Introduction to Multimedia MM 213 - 01 by hcj

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 45

									Instructional
Design
            MM503-61
         Friday 6:00-8:40
Objectives

1. Definitions
2. Introduce needs assessment
3. Learning perspectives
4. ToolBook interactions
Definitions

 ID is a systematic process of
 translating principles of
 learning & instruction into
 plans for instructional
 materials, activities,
 information resources, and
 evaluation.
  Definitions




 Fig. 1.4 Summary Diagram for Chapter 1
 (part A)

From: Smith, P.L. & Ragan, T.J. (2005),
Instructional Design, 3rd Edition, p. 15.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  Definitions




 Fig. 1.4 Summary Diagram for Chapter 1
 (part A)

From: Smith, P.L. & Ragan, T.J. (2005),
Instructional Design, 3rd Edition, p. 15.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Definitions

    E-learning (electronic learning): A
     wide set of applications and processes,
     such as Web-based learning, computer-
     based learning, virtual classrooms, and
     digital collaboration.




  American Society for Training and Development (2007)
Definitions

    E-learning (electronic learning):
     Includes the delivery of content via
     Internet, intranet/extranet (LAN/WAN),
     audio- and videotape, satellite broadcast,
     interactive TV, CD-ROM, and more.




  American Society for Training and Development (2007)
What is instructional design?
                        Draw a plan



  Consult with client



                        Building



  An idea or need???      Build
What is instructional design?
                             Draw a plan



      Consult with client


                              Architecture
                              Engineering
                               Logistics
                            Mathematics, etc
  An idea or need???
                               Build
What is instructional design?
                              Draw a plan/prototype




       Consult with client
                             Cognitive Psychology
                                  Pedagogy
                               Learning theory
                             Communication theory

                                   Build


An idea or need???
   ID
   develo
   ps
   detaile
   d specs
   or blue
   prints
   for
   instruct
   ion
Computer Science




                                                          Communications
                                            Instruction
                                              Design



   Source: Tufte, Envisioning information
                                            Psychology
Models



         ADDIE
         Model
Models




  Source: http://www.instructionaldesign.org/models/dick_carey_model.html
Models
   Dick, Carey, & Carey (2009) present ten components of a systems approach model
    representing theories, procedures, and techniques used by instructional designers to
    design, develop, evaluate, and revise instruction.


     1.  Identify instructional/learning goals
     2. Conduct instructional analysis

     3. Analyze learners and contexts

     4. Write performance objectives

     5. Develop assessment instruments

     6. Develop instructional strategy

     7. Develop and select instructional materials

     8. Design and conduct formative evaluation

     9. Revise instruction

     10. Design and conduct summative evaluation
        Models
Start
                                           Phase III
         Phase I               Phase II
                                          Develop &
         Analysis              Design
                                          Implement


                   Evaluate & Revise

        Hannafin & Peck – Model for CBT
Models




 Piskurich, George M. (2006). Rapid instructional design (p.5)
Models




Fig. 1.3 A More Realistic Representation of Instructional Design Practice

From: Smith, P.L. & Ragan, T.J. (2005), Instructional Design, 3rd Edition, p. 11. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
     Models
     Smith & Ragan,
     2007: Instructional
     Design Process
     Model




Fig. 1.2 An Instructional Design Process
Model

From: Smith, P.L. & Ragan, T.J. (2005),
Instructional Design, 3rd Edition, p. 10.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
 Models
Models
Example

    Tire changing activity
Example
    With your partner(s), discuss the following questions and develop a short plan for
     how you will proceed.

    1) How do you proceed? What are you first steps?
    2) What do you need to know?
         About the problems (traffic fatalities related to flat tires)
         The instructional system
         The learning environment
         The learners
    3) How do you proceed to get answers to these questions?
Analysis of Learning Context

 1.   Justify need for
      instruction/training.

 2.   Description of learning
      environment.
Analysis of Learning Context

 • Substantiation of need for instruction

   • Does an instructional need exist for
     training on changing a flat tire?

   • Perhaps if tires were made better we
     wouldn’t need to change them.
Ways to Substantiate Need

 1.   List the goals/needs. Ask yourself the
      question, "what should learners be able to do
      at the end of the instruction."

 2.   Determine to what extent the goal/need you
      identified in step 1 is being met.

 3.   Determine the discrepancy between "what is"
      and "what should be“. If there is a discrepancy,
      then you have a need.
Ways to Substantiate Need
 1.   Prioritize discrepancies or needs.
 2.   Rate how important or critical the needs are. The
      following questions can be asked:

         What are the biggest gaps/needs?
         What goals and associated needs are most important?
         How many individuals are affected by the need?
         How much is it costing to not reduce or eliminate the
          discrepancy/need?
         What are the consequences of not meeting the goal or
          eliminating the need?
         How probable is it that you can reduce/eliminate the
          discrepancy/need?
Ways to Substantiate Need

     Determine which discrepancy/need requires
      instruction.

     There are numerous reasons why learners
      may not be performing well and not all of
      those reasons required training or the
      development of an eLearning program.
Description of the Learning
Environment
 If there is a learning need:
    In what environment will the e-Learning program be
     placed.

    Instructional programs are made up of and affected
     by many factors including learners, instructional
     materials, trainers, instructional equipment and
     facilities, and the organization (school, company).

    Think about the environment in which the program
     will be used (e.g., Web).
Description of the Learning
Environment
   Questions to guide you in defining the environment:

        What are the characteristics of the learners who will use the
         program or materials?
        What are their interest and preferences related to instruction and
         learning styles, e.g., do they feel comfortable with computers, do
         they prefer lecture, individual tutoring, etc.
        How do the learners feel about having instruction delivered by
         media (e.g., computer, etc).
        Will the media (if it is used) be central to the instruction or will it be
         peripheral and how do instructors and learners feel about this?
        What are the facilities like?
Way to conduct Need
Assessment
  Surveys
  Interviews
  Review of documentation
  Observation
  Etc.
Influences on ID

      Learning Theory
Influences on ID
Psychological Basis

 Three Perspectives
 • Behaviorism
 • Cognitivism
 • Constructivism
Learning

  What    is... Behaviorism
     Behavioral psychology, also known as Skinnerian
      or stimulus-response psychology, is based on the
      premise that learning results from the pairing of
      responses with stimuli.

     Behavioral psychology studies external, observable
      behaviors in trying to explain why behaviors occur.

     Much of what we do today in education is based on
      behaviorism.
Drill and Practice




         (Example 2)
Information Processing -
Cognitivism
    Cognition is categorized by
     transformation of information from stimuli
     in the environment to a response by the
     learner.
Information Processing - Cognitivism




 Fig. 2.3 An Information Processing Model of Learning and Memory
 From: Smith, P.L. & Ragan, T.J. (2005), Instructional Design, 3rd Edition, p. 27. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
 (Adapted from Gagné’s 1974 elaboration of Atkinson & Shiffrin’s 1968 “multi-store” model.)
Information Processing -
Cognitivism

                           O
Information Processing -
Cognitivism




            DOG
Information Processing -
Cognitivism
 • We try to relate new information to knowledge we already possess.
 • The more we can relate new information to things we already know, the
 more memorable the information becomes and/or the easier it is to learn.



                                                      STM


                                                         LTM
                                                   Sparkie loved trees.
Metaphor - often make interfaces easier to learn.
Information Processing -
Cognitivism

                    I was born in March on the 14th and I graduated college in 1977.



                                                        STM
                                                                            Encoding

  What do these
  number mean,
  what do these
  number mean? 3-
  14-97 How can I
                                                           LTM
  remember?
Constructivism

    Constructivism is concerned with the
     process of how we construct knowledge.

    How we construct knowledge depends
     upon what the learners already know,
     which depends on their experiences.
Constructivism
 If we construct our own reality through interpreting
    experiences in the world, then professors cannot map
    their interpretations completely onto learners, because
    they don't share a set of common experiences and
    interpretations.

 Rather, reality (or at least what we know and understand
   of reality) resides in the mind of each knower, who
   interprets the external world according to his or her
   own experiences, beliefs, and knowledge.
Screen Sample
Software types

  Drill and practice
  Tutorials (Ex 1) (Ex 2)
  Simulations
  Games
  Problem solving programs

								
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