Docstoc

walter

Document Sample
walter Powered By Docstoc
					EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



                    ACVANCED DETECTORS IN
                     PARTICLE PHYSICS AND
                        APPLICATIONS

                                   Experiments in HEP
                                   Semiconductor Detectors
                                   Gaseous Detectors
                                   Scintillation Counters
                                   Application in other Fields
                                   Summary and Conclusions


                                                                                                          1
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



    NEW EXP‘S AND ACCELERATORS
         Basic Questions of Particle Physics:
          CP-Violation:            B-Factories at KEK and SLAC,
                                    Large Hadron Collider at CERN
          Higgs search:            Experiments ATLAS and CMS at LHC,
                                    e+e- Linear Collider TESLA at DESY

                                                            TESLA




                                                                                                          2
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION          APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS               OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



        RUNNING AND PLANNED EXP‘S

        EXPERIMENT                    NAME               INTERACTING             ACCELERATOR               SITE
           TYPE                                           PARTICLES


     FIXED TARGET              HERA-B                Proton-Nucleon             HERA                    DESY
                               LHC-B                 Proton-Nucleon             LHC                     CERN
     COLLIDER                  BES                   Electron-Positron          BEPC                    IHEP
                               H1, ZEUS              Positron-Proton            HERA                    DESY
                               CDF, D0               Proton-Proton              Tevatron                Fermilab
                               BaBar, BELLE          Electron-Positron          PEP-II, KEKB            SLAC, KEK
                               ATLAS, CMS            Proton-Proton              LHC                     CERN
                               TESLA-Det.            Electron-Positron          TESLA                   DESY ?




                                                                                                                  3
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                    Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION       APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS            OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



   DETECTION OF RARE PROCESSES
    Requirements for Higgs Search:
     Superimposed collisions, here 18 pp interactions in CMS Silicon Tracker,
     Occupancy of ~1% with Silicon Pixel Detectors,
     Precise measurement of 4 well visible muons.

                                                                                                 µ




                                                                                                              µ

                                                                      µ




                                                                                µ


                                                                                                              4
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION    APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS         OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



                 DETECTORS IN HEP EXP‘S
   Fixed Target Exp:                                Interaction of particles in diff. detector components:




   Collider Exp:




  1 Tracking Detectors:           Pixel, Silicon Strip, Gas Microstrip, Drift Cell Tubes,
                                  Drift Chambers
  2 Electromagnetic Calorimeters: Plastic Scintillator / Lead Sandwich, Liquid Argon, Crystals

  3 Hadronic Calorimeters:                       Plastic Scintillator / Iron or Copper Sandwich, Liquid Argon

  4 Muon Detectors:                            Drift - Tubes, Cathode Strip Chambers, Resistive Plate Chambers
                                                                                                        5
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002              Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



         FIXED TARGET EXP:                                                       HERA-B




      detector designed for CP violation studies in B-Meson system
      run at interaction rates > 30 MHz, > 100 charged particles every 96 nsec
      harsh radiation conditions for tracking detectors:
          Si – Strip Vertex Detector
          MSGC Inner Tracker
          hexogonal Drift Tubes Outer Tracker
      conditions very similar to LHC                                                                     6
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION          APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS               OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



          COLLIDER EXP: ATLAS, CMS
    ATLAS                                                                            Tracking Detectors   Electromagnetic
                                                                                                          Calorimeter




                                                                                Hadron
                                                                                Calorimeter               Muon Detector


    CMS cut-out
                                                                           CMS




                                                                                                                 7
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                    Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION            APPLICATION IN         SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS                 OTHER FIELDS           CONCLUSIONS



                    COLLIDER EXP: TESLA
                                                                                Hadron Calorimeter
                                                                                Scintillator/Iron Sandwich, 200 kChannel


                                                                                Electromagnetic Calorimeter
                                                                                Si-Diode Pads/Tungsten, 32 Mio Chann,

                                                                                Time Projection Chamber 1.2 Mio Chann.


                                                                                Intermediate Tracker
                                                                                Si-Pixel and –Strip, 40.3 Mio ch.


                                                                                Vertex Detector VTX
                                                                                CCD or Hybrid Pixel, 800 Mio ch.


                                                                                Muon Detector
                                                                                Plastic Streamer Tubes and RPC, 75 kCh.




                                                                                                                     8
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                       Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



      SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS
     Silicon Strip:
      Thickness Si-Crystals: ~300 µm
      Energy Loss of Minimum Ionising Particle per
       Electron/Hole Pair:    <E> = 3.6 eV (at 300°K),
                              (in Gases: 20-40 eV)
      Total e-/hole pairs:   ~25000
      Drift-Time:            ~8 ns e-, 25 ns holes
      Sensitive Area:        ~70 x 50 mm²
      Number Strips:         ~1200
      Strip Distance:        ~50 µm
      Resolution:            ~10-20 µm


     Pixel Detectors:
      Hybrid Pixel:
          mature technology
      Charged Coupled Device:
          not rad. Hard, slow (5 MHz)
      Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors:
          originated from CMOS camera
      DEPFET:
          integrated amplification


                                                                                                          9
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



           Vertex Detector System: HERA-B




   Measurement:            J/Psi decay vertices, impact parameters of particles
   Working:                at up to 40 MHz, high radiation similar LHC
   Vertex Detector:        64 double-sided Si-microstrip detectors,
                            arranged in 8 stations, 4 quadrants around p-beam
   Detectors:              sensitive area: 50 x 70 mm², 280 µm thick
   Performance:            o.k. up to 3 x 10**14 MIPS/mm²
   Readout:                analog chip HELIX128-2.2



                                                                                                         10
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION           APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS                OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



          Tracking Detectors: ATLAS, CMS
  ATLAS                                                                                         Pixel Detectors:
                                                                                                 3 barrels, 2 x 4 discs
                                                                                                 2.14 m² sensitive area
                                                                                                 ~ 80 million channels
                                                                                                Silicon-Strip (SCT):
                                                                                                 4 barrels, 2 x 9 discs
                                                                                                 ~ 60 m² sensitive area
                                                                                                 ~ 6.2 million channels
                                                     Transition Radiation Tracker TRT:
                                                     372000 straw tubes in barrel and end-caps

  CMS          Pixel Detectors:                                         Silicon-Strip (SST):
                ~ 0.6 m² sensitive area                                 ~ 210 m² sensitive area
                ~ 45 million channels                                   ~ 9.6 million channels



                                                                           10 Barrels
                                                                                                    12 End-cap Discs
                         2 Barrels

                                                                                           ¼ of longitudinal view
                                             2 x 2 End-cap
                                                                                                                    11
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                     Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION      APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS           OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



                    Tracking Detectors: TESLA
    TESLA Tracking Det.                         ¼ of longitudinal view




    VTX - CCDs




    VTX (multi-layered micro-vertex detector):                    Intermediate Tracker:
     cylinders in barrel region                                   SIT:
     3 options:                                                        2 cylinders in barrel region
           CCDs:           5 layers,                                   double sided strip detectors
                           ~ 800 Mpixels,                               sensitive area:              1.7 m²
           hybrid pixels: 3 layers                                FTD (discs in forward region):
           CMOS pixels:                                                2 x 3 discs pixel detectors: 0.6 m²
     R&D program for all 3                                             2 x 4 discs strip detectors: 2.0 m²
                                                                                                           12
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION       APPLICATION IN       SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS            OTHER FIELDS         CONCLUSIONS



                                        DRIFT CELLS
  Honeycomb Drift Cells (HERA-B Outer Tracker):                                 Honeycomb Drift Cell Assembling
   cell diameter:    5 and 10 mm
   cell occupancy:   < 20% (20 cm from p-beam, 40 MHz rate)
   modules:          ~ 1000 with <= 128 cells (segmented)
   max. length:      4.5 m
   readout channels: ~ 117 k
   gas mixture:      Ar / CF4 / CO2, (65 / 30 / 5)
   no aging problems after foil coating with gold

                                                                                Production of 10 mm modules
  Straw Tube Drift Cells (ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker):                  (IHEP and Tsinghua Univ.)
   cell diameter:      4 mm
   straw length:       150 cm (barrel),
                        39 and 55 cm (end-caps)
   readout channels: ~ 53 k (barrel),
                        ~ 320 k (end-caps)
   gas mixture:        Xe / CF4 / CO2, (70 / 20 / 10)

  High Pressure Aluminum Drift Tubes (ATLAS Muon Detector):
   cell diameter:    30 mm
   max. tube length: 6 m
   readout channels: ~1.3 million
   gas mixture:      Ar / N2 / CH4, (91 / 4 / 5)

                                                                                                              13
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                 Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN            SEMICONDUCTOR       GASEOUS             SCINTILLATION      APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                       DETECTORS           DETECTORS           COUNTERS           OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



      Micro-Strip Gas Chamber: HERA-B
                                   MSGCs General:
                                    success of Multiwire Proportional Chamber
                                    fills gap between wire chambers and Si-strip
                                    Anodes, Cathodes: thin metal strips on glass substrate
                                    Granularity:         10 x better than wire systems
                                    Resolution:          better than 40 µm
                                    Rate Capability:       ~ 100 kHz per mm²

                                    HERA-B GEM MSGCs:
                Cathode              Inner Tracker:     7 stations, 40 planes of 4 detectors (48x44cm² / plane)
        Anode                        largest system: 120 kChannels
                                     original MSGCs: discharges at high rates, (<= 10**6 part. / cm² / s)
                                                   heavy ionising alpha-particles         damage of electrodes
     Rad. Damage                     solution:    GEM - Gas Electron Multiplier (thin foil with holes)
                                                   1st amplification in GEM, lower voltage between electrodes
                                                                                  MSGC Alternatives:
                                                                                   Double GEM:
                                                                      50 µ         Micromegas:
          drift voltage 2500 V
                                                                                    thin-gap parralel plate counter
          GEM voltage difference
          (upper – lower) 450 V                                 GEM                Micro-CAT:
                                                                                    hole in cathode foil,
                                                                                    above anode
                                   cathode voltage 520 V
                                                                                   Micro-dot chamber:
                                                                                    pixel device based on silicon
                                                                                                             14
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics                 XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR            GASEOUS              SCINTILLATION           APPLICATION IN           SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS                DETECTORS            COUNTERS                OTHER FIELDS             CONCLUSIONS



               SCINTILLATING CRYSTALS
    Electromagnetic Calorimeters in new experiments require:
     best energy resolution for e, gamma, pi-zero:                                  crystals
     position measurement:                                                          fine lateral granularity
     operation in magnet field (1 – 4 Tesla):                                       photo diode
    Crystal Properties and Experiments

                       NaI(Tl)       Plastic          BGO           CsI(Tl)            CsI          PbWO4              LSO
    Radiation            2.59          ~ 45           1.12            1.85             1.85            0.89             1.14
    Length [cm]
    Decay Time           230              2            300            1300            6 - 35         10 - 50             40
    [nsec]
    Peak                 410            425            480             565             310              420             420
    Emission [nm]
    Light Yield          40 k         ~ 14 k          ~4k            ~ 18 k          ~ 2.8 k         ~ 0.8 k          ~ 30 k
    [gammas/MeV]
    Experiments       Crystal Ball   HERA-B         L3             BaBar,           KTeV            CMS              developed
                      4pi,           Plastic / W,   10k crystals   BELLE,           3100 crystals   75 k crystals    for PET
                      732 crystals   Plastic / Pb                  TEXONO:          27 Xo           Alice            Positron
                      15.7 Xo        sandwich                      0.5 t crystals                                    Emission
                                                                   Neutrino osc.                                     Tomography
                                                                   at reactor
                                                                                                                        15
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics                XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                        Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



                 CMS ECAL: PbWO4 Crystals
   CMS PbWO4 Crystal ECAL


                                                   Choose of Lead Tungstate:

                                                    very compact          less material     cheaper
                                                    fast enough for 25 nsec LHC bunch crossing
                                                    poor light yield less important
          Barrel               End-Cap
                                                    77000 crystals of high quality
                                                    production in Bogorodytsk / Russia
                                                     and by: Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
                                                    radiation dose up to 0.15 Gy / h
                                                    energy resolution sigma/E = 0.4 % (E = 280 GeV)
                                                    special avalanche photodiode (APD) works
                                                     in 4 Tesla magnet field
          Avalanche Photodiode




                                                                                                         16
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



      APPLICATION IN OTHER FIELDS
       New generation of detectors                                        progress in:
                 imaging
                 data treatment
                 miniaturisation
                 energy resolution
                 radiation hardness
                 lower noise
                 lower costs

       All techniques ready for export to other fields as e.g.:

               astro – particle physics
               bio – medical applications
               ............




                                                                                                         17
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN        SEMICONDUCTOR          GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION     APPLICATION IN       SUMMARY AND
HEP                   DETECTORS              DETECTORS          COUNTERS          OTHER FIELDS         CONCLUSIONS



                Application of Si-Strip Detectors
     Si – Strip Detectors in Space Experiments:

      Alpha-Magnetic-Spectrometer (AMS-02):
               will be installed 2003 in International Space Station (400 km altitude)
               measurement of cosmics particles
               search for antimatter, can reach: anti-helium / helium = 10**-9
               search for cosmics dark matter


      Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST):
             satellite will be launched 2005
             looks for gamma rays in 20 MeV – 300 GeV range
             Si-Strip tracker for:
              reconstruction of gamma-ray direction by measuring conversion e+e- pair


      Properties of Si – Strip Trackers:
                          No. Channels        Readout Pitch       Strip Width        Area
     AMS - 02                   ~ 200000             110 µm             27.5 µm             7 m²
     GLAST                      ~ 737000             238 µm             238 µm           74 m²


                                                                                                            18
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



             Application of Si-Strip Detectors
   Si – Strip Detectors in Medicine:
    Main requirements are:
          size large enough to cover the Region of Interest
          resolution diagnostically adequate
          patient dose clinically acceptable

    Prototype silicon microstrip detector for dental imaging
          ( from P.F.van der Stelt, IWORID Amsterdam 8-12/9/2002)
          300 µm double-sided silicon sensor (SINTEF, Oslo, Norway)
          p-side 427 strips on a 50 µm pitch
          n-side 128 strips on an 80µm pitch                                                    Film,12 bit
          effective area 2.185 x 1.024 cm2

    Performance detector study for mammography imaging
          ( P.F.van der Stelt et al., NIM A457 (2001) 653)
          detector size: ~ 24 x 18 cm², requires tiling of sensors
          detection efficiency ~ 75% for 1mm thick silicon
                                                                                                 Si-Pixel detector
          high contrast details of 300 µm detectable                                            6x6cm² scan)

    Si – Pixel detector for mammography imaging
          (S.R.Amendolia et al., INFN Pisa, Italy, IWORID Amsterdam 8-12/9/2002)
          pixel size: 170 x 170 µm², 300 µm thick Si – detector
          further improvement under development
                                                                                                           19
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION         APPLICATION IN         SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS              OTHER FIELDS           CONCLUSIONS



        Application of Scintillating Crystals
  CsI Calorimeter in Space Experiment:
   Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST):
         CsI calorimeter for measurement of gamma energy
          (20 MeV – 300 GeV)
         8 layers of 12 bars: 8.6 Xo                                                                              crystals
         each bar has 2.0 x 2.8 x 35.1 cm³

  Scintillating Crystal Detectors in Medicine:
   Flat X-ray Detectors for Medical Imaging:
      (from M. Overdick, Philips Research Laboratories, Aachen, Germany,
       IWORID 2002, Amsterdam, 11/9/2002)                                                                     Photodiode array
          Scintillator:   CsI(Tl) needle crystals
          thickness 550µm, good X-ray absorption, act as light-guides                      Dynamic Detector: Integris Allura

          crystals connected to photodiode array
          field of view: 18 x 18 cm²




                                                                      Heart Arteris

                                                                                                                    20
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                   Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



        SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
       Detector developments for advanced particle physics experiments:

        large systems of high complexity
        mass production of detectors and readout electronics reduces costs
        strong impact on other fields:

                 astro - particle physics
                 bio – medicine
                 material research
                 ........

       These fields have created their own life with strong activities

       More details you will find in:
       International Workshop on Radiation Imaging, IWORID Amsterdam 8-12/9/2002




                                                                                                         21
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



                       COLLIDER EXP:                                            CMS




                                                                                                         22
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



                 DEPFET – DEpleted P-channel Field Effect Transistor
     •     p-FET (JFET or MOSFET)
           on depleted n-Si bulk

     •     local potential minimum for
           electrons  ‘internal gate‘

     •     current change prop. to
           number
           of charges in the ‘internal gate‘
           DI > 200 pA / electron

     •     nondestructive readout

     •     charge integration and storage
           in ON and OFF state

     •     reset through clear contact,
           supported by clear gate

     •     backside illuminated

                                                                                                         23
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION          APPLICATION IN        SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS               OTHER FIELDS          CONCLUSIONS



                       Front end chip candidates
 From talk of T. Tsuboyama (KEK) on Si-Vertex detectors, 8/2002:

   Experiment             Chip                 Process            Pipe line       Fast                  Principle
                                                                   depth        trigger
   Belle SVD1       VA1                1.2 mm                         -            -       Continuous shaping analog
   Belle SVD2       VATA               AMS 0.35 mm                    -          YES       Continuous shaping analog.

   BaBar            AtoM               Honeywell 0.8 mm            193 cell        -       Time-over-Threshold

   CLEO             FE/BE              Honeywell                      -            -       On-hybrid ADC, digital

   Zeus             Helix              AMS (non rad-hard)          128 cell        -       Analog
   CDF II           SVX3               Honeywell                   47 cell         -       FE/BE architecture, double
                                                                                           correlated sampling,
                                                                                           periodic reset, Digital
   D0               SVX2
   CMS              APV25              IBM 0.25 mm                 192 cell        -       Analogue

   ATLAS            ABCD(?)                                        132 cell        -       Binary
   LHCb             SICA-VELO          DMILL 0.25 mm               160 cell        -       Analog
                    Beetle

                                                                                                                    24
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002                    Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



                         SILICON DETECTORS




                                                                                                         25
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen
EXPERIMENTS IN       SEMICONDUCTOR           GASEOUS            SCINTILLATION   APPLICATION IN      SUMMARY AND
HEP                  DETECTORS               DETECTORS          COUNTERS        OTHER FIELDS        CONCLUSIONS



          RESISTIVE PLATE CHAMBERS




                                                                                                         26
Conf. on Nuclear Detectors and Electronics               XiaMen, 2-6/12/2002             Michael Walter, DESY Zeuthen

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:8
posted:10/18/2012
language:Unknown
pages:26