement objectives have significant alignment and association with the
 key competencies
•Physical education provides learning in, through and about movement. In
 learning in and through movement, physical education provides
 opportunities to learn about, develop and reflect on the key competencies.


                        Key Competencies
            Thinking
            Using language, symbols
            and texts
            Managing self
            Relating to others
            Participating and
            contributing
                                          Key Competencies

                                          Thinking
Physical education fosters critical
thinking and action.                      Using language,
Critical thinking is essential in the     symbols and texts
exploration and understanding of the
movement culture. Opportunity for the     Managing self
development of creative and critical
thinking and the use of thinking          Relating to others
processes are explicitly provided in
physical education. Students develop      Participating and
knowledge and understanding for           contributing
thinking and decision making in
movement contexts and transfer these
skills to other aspects of their lives.
                               Key Competencies

                               Thinking

                               Using language,
                               symbols and texts
Physical education knowledge
and understanding can be       Managing self
expressed in language and
text as well as in movement.   Relating to others

Students learn to provide      Participating and
information and to             contributing
communicate to others in a
range of contexts including
movement contexts.
Physical Education provides
learning experiences that explicitly
teach skills to enable students to
set goals, lead, follow, self-reflect,
self manage and to be
independent and self motivated.
The use of these skills in a range       Key Competencies
of activity contexts ensures
                                         Thinking
students have the opportunity to
become competent ‘self                   Using language,
managers’ of the physical, social,       symbols and texts
emotional and spiritual self.
                                         Managing self

                                         Relating to others

                                         Participating and
                                         contributing
The Physical education curriculum Strand C:
“Relationships with Other People” focuses
on students gaining knowledge and
understanding of how to develop and
maintain relationships, identity, sensitivity,
and respect for self, others and the world in    Key Competencies
which they live.
The development of interpersonal skills is an    Thinking
explicit aspect of this strand, along with the
development of understanding of what             Using language,
influences us to makes choices about the use     symbols and texts
of interpersonal skills and the impact of this
on others. Learning to work with others is       Managing self
integral to physical education
                                                 Relating to others

                                                 Participating and
                                                 contributing
The Physical Education Curriculum strand:
Healthy Communities and Environments
teaches students about societal attitudes
and beliefs, their community and its
resources, rights, responsibilities, and about
                                                 Key Competencies
the relationships between people and the
environment.                                     Thinking
Knowledge and skills in physical education
enable students to understand how and why        Using language,
to be part of a community and the                symbols and texts
importance of connection and contribution to
it through their participation.                  Managing self
Participating in groups or teams in physical
education develops the necessary skills to       Relating to others
participate and contribute in a range of life
contexts.                                        Participating and
                                                 contributing
             Section 4
The potential of physical education
        within the school
The potential of physical education to
contribute to young peoples lives and to
your school ethos / culture is significant




          Physical Education contributes to:
               - the ethos of the school
               - the school Values and Beliefs
               - the school Mission, Vision, Charter
  Physical education is well placed to contribute
  positively to the culture and ethos of the school.

“Students definitely take those skills
and learning’s from physical
education and take them to other
parts of the school. The approach
looks at the whole student and the
ethos throughout the school”.
                            (Principal)

          “There is (in physical education) a huge
          emphasis on developing skills relating to
          social, co-operative and leadership skills as
          part of the whole movement learning
          process.”                              (Principal)
For physical education to make maximum contribution to the
development of individuals and to school ethos, consistent messages
and strong links need to be made.
                     Physically educated and
                  physically active young people


                   Consistent messages and experiences,
                           greater learning for life

                                                                        Contribute
                       Curriculum       Co-curricular                   back to school
                         Physical        physical activity              ethos
                        Education




                                Key messages:
              from Health and Physical Education Curriculum and
                               the school ethos



                                Schools
                                                             (Gillespie 2005)
       One example: One Model of Good Practice

                        School ethos / vision




Supported by:                                         Underpinned by:
Behaviour Management Systems
                                               Physical Education explicitly
School rules promote the values
                                               teaches the interpersonal skills,
Positive reinforcement and
                                               attitudes and values and develops
expectations explicit
                                               many of the key competencies
Explicit support by staff



                         Reinforced and applied in:
                             Co-curricular contexts


                                                      (adapted from Gillespie, 2005)
Physical Education (curriculum) is underpinned
by a set of attitudes and values that means these
are explicitly addressed within teaching and
learning programmes.

Students learn to transfer and apply knowledge,
skills, attitudes and values in and outside the
physical education programme.
  Physical Education and our school…

How does what we learn and do in Physical
Education relate to our school ethos, vision
and mission?

How does our school ‘Code of Behaviour’
relate to the attitudes and values learned and
demonstrated in Physical Education?
     • Aiming for edit Master individuals, actively
                  physically educated title style
    Click tocritical consumers of the movement
       involved
        culture, who make informed decisions and apply
•       their edit Master text styles
    Click to knowledge
    – Second level
       • Aims are educative and include:
       • Third-Lifelong learners
               level
           – Fourth level
              -Lifelong enjoyment of and participation in
               » Fifth level
              physical activity / movement
              -Enjoyment of physical activity for its own sake
              -Development of critical thinkers

       • Holistic approach with integration of physical, social,
         mental and spiritual aspects

                                                              42
                Section 5
Physical education and physical activity -
            the relationship
          Physical activity – confused?!
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       Physical activity is the principal context used in the
       implementation of physical education programmes.
• Click to edit Master Key Area of Learning within the
      Physical Activity is a text styles
   – Secondand Physical Education in the New Zealand
      Health level
       Curriculum.
      • Third level
       Physical activity can be provided for students within
          – Fourth level
       curriculum and in co-curricular programmes. In curriculum
              » Fifth level
       time it is most likely to be within the physical education
       programme.
       Physical activity is educative within both curriculum
       programmes and can also be educative in co-curricular
       programmes if this is explicitly planned for. (If it is not
       planned for, we need to be mindful that even an unplanned
       opportunity for physical activity can be a positive or negative
       learning experience.)                                         44
Physical activity can be play, sport, games, dance,
and active transport – a range of movement
opportunities - all with their own name!
Physical activity can be incidental (walking to school,
playing on the bars at break) or deliberate (planned
for).
Physical activity can be just “doing”, and simply seen
as energy expenditure through skeletal muscle
movement.
Physical activity is a term often used to refer to
physical activity opportunities that are offered and
exist outside of physical education, but it still means
different things to different people.
 Physical education and Physical activity:
       similarities and differences

    Physical education               Physical activity
Is implemented in curriculum Is part of physical education
time                         within curriculum time, but
                             can be co-curricular activity in
                             out of school time
Learning experiences are       If curriculum based, in
planned from the Physical      curriculum time, then it is
Education Curriculum           physical education!
Explicitly planned to gain     Can be designed to do with
knowledge, skills, attitudes   some knowledge and skill
                               development, or can be
                               surely spontaneous, for fun
     Physical education                 Physical activity

Involves learning “in, through Unless it has specific planned
and about” movement            outcomes, is generally just “in”
/physical activity             movement
Focused on children/ young       Should be focused on the
person                           children/young person, and not
                                 the sport or activity and other
                                 goals
Learning focus is often within   Focus often is about the
the process                      outcome/result and less on
                                 process
Is deliberately planned to be    Is often about the here and now
about here, now and is also
future focused
   Physical education                Physical activity
Aiming for physically         Various aims and outcomes
educated individuals,         are planned; but a focus on
actively involved critical    fitness and health outcomes
consumers of the              may not engage children into
movement culture, who         being physical active for life.
make informed decisions,
and apply their knowledge

Aims are educative and       Variety of aims, at times a risk
include:                     of dominance of only physical
Lifelong learners            health outcome aims
Lifelong enjoyment of
physical activity / movement
Enjoyment of physical
activity for its own sake
Development of critical
thinkers
    Section 6
Exploding the myths
Myth 1
“The Health and Physical Education Curriculum is all
about writing”
 Physical education is about learning in, through and
 about movement.
 Physical education programme content can be
 taught through a movement context in all but a very
 few cases.
 Questioning and debriefing students is an essential
 part of learning in physical education, but this again
 does not mean students need to be any less active.
Myth 2
“Physical education should keep kids fit (and ‘un-fat’)”

 Physical education has broad learning outcomes, and
 making or keeping children and young people physically
 fit is not the primary purpose of physical education.
 Physical education programmes will include knowledge,
 skills and attitudes that will enable individuals to
 understand and care for their bodies
 Having fitness or physical health goals as key aims for
 physical education may not engage children and young
 people to be life-long physical activity participants.
Myth 3
“The purpose of Physical education is to teach kids how
to play sport.”
While children and young people will have
opportunities to develop a range of skills and
knowledge applicable for sport within their physical
education programme, this is not the sole purpose
of physical education.
A physically education programme will enable the
development of skills, knowledge and attitudes for
participation in a broad range activities and
contexts
Myth 4
“Teachers should be able to demonstrate everything they
teach in Physical education.”


It is unrealistic and unnecessary for teachers to need to
demonstrate everything. There are a range of methods
that teachers can use to teach movement skills and
provide activities that develop skills and promote learning.
The ability to demonstrate skills is not a measurement of
implementing a quality teaching and learning programme
in physical education
Myth 5
Students in our school get plenty of physical activity in
breaks and lunchtime so they don’t need physical
education..
Physical education and physical activity are not the same
thing. Physical education provides explicitly planned
learning opportunities based on the curriculum and the
needs of the students. Physical activity is an essential
context for the teaching or physical education.
Physical education is a key subject within the Health and
Physical Education Learning Area and as for all learning
areas, should be implemented as part of a balanced
school curriculum programme.
Myth 6
The only authentic assessments in physical
education are written ones

 Both formative and summative assessment of
 learning in in Physical education comes in a
 range of forms.
 Professional judgement of the teacher should
 be valued
Myth 7
The main role of Physical Education is to provide a break
from class time and to allow kids to ‘let off steam’


 Physical Education is a curriculum subject
 belonging to one of 8 Learning Areas.
 Physical education should provide learning
 experiences that have been explicitly planned
 and are part of a year long programme.
 All developed material is the copyright
of Physical Education New Zealand 2008
      All enquires should be made to
     Physical Education New Zealand
              PO Box 48201
               Silverstream
                 Upper Hutt
             www.penz.org.nz

								
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