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GENETIC DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF SIXTEEN NEW RECORDS OF ORCHID SPECIES TO ASSAM OF EASTERN HIMALAYA

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GENETIC DIVERSITY RESOURCES, DISTRIBUTION AND PRESENT ECOLOGICAL STATUS OF SIXTEEN NEW RECORDS OF ORCHID SPECIES TO ASSAM OF EASTERN HIMALAYA Powered By Docstoc
					Bioscience Discovery 3(2): 155-159, June 2012                                                  ISSN: 2229-3469 (Print)

   ECOLOGICAL STATUS, DIVERSITY RESOURCES AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LITTLE KNOWN
          GENUS TAINIA BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE) IN ASSAM OF NORTH EAST INDIA

                               Khyanjeet Gogoi¹, Raju Das² and Rajendra Yonzone³

                             ¹Daisa Bordoloi Nagar, Talap, Tinsukia - 786156, Assam, India
                  ²Nature’s Foster, P. Box 41, Shastri Road, P.O. Bongaigaon, 783380, Assam, India
              ³Dept. of Botany, St. Joseph's College, North Point - 734104, District Darjeeling, W.B., India
                                              ¹ khyanjeetgogoi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
        Among the Orchid flora of Assam, four species of terrestrial Orchid Tainia recorded viz., T.
        angustifolia, T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana in an intensive field survey during 1996-2010. The
        present paper deals Tainia species diversity and distribution in Assam of North East India. This
        attempt is the first step to correct taxonomic identification to workout currently accepted botanical
        names with present ecological status, date of collection, habitat, altitudinal ranges, phenology and
        local and general distribution of Tainia species in the regions.

Key Words: Tainia Orchid Species, diversity resources, distribution, present status, Assam.

INTRODUCTION
         The Indian state, Assam is the gateway of              MATERIALS AND METHOD
the North East region, bears a separate identity                         The intensive field survey works were
phytogeographically and represents a number of                  carried out during 2006 - 2011 covering all the
different types of plant communities. Its unique                seasons of the year in all parts of Assam including
ecosystem favors the luxuriant growth of plants                 floral nurseries, floral farms and forest areas.
considered a Nature’s reservoir of plants resources-            Collected     Orchid    specimens      along    with
unparalleled compared to any place in the world                 Thrixspermum species were made into standard
with regards to its richness of floristic composition.          mounted herbarium sheets following the
Almost all varieties of plants relating to different            procedure of Jain and Roa, 1977. The authors have
climatic conditions are found in the state where                done photographs and sketch the available Orchid
Orchids are a major interesting component of                    species from the region. The relevant data from the
vegetation (Bhagabati et al., 2006). Assam Orchids              field notebooks were then transferred to the labels
show all the types of habits and growth forms as                of the herbarium sheets and computer. Normally,
are found in orchidaceous plants. Assam is the                  2-3 specimens of each species in flowering or
second largest state of North-East India and is a rich          fruiting stage were collected and life form
storehouse of Indian Orchid species. The forests of             photographs were prepared. The specimens were
Assam possess a large number of beautiful                       identified, described and nomenclature checked
important Orchids (Gogoi et al., 2009). The total               with the help of the literatures of Hooker, 1890;
number of Orchid species may be around 193                      King and Pantling, 1898; Seidenfaden, 1962; Deva,
under 71 genera out of which 27 are endemics.                   1968; Pradhan, 1979; Pearce and Cribb, 2002;
Some Orchids are associated with the culture of                 Mishra, 2007; Lucksom, 2007 Chowdhery, 1998;
Assamese people from past. There is a tradition of              and specimens authentication done in herbarium of
using Orchids by different tribes of Assam in the               department of Botany Guwahati University and BSI
culture (Barua, 2001).                                          Shillong (Assam herbarium). Finally, all the Voucher
         The genus Tainia was established in 1825               specimens have been deposited at the Botany
by C.L. Blume in his Bijdragen tot det Flora van                department herbarium of Guwahati University. All
Nederlandsch Indie. The genus comprises 14                      the species were arranged systematically with
species distributed in India, Myanmar, China, Japan,            botanical names, habitat, local distribution and
Thailand, Vietnam, the Malay Archipelago to                     flowering month. For ecological status, plot of
Australia and Bougainville, about 9 species in India,           5mx5m quadrates for terrestrial species was laid
3 in Assam.                                                     down diagonally in the habitat rich field.
http://www. biosciencediscovery.com                       155                                 ISSN: 2231-024X (Online)
                                                  Gogoi et al.,

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                      Ania angustifolia Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 129.
         During recent field studies in the different       1831.
places of Assam, 4 species of Tainia were recorded.         Ascotainia angustifolia (Lindl.) Schltr., Repert. Spec.
Out of three T. angustifolia found to be threatened         Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 246. 1919.
and new report for Assam and India, and other               Tainia sutepensis (Rolfe ex Downie) Seidenf. &
species viz., T. latifolia, T. minor and T. wrayana are     Smitinand, Orchid Thailand, IV (2): 739. 1964.
found in rare status throughout the Assam. It is            Terrestrial; pseudobulbs ovoid, to 2-3 cm, covered
observed that large scale destruction of forests in         with sheaths; petiole 15-30 cm, slender, articulate
the past few decades has been resulted in a drastic         near middle, base with 2 tubular sheaths; leaf
depletion of Orchid species diversity in Assam.             blade oblong or narrowly elliptic, 25-30 ×3-7 cm,
Since deforestation has severely affected the               apex shortly acuminate; inflorescence erect;
biodiversity resources of Orchids, it is there for          peduncle 15-30 cm, with 3 or 4 tubular sheaths
desirable to conserve the precious Orchid flora of          below; rachis 4-10 cm, laxly few flowered; flowers
this region through ex-situ as well as in-situ              not opening widely, 3-3.5 cm across, yellowish
conservation methods. The whole Orchidaceous                green; sepals similar, oblong, 2×0.5 cm, acute;
family is in threat because of the continuous               lateral sepals adnate to column base; petals elliptic,
degradation of natural habitat by multifarious              1.8×0.5 cm, acute; lip oblong, 1.7 cm, 3-lobed;
anthropogenic activities, frequent landslides, top          lateral lobes erect, embracing column, triangular-
layer soil erosion, overgrazing, developmental              lanceolate, 1 mm wide, acuminate; mid-lobe nearly
schemes, the continuous extension of agricultural           oblate, 0.7 cm wide, rounded; disk with 5 lamellae
lands, accumulation of pesticide residues etc. To           extending to midlobe.
conserve the Orchid species in natural habitat, it is       Voucher specimen: Gogoi et al., 0707, Assam;
necessary to conserve their habitats.                       Habitat: Growing lithophyte on a small rock humid
         The Herb Tainia is terrestrial, glabrous.          evergreen forest and terrestrial in open deciduous
Rhizome with persistent or decaying tubular scales;         forest on humus rich soil at elevation of 1000m;
roots not branched, villous, with root hairs. Pseudo        Flowering: July- September; Present ecological
bulb erect, rarely prostrate, with 1 or few                 status: Threatened. Local distribution within Assam:
internodes. Leaf 1 per pseudobulb, deciduous,               Karbi- Anglong; General distribution: India (Assam),
articulate, petiolate or not, petiole not sheathing,        China, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. [Fig: 1]
convolute, plicate or not, glabrous; blade elliptic to
ovate, base decurrent along petiole, margin                 Tainia latifolia (Lindl.) Rchb. f., Bonplandia
straight, undulate to crenulate. Inflorescence an           (Hannover) 5: 54. 1857; Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India, 5:
erect raceme arising heteranthous on a leafless             820, 1890; King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard.
shoot or lateral from base of pseudobulb, often             Calcutta, 8: 103, t. 142. 1898; Kumar et. Monilal,
alternating with fertile shoots; peduncle with few          Cat. Ind. Orch., 85, 1994; Chowdhery, Orch. Fl.
internodes; scales tubular; floral bracts persistent.       Arunachal Prad., 657, 1998; Chowdhery & Pal,
Flowers resupinate, open simultaneously. Sepals             Orch. Arunachal Prad., 139, 1997.
and petals ovate, elliptic, or obovate to linear,           Ania latifolia Lindl., Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 129. 1831.
entire; lateral sepals decurrent on column foot             Mitopetalum latifolium (Lindl.) Bl., Mus. Bot. 2: 185.
when present. Lip immobile, entire or 3-lobed, with         1856.
or without spur, saccate; Column straight, with             Tainia hastata (Lindl.) Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 821.
narrow seams that continue onto column foot                 1890.
when present; column foot absent or                         Terrestrial, Pseudobulbs close, cylindric-ovoid, ca. 7
inconspicuous. Capsule ellipsoid.                           cm, base 1-1.5 cm in diam., usually covered with
                                                            membranous sheaths; leaf elliptic or elliptic-
ENUMERATION                                                 lanceolate, plicate, 18-32×5-7 cm, papery,
Tainia angustifolia (Lindl.) Benth. & Hook. f., Gen.        acuminate.
Pl. 3: 515. 1883; Seidenf. & Smitinand, Orchid              Inflorescence erect; peduncle 20–80 cm, with 3
Thailand, IV (2): 739. 1964.                                tubular sheaths 5–8 cm; laxly many flowered;


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Bioscience Discovery 3(2): 155-159, June 2012                                         ISSN: 2229-3469 (Print)

Flowers fragrant; pedicel, ovary, sepals, and petals      Tainia wrayana (Hook. f.) J.J. Smith in Bull. Jard.
dark brown, lip yellow, column yellow, anther cap         Bot. Buitenz. 2, 8: 6. 1912; Pradhan, Indian Orchid-
with 2 purplish red appendages; Dorsal sepal              II, 242, 1979; Chowdhery, Orch. Fl. Arunachal Prad.,
narrowly oblong, 11-13 ×1.7-2 mm, 3-veined,               661, 1998.
obtuse; lateral sepals narrowly falcate-oblong, ca.       Ipsea wrayana Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 5: 812. 1890.
12×2 mm, base adnate to column foot forming a             Mischobulbum wrayanum (Hook. f.) Rolfe, Orchid
short mentum. Petals similar to lateral sepals, 12-       Rev. 20: 127. 1912; Sathish Kumar & Manilal in Kew
13×2-3 mm, 3-veined, subacute; lip elliptic to ovate,     Bull. 42:942. 1987. Mishra, Orch. India, 307, 2007.
8-12×4-9 mm, normally 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect,       Nephelaphyllum grandiflorum Hook. f., Fl. Brit.
ovate-triangular, 5-7 mm wide when flattened,             India 6: 192. 1890.
acute; mid-lobe suborbicular or obovate; Column           Tainia atropurpurea Ridl., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 315
arcuate, 7 mm, foot ca. 2 mm.                             (1896).
Voucher specimen: Gogoi et al., 0350, Assam;              Mischobulbum grandiflorum (Hook. f.) Schltr.,
Habitat: Terrestrial in dense humid evergreen             Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 1: 98. 1911.
forest; Flowering: March- May; Present ecological         Tainia sumatrana J.J. Sm., Bull. Jard. Bot.
status: Rare; Local distribution within Assam:            Buitenzorg, III, 5: 24. 1922.
Dibrugarh and Tinsukia district; General                  Tainia grandiflora (Hook. f.) Gagnep., Bull. Mus.
distribution: N.E. India, Bangladesh, China, Bhutan,      Natl. Hist. Nat., II, 4: 706. 1932.
Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Myanmar. [Fig: 2]               Terrestrial, 10-15 cm long including leaves;
                                                          pseudobulbs narrowly fusiform, 8-10 cm long, one
Tainia minor Hook. f. Fl. Brit. India, 5: 821. 1890;      leaved, with membranous sheaths; leaves ovate-
King & Pantl. in Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. Calcutta, 8:        elliptic, 10-15x7-9 cm, cordate at base, 7-9 nerved,
102, t. 141. 1898; Chowdhery, Orch. Fl. Arunachal         petioles stout, terete; inflorescence 3-10 flowered,
Prad., 661, 1998; Mishra, Orch. India, 317, 2007.         pubescent, longer than leaves; flowers geeenish
Terrestrial, Pseudobulbs close or slightly spaced,        flushed with red, 3 cm across; sepals and petals
cylindric-ovoid, 2.5-6.5×0.3-0.6 cm, covered with         unequal; dorsal epal lanceolate; lateral falcate;
membranous tubular sheaths. Leaf oblong, 18–              petals broader than the dorsal sepal; lip white,
20×5-5.5 cm, 3-veined, base truncate or                   spotted pink, subpandutiform, 3 lobed; side lobes
suborbicular, apex acute. Inflorescence erect, much       rounded, erect; mid lobe triangular, deflexed; disc
longer than leaves, laxly few flowered; Flowers           with 2 lateral, undulate lamellae; mentum conical;
suberect; sepals and petals pale purplish brown           column winged; pollinia 8.
with deep purple spots, lateral lobes of lip white,       Voucher specimen: Gogoi et al., 0481, Assam;
tinged with pale purplish brown, mid-lobe white,          Habitat: Terrestrial in dense humid evergreen
anther cap green; Dorsal sepal narrowly oblong, ca.       forest; Flowering: June- July; Present ecological
15×2 mm, 3-veined, slightly obtuse; lateral sepals        status: Rare; Local distribution within Assam:
narrowly falcate-oblong, ca. 15×2 mm, base adnate         Dibrugarh (Joypur R. F.) district; General
to column foot forming a short mentum. Petals             distribution: N.E. India, Thailand, Malaysia to
narrowly falcate-oblong, ca. 15×2.5 mm, 3-veined,         Sumatra [Fig: 4].
acute; lip elliptic in outline, ca. 1.2 cm, 3-lobed;
lateral lobes erect, narrowly triangular, ca.7 mm         CONCLUSION
wide when flattened, acute; mid-lobe suborbicular,        The genus Tainia is a terrestrial genus, all the
ca. 5 mm wide, apex rounded and emarginate;               species grow well in humus rich soil and shady
Column 7 mm; foot 1 mm.                                   places. The undisturbed habitat rich forest is ideal
Voucher specimen: Gogoi et al., 0488, Assam;              for its lavish growth and development. The genus
Habitat: Terrestrial in dense humid evergreen             not only ecologically important but due to their
forest; Flowering: June- August; Present ecological       small beautiful flowers it also floricultural
status: Rare; Local distribution within Assam:            important too. But the destruction of forests causes
Dibrugarh and Tinsukia district; General                  greater harm in the natural population of this
distribution: China, N.E. India, Myanmar. [Fig: 3]        botanically less known beautiful Orchid Tainia in
                                                          the Assam.

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                                                Gogoi et al.,




LITERATURE CITED

Barua IC, 2001. Orchid Flora of Kamrup District. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun India.
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Assam, India.
Chowdhery HJ, 1998. Orchid Flora of Arunachal Pradesh. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun,
India.
Gogoi K, Borah RL & Sharma GC, 2009. Orchid flora of Joypur Reserve Forest of Dibrugarh district of
Assam, India, in: Pleione 3(2): 135-147.
Hooker JD. 1890. Orchidaceae. In: Flora of British India. L. Reeve and Co., Ashford, Kent. V: 687 – 864 & VI:
1 – 198.
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Publishers, New Delhi.
King G & Pantling R, 1898. The orchids of the Sikkim Himalayas. Annals of the Royal Botanical Garden
Calcutta 8: 1-342.
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Lindley J, 1830-1840. The genera and species of Orchidaceous plants. Ridgeways. London.
Lucksom SZ, 2007. The Orchids of Sikkim and North East Himalaya: Development Area, Jiwan Thing Marg,
Gangtok, East Sikkim.
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Pearce NR & Cribb PJ, 2002. The Orchids of Bhutan. 3(3): in Flora of Bhutan. Royal Botanic Garden,
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Seidenfaden G, 1962. The Orchids of Thailand. The Siam Society, Bangkok.




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