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					    UNDP Sub-practice on Anti-Corruption, Accountability and Transparency, Case Study # , Mozambique
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UNDP Case Studies on Anti-                                          development,       regional    integration   and
                                                                    impressively high growth rates1. However,
Corruption: Mozambique                                              challenges remain including centre/periphery
by Andrea S. Papan*                                                 distortions and elements of regionalism with
                                                                    historic divides between the North, Centre and
Executive Summary                                                   South that are exaggerated by such factors as the
This case study reviews the present nature of                       recent floods and a transportation infrastructure
petty and grand corruption in Mozambique and                        that    serves     Mozambique’s      exports    to
the work of UNDP and other donors to support                        neighboring countries more than it does its
efforts to combat corruption. It suggests that                      internal distribution needs. Similarly, with the
profound challenges in judicial and public sector                   dismantling of entrenched, but cost-heavy, social
reform, the decentralization and deconcentration                    safety nets and the introduction of new capitalist
of human resources and sectoral budgets, and                        ideas that see the pursuit of individual wealth
greater capacity for a free and fair media are                      and greater materialism as enviable, the divide
key components in building a more accountable                       between rich and poor is growing rapidly (See
and transparent Mozambique. It also contends                        Box 1 for a further discussion).
that while obstacles to enhancing transparency
and accountability in Mozambique are well                                        Box 1: ‘The Impact of Transition’
defined and numerous, a holistic anti-corruption                        In a discussion with Dr.Guambe, Director of Local
strategy that includes outreach and civic                               Administration for Ministry for State Administration, he
                                                                        suggested that up to the 1980’s there was very little or
awareness, prevention, investigation and                                no corruption in Mozambique; proposing that after the
prosecution mechanisms, has been slow to                                shift to a market economy there were new
evolve. The study describes and evaluates the                           opportunities to access money like never before. “The
early stages of UNDP’s activities in the area of                        champion is the one who has the most now”, he
                                                                        stated, which he argued was a significant shift to the
anti-corruption, possibilities of entry points for                      collective thinking that dominated earlier years. Tied
further collaboration and value-added support,                          together with a loss of social safety nets and declined
and planning and coordination issues that need                          state support to basic needs such as health and
to be considered by all partners to solidify                            education for all citizens, both sectors are now
                                                                        plagued with inaccessibility and corruption problems
support to Mozambique’s overall anti-corruption                         where requests for bribes for most services are
strategy.                                                               commonplace. Guambe similarly deciphers this as a
                                                                        historical shift stating that, ”before everyone had the
I. The Nature of Corruption in Mozambique:                              same - now you need to have something. With this
                                                                        comes as increase in the divide between rich and
                                                                        poor, which creates social problems, which creates
Only a decade ago Mozambique’s civil war was                            criminality – and thus, the problems are self-
ending, and with this came radical changes in its                       reinforcing.”
political and economic structures and
institutions. It shifted from a socialist political                 While Mozambique is considered ‘one of the
model to a pluralist democracy, and from a                          best arguments for a belief in the African
central planned to market-led economy in a very                     Renaissance,’2 some argue that with these
short timeframe. A great number of positive                         changes and the influx of donor money making
changes      have    occurred    that    reinforce                  up approximately 60% of the state budget3,
Mozambique’s ‘success story’ image such as                          1
peaceful        reconciliation,     infrastructure                    See Economist Intelligence Unit, 2002. Country Profile 2002:
                                                                    Mozambique for a further discussion of Mozambique’s successful
                                                                    transition.
                                                                    2
                                                                      UNDP, 2003. Conference Report on the Forum on
*
 Please note that any interviews mentioned in this case study       Transparency and Corruption: Accountability and Transparency:
were conducted by the author (Andrea Papan) between the dates       Instruments and Strategies in Fighting Against Corruption, p.94.
                                                                    3
of April 9-17, 2003 in Maputo City, Mozambique unless stated          The impact of donors’ funds in setting the anti-corruption
otherwise.                                                          agenda will be discussed later in this paper.

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    UNDP Sub-practice on Anti-Corruption, Accountability and Transparency, Case Study # , Mozambique
                   INTERNAL DRAFT ONLY – NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION
however necessary, come elements of corruption                           system and its decision-making processes, in
not seen earlier.      As such, for many in                              turn shaking citizens’ confidence in political and
Mozambique the question of whether or not                                economic reform. As such, both forms of
“corruption is a part of development” is not one                         corruption are capable of putting considerable
to be taken lightly4.                                                    strain on the country’s fledgling democracy.
In 2001, Ética Moçambique (EM) commissioned                              For the faint of heart, it may be tempting to
the first-ever national perception study on                              conceive of Mozambique down a dreary road
individual experiences and perceptions of                                destined for systemic corruption similar to its
corruption and confidence in institutions. The                           continental neighbours. But to do so one would
study showed that petty forms of corruption in                           have to ignore the rather contrary circumstances
the health, education and justice sectors, as well                       that leave considerable room for hopeful
as relating to employment/recruitment were the                           prospects. Arguably, optimism can be linked to
most dominant. Corruption linked to civil                                several promising factors. Firstly, the growing
servants and members of government were a                                political will and anti-corruption sentiment
close second.5 These findings emphasize a                                championed by several high-level people within
correlation between high costs to the poor when                          various arms of government as well as civil
access to deliverables becomes affected by                               society and strongly supported by donors gives
corruption.                                                              an impression that Mozambique’s path is not yet
                                                                         entrenched, and it has the potential to break the
Cases of grand corruption are evident (perceived
                                                                         present cycle of corruption.
at a lowly 0.4% in the study) but, similarly to the
organized crime and drug trafficking that                                Secondly, there is an overall sense by many
permeate the country, are very well disguised                            Mozambicans that corruption is a relatively new
and involving seemingly ‘untouchable’ elites.6                           phenomenon. This stems from a widely held
Although a small proportion, such acts arguably                          belief that corruption was almost non-existent
have a far-reaching impact on several fronts. In                         during the socialist regime7.          While such
particular because of the amounts involved,                              presumptions seem outwardly reminiscent of
grand corruption has the potential to create                             ‘days gone by’, corruption was likely minimal by
economic distortions and seriously affect the                            comparison due to the ravages of war and low
redistribution of wealth in this very poor country.                      growth during this period.            However as
It also compromises the legitimacy of the State                          corruption was never publicly measured during
                                                                         this time, it would be difficult to confirm such an
4
  For a discussion see Joseph Hanlon, 2002. “Are donors to               assertion particularly because corrupt acts would
Mozambique promoting corruption?”, Conference Paper,                     have likely taken the form of concealed, high
presented at the Towards a New Political Economy of                      level gleaning or private wealth seeking as seen
Development Conference, Sheffield, UK.
5
  The study found that of those surveyed that “while a number of         in other centrally planned economies that it
respondents are more alert and aware of corruption among                 modeled8. This being said, anecdotal evidence
teachers, nurses, police and judges, awareness of corruption             suggests that this truly is the first time many
linked to government officials is also high at 69%” in Ética
Moçambique, 2001. Corruption Report: Mozambique 2001, p.43.              Mozambicans have been forced to pay bribes for
6
  With one of the most dramatic cases revolving around
allocations of President Chissano’s son being involved, but not
                                                                         7
brought to trial, in the death of journalist Carlos Cardoso who is         As argued by respected journalist, Marcelo Mosse, “From
believed to have been murdered as a result of his investigation          independence up to the mid-1980s, Mozambique was considered
into the theft of US $14 million during the privatization of the         one of the least corrupt and most transparent countries on the
Commercial Bank of Mozambique. A second case involved the                African continent. There were episodes of corruption, but they
murder of António Siba Siba Macuácua, who had been                       were limited and the political class that then held state power
investigating outstanding loans to Banco Austral, which                  took vigorous action to combat corrupt practices” in UNDP,
collapsed after failing to recover soft loans, allegedly with many       2003, p.66.
                                                                         8
such loans dispersed to politicians.                                       See examples in Transparency International, 2000. “TI Source
                                                                         Book 2000”, p. 19.

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     UNDP Sub-practice on Anti-Corruption, Accountability and Transparency, Case Study # , Mozambique
                    INTERNAL DRAFT ONLY – NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION
such things as delivering their babies or sending                        major components in building a more
their children to school.                                                accountable and transparent Mozambique.
A third factor is that the EM study showed that                          1. The Justice Sector
80%      of     respondents      find     corruption
                                                                         The Justice sector comprises of four major
reprehensible and an affront to their ethical and
                                                                         institutions, specifically, the Ministry of Justice,
moral values.9 As aptly explained by Dr. Abdul
                                                                         the Judicial Courts, the Attorney General’s
Carimo Mahomed Issá, Director of Ética
                                                                         Office and the Administrative Court. The entire
Mozambique. He states: “We are witnessing
                                                                         sector suffers from shortages of trained
today a progressive deterioration of values, in
                                                                         personnel, degrading working conditions, delays
particular a deterioration of the integrity, honesty
                                                                         in proceedings and a growing backlog of cases.
and fairness that were once a distinctive feature
of Mozambique, the Mozambican people and its                             According to EM’s survey the police and justice
leadership, and that in the not too distant past                         system are the institutions with the least trust of
governed our collective lives as a state and a                           citizens12. As explained in the study, this
nation.”10                                                               statistic   is   worrisome      because     unlike
                                                                         neighbouring countries where people have less
Because corruption “is as much structurally
                                                                         confidence in the executive and legislature which
conditioned as it is a personal-choice driven
                                                                         can be replaced through elections, lack of
behaviour,”11 Mozambique can be viewed as an
                                                                         confidence in the fundamental pillars of
extremely interesting example of tackling
                                                                         democracy – law, order and justice – can affect
corruption while it is still perceived as being in
                                                                         the maintenance of the democratic system and
its infancy and not yet accepted. Prevalent and
                                                                         there is a risk that institutions may lose their
serious yes, but desensitized and unquestioned -
                                                                         legitimacy and the country will become
corruption in Mozambique surely is not.
                                                                         unstable.13 As such, reform of both the police
                                                                         and judiciary are seen as key priorities in a
II. Mozambique’s Governance Challenges
                                                                         strategy to counter corruption in Mozambique.
In essence Mozambique’s ability to counter
corruption in the longterm may rest upon two                                  Judicial Reform
                                                                         Changes in the 1990 Constitution allowed for
interlinked pillars that brace and strengthen each
                                                                         greater independence of the judiciary and the
other. Namely, promoting and reinforcing social
                                                                         introduction of a self-governing body, The
values that keep gross and systemic corruption at
                                                                         Superior Council, which works as an instrument
bay while also consolidating democratic
                                                                         for self-assessment and internal reform.
governance institutions that work effectively and
                                                                         However, the judiciary’s credibility has been
efficiently to dismantle opportunities to act
                                                                         severely damaged by a legacy of poorly educated
corruptly, to ensure greater likeliness of being
                                                                         magistrates especially within the lower court
caught if corrupt and to severely punish those
                                                                         system. In some cases, district court judges have
who are found to participate in corrupt acts.
                                                                         only a few years of primary schooling with an
Profound challenges in judicial and public sector                        additional 6 to 9 months of training in basic law
reform, the decentralization and deconcentration                         with only Supreme Court Justices, and more
of human resources and sectoral budgets, and                             recently provincial judges, requiring law degrees.
greater capacity for a free and fair media are                           A recent change requiring all three levels of
                                                                         judges to have law degrees is a positive step
9                                                                        towards enhancing the capacity of the judiciary.
  Ética Moçambique, 2001, p.131.
10
   Ibid, p.4.                                                            Nonetheless, with only an estimated 10 per cent
11
   Ugljesa Zvekic (2002), “Introduction” in Regional Seminar on
                                                                         12
Anti-Corruption Investigating Strategies with particular regard to            Ética Moçambique, 2001, p.23.
                                                                         13
Drug Control for the SADC Members, UNDCP, p. 4.                               Ibid, p.23.

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     UNDP Sub-practice on Anti-Corruption, Accountability and Transparency, Case Study # , Mozambique
                  INTERNAL DRAFT ONLY – NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION
of the approximate 400 law graduates in                              Adding to the threat of corruption to the
Mozambique today becoming judges, access to                          judiciary are low wages and poor benefits, a lack
justice remains a serious problem (See Box 2 for                     of protection measures, and a scarcity of material
a further discussion on constraints to access to                     and human resources. All of these factors
justice and the rule of law).14 An urban bias,                       increase the risk and occurrence of bribery and
which keeps 90% of trained lawyers based in                          coercion of judges, paralegals, lawyers,
Maputo City, also undermines the reform                              prosecutors and other court officials and
process.15                                                           administrative staff.
     Box 2: Access to Justice & the Rule of Law                          Police Reform and Human Rights
                                                                     Similarly to the judiciary, the criminal and civil
In discussions with the Director of the Justice Training             police suffer from inadequate human and
Centre and former Supreme Court Justice, Dr. João
Trinidade, and Supreme Court Justice Juiz Luis                       material resources, poor recruitment structures,
Mondlane it was noted that a recent study concluded                  insufficient training procedures and meager
that roughly 80% of family and other community-based                 salaries. The police remain under-resourced in
civil conflicts as well petty crimes are resolved through
                                                                     terms of buildings, vehicles, and equipment
informal justice mechanisms such as community courts.
Although popular and capable of ‘quick justice’ such                 resulting in a limited ability to react in a timely
courts leave much to be desired as the common sense                  manner to crimes when called in emergencies,
nature of these informal structures are not premised on              and thus weakening citizens’ confidence in their
citizen’s rights per se but rather contextual reasoning
that can be, at minimum, inconsistent with the country’s
                                                                     ability to perform regularly assigned duties.
codified law. At worst, they “can run against principles             However, more pressing, are accusations of
that are universally accepted, especially those principles
shed in the constitutional charter of human rights… the              human rights violations in the form of police
equality of men and women a case in point” (Mondlane,                brutality including acts of intimidation, violence,
2003:195). For many citizens in Mozambique the formal                rape and other forms of gender abuse, and
justice system remains alien and not as trusted as its
                                                                     excessive use of force16. Fear of police is
informal cousin often used only when a resolution is not
possible in a community court or in more serious civil               especially strong among women.17             In an
and criminal cases.                                                  interview with the country’s leading human
This situation becomes exacerbated when discussing                   rights NGO, the Mozambican League of Human
the lack of recognition of customary law in                          Rights, the Director Dr. Alice Mabota described
Mozambique’s legal context. These community courts                   police brutality in Mozambique “as extreme”
are legislated bodies and handle cases under the                     where petty infringements can equal torture or
auspices of customary law. However, in Mozambique
customary law is disassociated from the formal justice               death.18 Such incidences, regularly reported by
system, thus leaving “the formal and customary law                   citizens to the League, further demonstrate a
systems to operate and exist as two separate and                     growing divide between the justice sector and the
distinct realities, which work to parallel each other”
                                                                     people it is meant to protect.
(Mondlane, 2003:200). The consequence is a lack of
harmonization and no unitary body of Mozambican law.                 Whereas corruption leading to bribes and
This transpires into a distancing of the general
population to the rule of law, which has considerable                extortion is certainly a grave concern –
impact on anti-corruption strategies that depend on                  corruption leading to criminality and violence
appropriate access to, engagement in, knowledge of                   within the police force will only serve to
and respect for Mozambique’s formal justice system by                dismantle the rule of law and further threaten
all citizens.
                                                                     Mozambique’s longterm stability.


14                                                                   16
   Luis Mondlane, 2003. “Mozambique: Nurturing Justice from             See Amnesty International Report, 1998. Mozambique: Human
Liberation Zones to a Stable Democratic State” in Human Rights       Rights and the Police, AI INDEX: AFR 41/001/1998.
                                                                     17
Under African Constitutions: Realizing the Promise Ourselves,           Ética Moçambique, 2001, p.119.
                                                                     18
edited by Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im. p.196.                              These comments were made during an interview on April 15,
15
   Ibid, pp.196-197.                                                 2003.

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     UNDP Sub-practice on Anti-Corruption, Accountability and Transparency, Case Study # , Mozambique
                   INTERNAL DRAFT ONLY – NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION
2. Public Sector Reform                                               Reform of the Public Sector’s (CIRESP)
                                                                      National Anti-Corruption Strategy.
Public sector reform is imperative to any kind of
anti-corruption strategy for Mozambique. The                          3. Decentralizing Power, Resources & Money
EM study highlighted that one of the main
                                                                      Efforts to decentralize the well-rooted centrally
protagonists in petty corruption are civil servants
                                                                      planned economic structure have been somewhat
with responsibilities or power to employ.
                                                                      slower to take hold and have focused primarily
Additionally, governments along with the police,
                                                                      on the decentralization of tasks and
the courts and businessmen are considered to
                                                                      competencies to the provincial directorate, as
have the greatest reputation for involvement in
                                                                      well as municipalization. Efforts relating to fiscal
corruption, while also being perceived as the
                                                                      deconcentration have yet to be significantly
institutions thought to have no interest in ending
                                                                      addressed. In fact, fiscal deconcentration is often
corruption.19    The study states that: “The
                                                                      perceived as a form of “double-subordination”22.
atmosphere within public administration is one
                                                                      This occurs when the provincial and district
of almost a total neglect of the law…. Civil
                                                                      directorates are overseen and poorly coordinated
servants try to convince their subordinates or
                                                                      by the corresponding Governors or District
users that the law is an absurd nightmare to be
                                                                      Administrators, but appointed by the President of
avoided. This negative message is transmitted
                                                                      the Republic and sectorally funded by State
every day for many years by thousands of civil
                                                                      Ministries.
servants and hundreds of thousands of users,
making them equivalent to the best marketing                          Within the eleven provinces, decentralization is
campaigns in the world.”20                                            complicated by the fact that directorates are
                                                                      prized as non-autonomous extensions of the
To counteract such hurdles, in 2001 the
                                                                      central government allowing state ministries to
Government launched the Global Strategy for
                                                                      intervene in provincial sectoral budgeting and
Reform of the Public Sector. This mammoth
                                                                      impact provincial planning, thus leaving
project focuses on six main components
                                                                      practical accountability and transparency gaps in
including “Goal 5: Promoting good governance
                                                                      budget planning and spending as well
and combating corruption”21. Under this goal,
                                                                      encouraging duplicity.
the Technical Unit for Public Sector Reform
(UTRESP) will conduct a national baseline                             A similar relationship has threatened to trickle
survey on good governance and corruption. It                          down to the recently designated thirty-three
will focus on issues relating to public sector                        municipalities. Although elected rather than
delivery and management, good governance, and                         appointed and receiving only 5 per cent of the
how corruption manifests in the public sector.                        state budget, they are equally presented as
The survey, scheduled to begin in mid-2003, will                      "outposts" of the central government with a
interview 1000 public servants, 500 private                           similar lack of clarity relating to budgets,
companies and 1500 families; covering all                             resources and political authority.
provinces and some municipalities and will input
                                                                      However, a promising step comes with the recent
into the Interministerial Committee of the
                                                                      approval of the Local Government Law, which
                                                                      makes local state organs more independent from
19
   UNDP, 2003, p. 81.                                                 Central Government and more open to dialogue
20
21
   Ética Moçambique, 2001, p. 115.                                    with their communities. The Law implies a
   The components include: 1) Improving service delivery
through decentralization and institutional restructuring; 2)
                                                                      number of fundamental changes in the
Strengthening the policy formulation and monitoring process; 3)
Enhancing professionalism in the public sector; 4) Improving
                                                                      22
financial management and accountability; 5) Promoting good              As described by in an interview by Dr. Abdul Ilal, Advisor for
governance and combating corruption; and, 6) Management of            the GTZ Project of Decentralization and Municipal Development
the reform process.                                                   (PDDM) on April 15, 2003.

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     UNDP Sub-practice on Anti-Corruption, Accountability and Transparency, Case Study # , Mozambique
                  INTERNAL DRAFT ONLY – NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION
organization of local government structures,                           problematic and may serve to weaken the
which may increase horizontal accountability.                          media’s overall credibility in the longterm. In
                                                                       addition, such disregard for journalistic codes of
4. Access to Information and Free Media
                                                                       conduct weaken government’s interest in
Access to information covers all interventions                         collaborating and working with the media to
that support both horizontal (between citizens                         engage in more open debate. The result is a
and civil society and others) as well as vertical                      defensive attitude by authorities and a growing
(between state and citizens) flows of                                  public perception that some journalists have their
information;     concepts    of     participation,                     own agendas.
accountability and transparency are at its core.23
                                                                       The importance of strengthening the capacity
Before the 1990 Constitution, the press                                and professionalism of journalists cannot be
principally existed as an extension of the                             underestimated.      In the fight for greater
Ministry of Information. Today, Mozambique’s                           accountability and transparency, it will be crucial
dynamic media sector includes an impressive                            that the press be deemed a credible and reliable
range and number of media organizations, which                         source with adequate ethical and professional
are consolidated by one of the most liberal press                      standards, and with a clear commitment to the
laws in Africa. Due to low literacy rates, Radio                       revealing the well-investigated truth.
Mozambique and community radios are
important tools in increasing access to                               III. Analysis of Mozambique’s Anti-Corruption
information beyond the boundaries of Maputo                                Strategy
City, especially because they serve their listeners
in Portuguese as well as in many of the other 18                       In order to evaluate Mozambique’s ability to
languages used nationally. These channels also                         coordinate a sustained anti-corruption strategy, it
help to deconcentrate news stories and highlight                       is important to understand the complex web of
local concerns. Moreover, while poor access to                         relations that dictate between the political
equipment and the high cost of materials such as                       parties, the Government and donors, civil society
newsprint plague newspaper distribution, more                          and Mozambican citizens themselves.
unconventional news sources such as “faxed”
                                                                       1. Power, Politics and Democracy
journals are becoming viable and popular
alternatives.                                                          While it is beyond the scope of this study to fully
                                                                       analyze Mozambique’s democratic transition, it
Clearly strategies to strengthen citizens’ access
                                                                       is important to step back and note some lingering
to information are growing in Mozambique.
                                                                       post-war affects relating to political culture and
However while the media may be free, it is
                                                                       power sharing that may impact the country’s
criticized for its capacity to be biased and
                                                                       ability to tackle corruption in the longterm.
unprofessional.      In discussions with the
                                                                       These concerns are highlighted by the country’s
UNESCO/UNDP Media Development Project24
                                                                       questionable ability to move beyond an electoral
it was explained that the growing “publicity
                                                                       democracy to consolidation and democratic
hungry” attitude of some journalists to speculate
                                                                       maturity. Andrea Ostheimer suggests that there
and base their stories on rumours rather than
                                                                       is a “tendency towards the conservation of a
well-investigated and proven leads is highly
                                                                       fragile status quo or permanent entrenchment of
23
                                                                       democratic minimalism”.25 Whereby, some
   UNDP, 2003. Access to Information for Democratic
Governance: Framing UNDP’s Current Practice, Background
                                                                       contend, genuine multipartyism does not truly
Paper, December 2002, p.i.
24
   The project is implemented by UNESCO and supported by
                                                                       25
UNDP and several bilateral donors including Norway, Finland,             Andrea E. Ostheimer, 2001. “Mozambique: The Permanent
Ireland, Sweden, Denmark and Portugal; both Brigette Jallow and        Entrenchment of Democratic Minimalism?”, Africa Security
Tomas Vieira Mario where interviewed on April 14, 2003.                Review, Vol 10. No. 1., p. 11.

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     UNDP Sub-practice on Anti-Corruption, Accountability and Transparency, Case Study # , Mozambique
                  INTERNAL DRAFT ONLY – NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION
exist with the ruling party Frente de Libertação                    of the key champions are from FRELIMO and
de Moçambique (FRELIMO) focusing its efforts                        tied to historic power sources, sources that may
on maintaining its grip on power, rather than the                   be less reliable in the longterm. It also can be
deepening of democracy.26 Moreover, these                           problematic in the reverse, i.e. if FRELIMO
criticisms coincide with a state bureaucracy                        continues to stay in power, breaking down
deeply entangled with the FRELIMO party                             bureaucratic corruption will continue to be a
apparatus and unease over the noticeable                            difficult task for a FRELIMO government as it
domination of FRELIMO members and/or                                will be forced to seriously review its own
supporters in positions of public and private                       internal mechanisms and eventually dismantle
power.27                                                            long held party structures and benefits to
                                                                    supporters. As such, power sharing and full
FRELIMO’s political and economic hegemony
                                                                    involvement of Mozambican society regardless
can also work to aggravate regional divisions.
                                                                    of partisanship is vital for cementing a cohesive
Each party has clear regional strongholds of
                                                                    and enduring political will in the fight against
support stemming from the earlier civil war
                                                                    corruption.
where both directly funded communities in order
to secure their presence and citizen loyalty. Due                     Box 3: Remnants of the Past, Countering Corruption
to their previous adversarial relationship,                           by Countering Fear
hostilities can run deep with some party                             The ability of the political parties to demonstrate a
hardliners able to see each other as longtime                        consolidated and interdependent democracy is an
                                                                     important element to securing an all-embracing
enemies. Such a political culture impacts the
                                                                     integrity plan in Mozambique. In a discussion with Dr.
poor in Mozambique by a rewarding of                                 Guambe he remarked on the sociological implications
FRELIMO supporters, and thus instituting a                           of the previous civil war, which instilled a type of
subtle and opaque bipolarization of development.                     “zero-sum game” where every action would bring one
                                                                     closer or further away from winning. While FRELIMO
Leaving the opposition party’s, Resistência                          and RENAMO are now both considered legitimate
Nacional de Moçambique (RENAMO),                                     political parties within a democratic framework,
strongholds predominantly in the North and                           remnants of “bad habits from the war” still exist.
Centre as often the more underdeveloped.28                           These habits can play a role in churning up past
                                                                     fears. The EM study highlighted that elements of fear
While it is not the point to distort FRELIMO’s                       in the form of violent reprisals, loss of jobs or
                                                                     business, social exclusion and even witchcraft are still
power or commitment to democracy, in part
                                                                     pervasive in Mozambican society (2001:118). The
because it is the ruling party and has been the                      study concludes that the fear is sustained by
legitimate mandated authority in the country                         organized crime, passionate supporters or militants of
since independence – it is rather to acknowledge                     the country’s two dominant political parties, FRELIMO
                                                                     and RENAMO, with or without the knowledge,
the implications of such historical remnants that                    approval or connivance of their leaders; or by senior
arguably keep the country less cohesive than                         public officials involved in corruption (2001:118).
desired.                                                             Dr. Jovito Nunes, an anthropologist and Team Leader
For our purposes of analysis, at minimum such a                      of the EM study echoed a complementary sentiment
                                                                     when interviewed. He suggested that within
political culture has considerable influence on                      Mozambique the peer system is very strong, i.e. many
securing an anti-corruption strategy when many                       Mozambicans would feel the need to have agreement
                                                                     or confirmation by one’s “group” (for example a
26                                                                   community, party or working team) before taking any
   Economist Intelligence Unit, 2002.                                serious action. This culture of consensus stems in
27
   Ostheimer, p.9.                                                   part from a need for enormous mutual support and
28
   Economist Intelligence Unit, 2002. However it is important        solidarity in order to survive against absolute poverty.
to note the isolation of such communities during the war             As such, fears of social exclusion are extremely
and thus the long-term underdevelopment that resulted                powerful and lead to intimidation and unwillingness by
from their association with RENAMO when it was a                     many to generate confrontation. For obvious reasons
violent counter-revolutionary movement.                              such an environment can work very much against
                                                                     anti-corruption strategies that rely on citizens to come
                                                                     forth and account for their mistreatment.
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   UNDP Sub-practice on Anti-Corruption, Accountability and Transparency, Case Study # , Mozambique
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                                                          Donors have surely fostered anti-corruption
2. Donor Driven Agenda-Setting
                                                          strategies in their development agenda and in
Until now the anti-corruption agenda in                   turn created avenues to generate and support
Mozambique has been primarily donor driven                political will; however, it is too easy to dismiss
with the Government of Mozambique taking on               anti-corruption efforts in Mozambique as solely
a seemingly passive role – onboard and                    a foreign objective.
supportive of anti-corruption plans stemming
                                                          As mentioned earlier, homegrown and locally
from donors development strategies, but less
                                                          driven efforts are on the rise; devised and
proactive in instigating homegrown strategies on
                                                          championed by Mozambicans themselves.
their own.
                                                          These efforts in part are a response to citizens’
The unfolding of anti-corruption strategies in this       requests for more dialogue and investigation as
way has resulted in at least three less than              was seen in the call for Ética Mozambique to
desirable side effects. Firstly, donors’ efforts          coordinate a national series of seventy civil
have      been      primarily    sectoral      and        society dialogues on corruption after their initial
compartmentalized responding in a somewhat                corruption report came out in 2001.
reactive manner with the noticeable absence of a
coordinated strategy with the various arms of             There are local, powerful and vocal leaders in
Government or between donors themselves. The              this process. Harnessing and supporting their
result has been uneven progress among and                 momentum to become solid and replicable
continued fragmentation between sectors, and a            examples for change will be part of the next
definite absence of the type of coordination              stage of Mozambique’s anti-corruption process.
needed to secure a robust and comprehensive
                                                          3. Measuring Political Will
national integrity plan.
                                                          While obstacles to enhancing transparency and
Secondly, donors have not insisted on targeting
                                                          accountability in Mozambique are well defined
grand corruption.        At this stage efforts
                                                          and numerous, a holistic anti-corruption strategy
concentrate almost exclusively on tackling petty
                                                          has been slow to evolve. Efforts to overhaul and
corruption. Initiatives to tackle grand corruption
                                                          augment Mozambique’s governance institutions
are very much needed; however, among other
                                                          are well underway; evidenced by, among other
things, fears of being seen as “conditionalizing”
                                                          things, the Government’s implementation of the
aid often limit donors’ willingness push this
                                                          Integrated Strategic Plan for the Justice Sector,
agenda. In this instance, this lack of force by
                                                          the Strategic Plan of the Police, the Global
donors has allowed the Government of
                                                          Strategy for Public Sector Reform, the Local
Mozambique, for the most part, to sidestep the
                                                          Government Law, the Press Law and the soon to
issue.
                                                          be approved Anti-Corruption Law, which also
Thirdly, initiatives have generally taken a top-          establishes a Central Anti-Corruption Unit out of
down approach that may be limited in their                the Attorney General’s Office. These are further
ability to permeate beyond Maputo City. Clear             bolstered by Mozambique’s ratification of most
tactics relating to participation and inclusion at        of the key international and regional human
the grassroots level are noticeably weak or               rights treaties, as well as the SADC Protocol on
nonexistent. Strategies for civic education are           Corruption.
much needed as a tool to inform citizens of their
                                                          Establishing       indicators       to     measure
rights, the legal procedures and processes
                                                          Mozambique’s political will against corruption is
available to them and strengthen their resolve for
                                                          a somewhat complicated process. Many suggest
changes as active participants in a democratic
                                                          that in order for political will to be recognizable
Mozambique.
                                                          it must be quantifiable in the form of budgeted or

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human/technical resources to anti-corruption                           4. Anti-Corruption Mechanisms
strategies.    However        in    Mozambique
                                                                       Unlike some countries that begin their path to
approximately 60% of the State’s national
                                                                       greater transparency by establishing anti-
budget comes from donors along with the other
                                                                       corruption institutions and then cementing
programme and project budgets. In turn, most if
                                                                       political support, Mozambique quite rightfully
not all of the reform plans and strategies listed
                                                                       has secured the political support and now is
above are directly funded by donor money. The
                                                                       working to define the necessary institutional
Anti-Corruption Unit is completely funded by
                                                                       mechanisms. However, if an anti-corruption
USAID, including wages, training, travel
                                                                       strategy can be framed around four primary
allowances, facilities and equipment.29
                                                                       elements – outreach and civic awareness,
In such a reality it is possible to suggest that any                   prevention, investigation and prosecution, the
political will in Mozambique is merely an                              Government of Mozambique’s strategy rests
extension of donors’ wishes; however, this                             disproportionately on latter three.
simply is not a sufficient analysis. There are
several high level and visible anti-corruption                            Central Anti-Corruption Unit
                                                                       The new anti-corruption bill outlines a structure
champions within the Mozambican government,
                                                                       whereby “the Public Prosecutor and the Criminal
President Joaquim Alberto Chissano being one
                                                                       Investigation Police are responsible for the
of the most vocal. But voicing arguments
                                                                       prevention and fight against the crimes foreseen
against corruption, especially when it is a
                                                                       in the present [anti-corruption] law”30. The Unit
particularly ‘hot’ and marketable topic for
                                                                       will have specially trained prosecutors and police
donors, does leave room for serious concerns
                                                                       to work in the area of corruption. The Unit will
relating to the sustainability of an anti-corruption
                                                                       work under the Attorney General’s Office, which
platform in Mozambique.
                                                                       is seen with some trepidation as the Attorney
At this earlier stage and with so much                                 General is both appointed and dismissed by the
dependence on donor money, it is nearly                                President of the Republic. When asked if this
impossible to truly measure Mozambique’s                               possible lack of autonomy may be a cause for
political will in dollar signs; however some other                     concern, a senior Parliamentarian argued very
indicators may exist. The newly forwarded Anti-                        strongly that political will would work to protect
Corruption Bill and corresponding Central Unit                         the office from suspect influence. He further
are visible signs that the Government of                               described the Unit as having only “functional
Mozambique is willing to solidify policy and                           subordination under the Office which ensures no
secure mechanisms in the fight against                                 interference because these are organizational
corruption. The establishment of Ética as an                           links only, thus allowing the prosecutors
NGO, but also as an emerging social movement                           complete autonomy”. 31                 While the
with a list of members that include extremely                          Parliamentarian’s       comments      were    quite
important political and social figures and groups                      convincing based on the present political context,
is another good sign. Finally citizens’ are                            it would be a stronger sign if autonomy was
becoming more aware and more vocal about                               ensured by mechanisms within institutional
their distress over corrupt practices. There is a                      structure itself, rather than depending on external
growing space for dialogue, which may                                  and ever-shifting political will. The ability of
encourage greater civil participation and bring                        the     Government         to   ensure    complete
with it new and dynamic entry points for
                                                                       30
combating corruption.                                                     The Republic of Mozambique’s Assembly Commission for
                                                                       Legal Affairs, Human Rights and Legality, Anti-Corruption Act
                                                                       no./2001
29                                                                     31
  As explained by Maria Isabel Bento Rupia Nhavato, Prosecutor            As explained in an interview with Dr. Aly Dauto, President of
General’s Office, Anti-Corruption Central Unit Coordinator in an       the Assembly Commission for Legal Affairs, Human Rights and
interview on April 11,2003.                                            Legality on April 16, 2003.

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independence of this Unit from influence is key             against corruption while still in its infancy are
to convincing citizens and donors that corruption           crucial elements to an effective strategy.
is being taken seriously.
                                                            Many suggest that civil society organizations,
      Oversight, Coordination, Outreach and                especially Ética Mozambique and other Maputo
       Civic Awareness of a National Anti-                  City based groups may be able to shoulder the
       Corruption Campaign                                  burden for fostering national outreach and civic
There are mixed views regarding Mozambique’s                awareness. These assumptions are overestimated,
decision to strengthen the Attorney General’s               and simply do not reflect the reality that civil
Office as the primary anti-corruption mechanism             society in general in Mozambique is a recent
instead of establishing some form of an anti-               construct and the number and distribution of
corruption commission. Some argue that it is                existing organizations is nominal. In discussions
more effective to strengthen existing and well-             with the Director of EM Dr. Abdul Carimo, he
instituted agencies instead of adding another               indicated that while sincerely committed to
layer of, possibly corruptible, bureaucracy.                supporting and cementing a homegrown integrity
However rational this argument may be, there                movement with the support of other CSOs,
are serious questions regarding the Unit’s                  religious leaders, the private and public sectors
capacity for oversight and coordination and                 and international friends, Ética has neither the
outreach and civic awareness functions.                     capacity nor desire to singularly take up a
Activities that would be most certainly mandated            national outreach role.
if a commission existed.
                                                        IV.        UNDP’s Anti-Corruption Efforts
Because of, as evidenced above, the sectoral and
rather piecemeal approach taken to counter                  For the most part, donor support for specific
corruption in Mozambique thus far, oversight                anti-corruption initiatives in Mozambique have
and coordination of the various sectors and                 been lead by the World Bank, USAID and DFID
solidification of a holistic integrity strategy is          as well as other bilaterals such as Danida and
essential. Presently, there seems to be no                  GTZ. Although a valued partner, UNDP
alternative structures specifically designed to             Mozambique is still considered a new and
focus on oversight and coordination as well as              somewhat small actor in the area of anti-
outreach and civic awareness of a national anti-            corruption. This section will review and evaluate
corruption campaign.                                        the early stages of UNDP’s activities in the area
Expectations do not match the reality and if                of anti-corruption, possibilities of entry points
Mozambique confines oversight and outreach to               for further collaboration and value-added
secondary activities by default, it may be                  support, and planning and coordination issues
harmful to its longterm anti-corruption goals. As           that need to be considered by all partners to
discussed earlier, there is presently a strong              solidify Mozambique’s overall anti-corruption
public conviction against corruption. At the                strategy.
moment corruption it is far from an accepted                Until recently, UNDP approached the problem of
process, which allows for a space that is ripe for          corruption in Mozambique indirectly under the
bottom-up interventions, but this public                    banner of good governance and strengthening
consensus may not last forever.            ‘Cowboy          governance institutions with projects covering
capitalism’ is flourishing and there is a sense that        judicial and police training, prison reform, civil
strong views against corruption are generational            service strengthening, media development and
in nature with young Mozambicans wanting and                support to local governance and municipalities
expecting more. Consequently, the importance                (see Annex 1 for a listing of projects). UNDP’s
of encouraging a web of preventive measures                 earliest efforts to carve out a place for itself in
and building strong civic awareness programmes
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the area of anti-corruption was in the form of                     support to public sector reform strategies
support from the Global Programme for                              stemming from its work with the PDDM.
Accountability and Transparency (PACT) to                          However, this focus was eventually broadened as
GTZ’s Decentralization and Municipal                               it became clear that larger donors were
Development Project (PDDM), which recently                         extensively involved in such activities and other
completed its cycle in August 2002.                                entry points might be more suitable.
The PDDM provided technical assistance to the                      At about the same time a national anti-corruption
ongoing decentralization, democratization and                      momentum began to take shape buttressed by
municipalization process with an objective to                      several events. The controversial death of
support four small municipalities in the                           journalist Carlos Cardoso (and later António
provinces of Manica, Nampula and Inhambane to                      Siba Siba Macuácua) and a trial that became the
effectively perform local government functions                     equivalent to a national soap opera with citizens
with the active involvement of the local                           all over the country tuned into radios reporting
population and in line with their local economic                   the court case live had created an informal anti-
potential. Within this framework, UNDP                             corruption campaign of sorts. Similarly, the
supported a programme of activities to be                          newly launched perception study by Ética
implemented in the Municipalities in the                           Mozambique confirmed for the first time
provinces of Manica and Nampula. PACT                              society’s concerns with the growing hardships
included seminars and debates on issues of                         endured by increasing corruption in the form of
accountability, transparency and the fight against                 such things as bribes to teachers, nurses and
corruption in municipalities (for both public                      police for regular services. These events, along
servants and civil society organizations), training                with a very strong public statement by President
courses on improving municipal financial                           Chissano against corruption and matched with
management, studies on the simplification of                       increases in donor funding to anti-corruption
bureaucratic procedures and formalities, and a                     strategies, opened a space for greater public
collaboration with the local universities in the                   dialogue and action.
area of assistance to the municipalities. The main
                                                                   Very close to this time UNDP Mozambique
target groups were representatives of city/town
                                                                   received news of the Democratic Governance
councils and assemblies, Provincial Government
                                                                   Thematic Trust Fund’s (DGTTF) first tranche for
officials, as well as civil society in general. The
                                                                   catalytic endeavours and proposed a multi-tiered
undertaken activities were aimed at providing
                                                                   project to “Support to initiatives towards
municipalities with some initial basic tools for
                                                                   accountability and transparency in the public
raising awareness and addressing the issue of
                                                                   service”. A major element was a forum aimed at
accountability in municipal affairs, and at
                                                                   enabling a national debate on corruption and to
developing some pilot tools for other
                                                                   contribute to the promotion of accountability and
municipalities in this respect. The implemented
                                                                   transparency in the public sector. The Forum
activities were closely connected to the issues of
                                                                   on "Transparency and Corruption" was held
civic awareness and the on-going public sector
                                                                   in Maputo on 8-9th, October 2002 as a joint
reform32.
                                                                   initiative of the Mozambican Parliament and
Originally, UNDP intended to increase its direct                   UNDP. About 240 participants from institutions,
involvement in anti-corruption through further                     civil society organizations, diplomatic corps and
                                                                   donor agencies attended the forum. Provincial
32
  German Technical Cooperation, 2002. Final Report On              governors from all over the country were
Activities Implemented Under UNDP/PACT (Programme for
Accountability and Transparency, Mozambique) By GTZ /
                                                                   represented either personally or at the highest
PDDM, (German Technical Cooperation, Decentralization and          level. Presentations by Government officials,
Municipal Development Project, Manica and Nampula Province,        NGOs, academics and UN experts highlighted
Mozambique), p. 4.

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Mozambique’s corruption problems as well as                 - Ethics and the Media Training Courses: Two
comparative tools and experiences in                        courses were organized and held in Maputo and
neighbouring countries, and were openly                     Nampula by the Southern Africa Media Training
debated. Media coverage was broad, underlying               Trust – NSJ. The courses were co-funded by the
the fact that the event was the first of its kind to        UNESCO/UNDP Media Development Project.
take place in Mozambique. By many accounts                  The first took place in Maputo from the 8th to the
the forum was considered a valuable platform for            18th July 2002, involving 13 participants from
open debate and requests have been made for                 the Southern region of the country and the
provincial replication. UNDP was also able to               second course was held in Nampula from the 14th
produce a compilation (both in English and                  to the 24th October 2002, involving 15
Portuguese) of the 29 papers presented in both              participants coming from the Northern
CD-Rom and paperback versions for wider                     provinces. Both initiatives focused on “Ethics,
distribution. For UNDP, this forum can be seen              Democracy and Good Governance", with a
as a clear step in demonstrating its willingness            specific component on Corruption and the role of
and securing its place as a partner in direct anti-         media to fight against it.
corruption initiatives in Mozambique.
                                                            The last element of the 2002 Project responded
In addition to the Forum, UNDP also organized               to the specific request of the Criminal
several training programmes to increase an                  Investigation Police (PIC) for a needs
understanding      and    strengthen    citizen             assessment to be carried out within the
participation in countering corruption. These               institution that would contain conclusions and
included:                                                   recommendations      for    support, including
                                                            estimated costs. An international expert provided
- Training Course for Judiciary on
                                                            assistance to PIC in designing a short and
Combating Corruption - In cooperation with
                                                            medium-term plan for human resources
the Centre for Legal and Judicial Training
                                                            development and training programmes. The main
(CFJJ), a course was organized and held from the
                                                            findings of the assessment were presented and
23rd September to the 8th of November 2002. The
                                                            discussed at a national workshop attended by all
main objective of the course was to provide
                                                            PIC provincial Directors and national managers.
provincial judges and prosecutors with specific
skills on judicial inspection as a fundamental              Provincial Consultations: UNDP’s present
tool to fight against corruption within the                 proposal to the 2003 DGTTF builds on these
judiciary. The first 4 weeks were devoted to                civic awareness and training efforts. During the
strengthening the knowledge of participants on              forum, provincial governors expressed their
penal law and penal procedure, with particular              willingness to expand the debate to provincial
focus on the legislation related to judicial                and grassroots levels and define action plans to
inspection. Two specialised international                   combat corruption. In this context, UNDP was
consultants from Portugal participated in                   asked to provide support and to collaborate,
designing the training programme and in                     organize and hold three regional seminars. The
teaching as senior lecturers. During the last three         seminars will bring together representatives from
weeks, participants were attached to the                    all segments of society from the Northern,
provincial courts of Maputo and Inhambane for a             Central and Southern provinces to discuss the
period of exchange, under the supervision of                issue of transparency and accountability and to
CFJJ lecturers and court officials. As a follow-up          adopt provincial anti-corruption plans, within the
activity, a Manual on Judicial Inspection was               framework of public sector reform.
developed and will be used as a permanent
training instrument of the Centre.


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V.       Analysis of Approach Taken by UNDP                Expanding the justice working group could be an
         and Its Partners and Further Entry                effective strategy for several reasons. Firstly, a
         Points                                            large donor presently heads this working group
                                                           and has given significant support to the Central
    1. Donor Coordination                                  Anti-Corruption Unit, which of course falls
Multiple donors are involved in many strategies            within the Attorney General’s Office.
that directly and indirectly support anti-                 Additionally, the justice sector has many high
corruption and greater transparency and                    level anti-corruption champions including
accountability in Mozambique. What this study              several of the Supreme Court Justices and the
has also identified are weaknesses in                      Attorney General himself, who could be helpful
coordination between these efforts often due to            in rallying internal support for stronger
the sectoral nature of activities. Whilst it is the        coordination. However this being said, the
Government of Mozambique that may be                       creation of a new working group might be more
responsible for the final outcomes of project              effective in emphasizing this much-needed cross
funds, donors have enormous influence in                   thematic character that is perhaps vital in
shaping a cohesive national anti-corruption                cementing a holistic anti-corruption strategy.
strategy. As such, further donor coordination
                                                               2. Outreach and Building Civic Awareness
will only help to increase links and
                                                           As a neutral partner with a strong relationship to
complementarities      between     the     various
                                                           the Government, as well as cordial relations with
implementation plans.
                                                           other donors, it seems a natural role for UNDP to
Donors also must be wary of emphasizing                    facilitate and encourage a space for dialogue and
foreseeable exit strategies, at this point the             debate on anti-corruption issues. Surely this is a
involvement of donors is much needed from a                positive role for UNDP and one that it should
funding point a view, but also from their ability          continue to foster. However, the effectiveness
to push the integrity agenda, to be flexible,              and efficiency of such public dialogues wane
creative and open to various entry points both at          when sufficient resources are not made available
high-level governmental and more local                     for the implementation of the identified actions.
grassroots levels.                                         While UNDP recognizes this as a risk, it is
                                                           unclear how they will ensure that possible
Similarly, a reduction in the duplication of
                                                           provincial action plans will be taken seriously
efforts by donors to do public corruption surveys
                                                           enough to secure resources – again remembering
and/or needs assessments is important especially
                                                           the sectoral nature of decentralized provincial
when such efforts create a situation where
                                                           budgeting.
concerns are repeatedly voiced by Mozambicans,
but actions to confront their concerns are slow to         Arguably, going back to earlier discussions
be seen especially at the local level.                     regarding outreach and civic awareness UNDP’s
                                                           efforts might be better spent focusing on support
As Resident Coordinator, UNDP could support
                                                           to civil society organizations. Recently, EM
greater donor coordination in this area by
                                                           launched the results from discussions with
establishing a donor working group or a steering
                                                           seventy focus groups on anti-corruption held
committee on anti-corruption as a cross-cutting
                                                           with CSOs nation wide. One entry point for
theme in order to breakdown the sectoral silos
                                                           UNDP may be to have their provincial
that presently compartmentalize anti-corruption
                                                           consultations spring from these results, thus
efforts. This could either be done by starting a
                                                           incorporating CSOs concerns directly into the
new working group or expanding the already
                                                           Provincial Government dialogues.
established donor working group on justice.
                                                           Finally, if UNDP is determined to use all
                                                           advocacy tools it has available to openly review
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   UNDP Sub-practice on Anti-Corruption, Accountability and Transparency, Case Study # , Mozambique
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and reflect on present integrity strategies as well         (SAFAC) and the Human Rights Trust of
increase public debate nationally, regionally and           Southern Africa (SAHRIT) and other UN entities
even globally then it must make every effort to             such as the Regional Office for Southern Africa
publish a National Human Development Report                 of the United Nations Office on Drugs and
on anti-corruption issues in Mozambique.                    Crime (UNODC), previously called United
                                                            Nations Office of Drug Control and Crime
    3. Gender
                                                            Prevention (ODCCP) based in South Africa.
Mozambique has one of the highest levels of
women’s political participation in Africa with
approximately 30% of parliamentarians being
women. Women occupy key positions in the
executive, the judiciary, local authorities and
other sectors. However the EM study found that
in many cases, women were more affected and
more discouraged by corruption than their male
peers. Support to gender equality is a core
principle of UNDP. As such, all of UNDP’s
anti-corruption and governance endeavours need
to reflect and react to the differing circumstances
that Mozambican women face in accessing
justice, participating and voicing gender specific
issues, protecting their human rights and
countering corruption.
     4. Human Rights
As highlighted in this study, human rights are
not separate from anti-corruption efforts. A
nation’s lack of transparency and accountability
is a direct affront to a citizen’s civil, political,
economic, social and cultural rights. UNDP’s
commitment to apply a rights-based approach to
its anti-corruption efforts, and encourage such an
approach among its development partners, helps
to dismantle hidden structures that protect
violators and instil fear in the daily lives of
innocent Mozambicans.
    5. Regional Linkages and Partnerships
Mozambique is in the unique position of having
neighbours with an incredible wealth of
knowledge and experience in the area of anti-
corruption. Both South Africa and Botswana are
seen as extremely strong examples of countries
that have taken measures to counter corruption
effectively. UNDP should make every effort to
further strengthen linkages to regional anti-
corruption mechanisms such as the Southern
African Development Community (SADC), the
Southern African Forum against Corruption
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                                           Bibliography

Amnesty International, 1998. Mozambique: Human Rights and the Police. AI INDEX: AFR
41/001/1998

Ética Moçambique, 2001. Corruption Report: Mozambique 2001.(Maputo: Ética Mozambique)

German Technical Cooperation, 2002. Final Report On Activities Implemented Under
UNDP/PACT (Programme for Accountability and Transparency, Mozambique) By GTZ /
PDDM, (German Technical Cooperation, Decentralization and Municipal Development Project,
Manica and Nampula Province, Mozambique) (Mozambique: GTZ).

Hanlon, Joseph , 2002. “Are donors to Mozambique promoting corruption?” Conference Paper
presented as at the Towards a New Political Economy of Development Conference. (Sheffield,
University of Sheffield).

Mondlane, Luis, 2003. “Mozambique: Nurturing Justice from Liberation Zones to a Stable Democratic
State” in Human Rights Under African Constitutions: Realizing the Promise Ourselves, edited by
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im. (Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press). pp.182-210.

Ostheimer, Andrea E., 2001. “Mozambique: The Permanent Entrenchment of Democratic
Minimalism?”. Africa Security Review, Volume 10. No. 1. pp. 1-13.

UNDP, 2002. Access to Information for Democratic Governance: Framing UNDP’s Current
Practice, Background Paper, (Oslo: Bureau for Development Policy).

UNDP, 2003. Conference Report on the Forum on Transparency and Corruption: Accountability
and Transparency: Instruments and Strategies in Fighting Against Corruption (Maputo: UNDP).

Zvekic, Ugljesa (2002), “Introduction” in Regional Seminar on Anti-Corruption Investigating
Strategies with particular regard to Drug Control for the SADC Members, (Hatfield: UNODC).

Transparency International, 2000. TI Source Book 2000.




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 Annex 1: List of UNDP Mozambique’s Democratic Governance Projects

MOZ/98/003 – Support to the Justice Sector
MOZ/98/006 – Support to the Police of Mozambique – ACIPOL
MOZ/00/007 - Support to the Police of the Republic of Mozambique
MOZ/97/003 - International Assistance to Parliament
MOZ/98/018 - Support to General Elections, 1999
MOZ/01/003 - Strengthening democracy and governance through development of the media in
Mozambique: Phase II
MOZ/03/005 - Support to Local Government Reform




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