1.1 WOMEN EMPOWERMENT The women empowerment essentially means that the women have the power or capacity to regulate their day - to – day lives in the social, political and economic terms – a power which enables them to move from the periphery to the centre stage. 1.1 a) SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT The social empowerment of women include the base of gender inequality, sex ratios, life expectancy rates and fertility rates which shows the general status of women in terms of literacy, economic growth, availability of health care facilities, educational status of women, age at marriage, literacy rates and participation of women outside the home. Various issues that are associated with the social empowerment of women. ENDING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Violence against women is a real fact and need to acknowledge the real tragedy behind this crime. It totally shatters the women from the core psychologically as well as physically. Women need to be educated and made aware of their rights and they should be encouraged to stand united against the biased and discriminating social environment which directly and indirectly affects their psychological and physical self. The oppressive structures of the women need to be changed and oppression of women need to be stopped. The change can be possible through social empowerment of women at the grass root level with education and awareness. ISSUES RELATED TO SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN The social empowerment of women are actually addressing various issues which might be applicable to different parts of the world for improving the overall status of women. Some of the prominent issues relate to Education for women, Health for women, Nutrition for women, drinking water and sanitation for women and their family, housing and shelter for women and their family, environment and the connection with women, participation of women in the field of science and technology, care for women under difficult circumstances, fighting the violence against women and rights of the girl child. b) ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT Women have always contributed to the society and the economy in the form of a helping hand in agriculture and food production in the developing countries and in the form of part time and temporary workers in developed countries. INITIATION STEPS FOR ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN Economic empowerment of women can be initiated by working on some fundamental issues like training and education of women for gainful income generation, in aspects of their life. Recognizing that education and training are important for economic empowerment of women in the short term as well as long term periods. Empowering women who are part of the labour force by increasing awareness regarding the rights of an employee. Work on the communication skills of women so that they become self-confident and master the technique of advocacy and negotiation. Encouraging and supporting women entrepreneurs to develop marketable models of enterprise through expert guidance and “Skills development” support. Planning educational and training modules for women based on their professional as well as home commitments and helping women to balance between the two. Educating and training women to gainfully engage in markets and institutions where they primarily go for generating income. Proving opportunities to women for interlinking and interacting across border for economic empowerment. Building and strengthening networks where women come together from different nations and regions for common goals of economic empowerment of women. c) PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT: Formal education to build skills and abilities that an individual needs to feel competent is critical for enhancing psychological empowerment. Education, Employment and earning increase women’s financial independence therefore they are regarded as powerful means of empowerment. The components all contributed to a person sense of empowerment. IMPACT/SELF - DETERMINATION Impact or self – determination which refer to an individual, are perceived degree of influence over outcomes in one’s work and family environments. The term choice for women means providing women with genuine opportunities to have not only their voice heard, but giving them real power to control and influence over work processes and results. It is also defined as women need to choose, to initiate and regulate actions or to choose the process and work behaviors at work; and should be perceived as an opportunity to make a choice. BEING MEANINGFUL If a work is to be done by women managers or employees they should feel that it is a valuable work. They evaluate the job based on their own values and feel that they are doing something meaningful. PROFESSIONAL GROWTH It refers to personal development in job and profession. Empowered women feel more professional growth in their career as employee or managers. INDEPENDENCE DECISION MAKING Women’s must feel that they are competent to engage in the behaviors required by the organization or family. Competence and self – efficacy refer to enable the women to be confidence in their capacity to make the choices. TRUST Empowerment is connected with trust. Trust creates an atmosphere for empowerment and grows in such an atmosphere. We can’t empower women, but can create an environment in which they can empower themselves. Hypothesis of research are formulated as H1: Formal education leads to psychological empowerment of women. H2: Organizational work leads to psychological empowerment of women. 1.2 SELF HELP GROUPS IN TAMIL NADU Self help group is group of rural poor who have volunteered to organize themselves into a group for eradication of poverty of the members. They agree to save regularly and convert their savings into a common fund known as the Group corpus. The members of the group agree to use this common fund and other funds receive as a group through common management. 1.2 a) CONCEPT OF SHG SHGs were started and formed in 1975. In India NABARD initiated it in 1986-1987. The effort was taken after 1991-1992 from the link of SHGs with the banks. A SHG is a small economically homogeneous affinity group of the rural poor voluntarily coming together to save small amount regularly, which are deposited in a common fund to meet members emergency needs and to provide free loans decided by the group. SHG enhance the equality of status of women as participants, decision- makers and beneficiaries in the democratic, economic, social and cultural spheres of life. SHG is a media for the development of saving habit among the women. The Basic principles of the SHGs are group approach, mutual trust, Organization of small and manageable groups, group whesiveness, sprit of thrift, demand based lending, women friendly loan, peer group pressure in repayment, skill training capacity building and empowerment. In Tamil Nadu the SHGs were started in 1989 at Dharmapuri Dist. At present 1.40 lakh groups are unction with 23.83 lakh members. b) FUNCTIONS OF SHGS Create a common fund by the members through their regular savings. Flexible working system and pool the resources in a democratic way. Periodical meeting. The decision making through group meeting. The Loan amount is small and reasonable. The rate of interest is affordable, varying group to group and loan to loan. c) EMPOWERMENT ACTIVITIES OF SHGS SHG is group of rural poor who have volunteered to organize themselves into a group for eradication of poverty of the members. The group formation will keep the following guidelines Generally a SHG may consist of 10 to 20 persons. In difficult areas like deserts, hills and areas with scattered and sparse population and in case of minor irrigation and disabled persons, this number may be from 5-20. All members of the group should belong to families below the poverty line. The group shall not consist of more than one member from the same family. A person should not be a member of more than one group. The group should devise a code of conduct to bind itself. This should be in the form of regular meetings, functioning in a democratic manner, allowing free exchange of views, participation by the The group should be able to draw up an agenda for each meeting and take up discussions as per the agenda. The members should build their corpus through regular savings. The group should be able to collect the minimum voluntary saving amount from all the members regularly in the group meetings. The members in the group meetings should take all the loaning decisions through a participatory decision making process. The group should be able to prioritise the loan applications, fix repayment schedules, rate of interest for the loans advanced and closely monitor the repayment of the loan installments from the loanee. The group should operate a group account preferably in their service area bank branch. The group should maintain simple basic records such as minutes book, attendance register, Loan Ledger, General Ledger, Cash Book, Bank passbook and individual passbooks.
Pages to are hidden for
"Women Empowerment"Please download to view full document