Docstoc
EXCLUSIVE OFFER FOR DOCSTOC USERS
Try the all-new QuickBooks Online for FREE.  No credit card required.

There is no feeling in English for science and technology

Document Sample
There is no feeling in English for science and technology Powered By Docstoc
					    畜牧兽医专业英语
    Specialized English for Veterinary Medicine




                   讲稿


院         系: 动物医学院
任课教师: 姚 宝 安
授 课 对 象 : 动 物 科 技 2002 级 1-4 班
               动 物 医 学 2002 级 1-4 班
总 学 时 : 40




                     2005


                        1
                             前         言
                              Preface

    按照大多数高等院校兽医本科专业的教学计划及培养目标,在畜牧兽医本
科专业学生完成 2 年基础英语学习的基础上,一般于三年级第一学期开设《畜
牧 兽 医 专 业 英 语 》 (English for Students of   Animal Science and Veterinary
Medicine)选修课程。有的高等农业院校也给硕士研究生开设《畜牧兽医专业英
语》。该课程的教学目的与要求是:学生通过本门课程的学习,达到借助专业
词典等工具书能熟练阅读畜牧兽医专业英语书刊并掌握畜牧兽医专业文献英译
汉、汉译英的基本技能。
    本课程重点阐述了动物科技和动物医学的科技英语阅读和翻译的基础知
识、科技英语的特殊性、科技词汇的基本结构和构词法、动物科技和动物医学
科技英语论文及摘要的撰写、参考文献引录; 以及动物科技和动物医学相关的英
语文章, 包括动物科技、动物医学基础知识和专业知识。




                                   2
Chapter 1     General of English for Science and Technology

Section 1 The important of Study English

             for Science and Technology

1.1 Foreign languages for Science and Technology is a individual subject

Foreign languages for Science and Technology

Languages for special Purposes ( LSP)

English for Science and Technology

English for Special Purposes (ESP)

1.2 The important of Foreign languages for Science and Technology

1.3 Request of study in Foreign languages for Science and Technology

1. 3.1 Study English book and magazine using dictionary

1.3.3 Translation English book and magazine using dictionary

1.3.4 Know how to write abstract for English paper

1.4 Study methods of English for Science and Technology

1.4.1 Understand study aim and plane

1.4.2 Study methods

1.4.3 Mastery the pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar

Pseudotuberculosis         Pseudo-tuberculo-sis

Immunoassay                Immuno-assay

Immunochemical             Immuno-chemical

1.4.4 Reading methods

Section 2 The formation and development of several foreign


                                     3
               language in normal using in the world

2.1 The major language in the world

There are 2700 nationality and 5651 languages, but there are not words in

three fourth. There are 500 languages studied by philologist.

There are 70 different kind words published in foreign countries.

            English           60%

            German            11%

            Russian           11%

            France              7%

            Japanese            3%

            Spanish              2%          Others       8%

2.2   The origin and development of several major languages

           in India and Europe

            希腊                 东希腊文           斯拉夫文              俄文

腓尼基文            古希腊文                                      法语

                              西希腊文          拉丁文          意大利语

                                                         西班芽语        英语
                                                         日尔曼语
                                                                     德语


2.3 The significance of study foreign languages for science and

technology from study languages in India and Europe

Section 3 The general character and individual character in

English for science and technology and public English


                                      4
3.1 The general character in English for science and technology

and public English

The English for science and technology is the branch of general English.

The basic words are come from general English. The grammar is as same

as general English.

3.2 The difference of English for science and technology

and public English

3.2.1 The character of comma language in English for science and

technology

. The meaning of vocabulary is proprietary and stability

              do,     make,      take

There is no feeling in English for science and technology

There are no figure of speech, overstate and parallelism

It is a written language

3.2.2 The characteristic of vocabulary in English for science and

technology

. International     There are 70% vocabulary come from Latin and

  Greece in medicine and veterinary.

. Using normative written verb

 discover     (find out)                    observe   (look at)

.Using derivative adjective

verb add -able, -ed, -ing,              -ive


                                        5
breath    breathing,        breathed,       breather,   breathless

noun add -al,          -ic, -ious

electron electronic, electropolar, electropositive

3.2.3 The character of grammar structure in English for science

and technology

1) Using noun and word group

The title of paper

(1) Methods of detecting drug-resistance in chicken coccidian

(2) The pathway of cell death induced by lead in Wish cells

(3) Establishment of a Radiorecepter Assay (RRA) capable of

   measuring serum bioactive LH/CG in a wide variety of species

 2) Using passive voice

The Toxplasma gondii infection were found in animals as early as in

1950s in Fujian province of China. During the next twenty-odd years

much progress was made and more than 100 papers were published.

3) Using participle and non-predicate as adjective

(1) The sounds heard in the heart are due to the closing of the valves.

(2) A zoonotic disease is defined as a disease shared by animals and

humans.

4) Using more than two clause

(1) Such use as we are able to make of helpful bacteria and such control

   as we have of harmful ones depend upon our knowledge of their


                                        6
   habits.

(2) Water provided to the hogs was sampled and soil from the site of most

   recent slurry spread was collected.

5) Using it as antecedence subject

(1) It makes no difference to take this medicine before or after meals.

(2) It can be concluded that bovine embryo recloning is similar to the

   embryos cloning except for the embryo’s low in vitro development

   ability.

6) Using preposition word group

  These cases are grouped by the severity of the disease.

7) Using as guidance active and positive sentences

  As the illustration shows

  As has been stated

  As follows

Chapter 2      Three basic of English for science and technology

  Pronunciation        vocabulary        grammar

Section 1 Pronunciation

Section 2 Word-formation in words of science and technology

2.1 The derivational expansion of general English words

2.1.1 The basic general words

      Basic words : 3500-4500

   Morpheme (word element), basic words: prefix, stem, suffix


                                     7
   The basic Chinese words : 3500

   There are only 2900 different Chinese words in Chairman Mao

   florilegium.

2.1.2   Formation of words

   New words: skylab              moonquake        E-mail

   There are three methods of formation words:

 1) Compounding

   Using two or more words form one new words.

   (1) Compound noun

        A. Noun + noun            newspaper      test-tube   bookworm

        B. Adjective + noun

         green-house            White-house          darkroom

        C. Gerund + noun

        Sleeping-bag        freezing-point      working-table

        D. Verb + noun

        Grindstone         workshop             sawdust

        E. Adverb + noun

        Outbreak           overcoat            overbridge

        F. Pronoun + noun     He-goat          she-wolf

G. Verb + adverb

Make-up              break-down           get-together

Noun + preposition


                                      8
Editor-in-chief       father-in law         son-in-law

(2)Compound adjective

A. Adjective + noun

First-hand         second-hand        low-temperature      high-temperature

B. Adjective + Adjective           light-blue       red-hot

C. Noun + Adjective                color-blind        world-wide

D. Adjective + noun + ed (d)          small-sized open-minded

E. Noun + participle              man-made            snow-covered

F. Noun + present participle

  Man-eating          earth-shaking

G. Adverb + participle           far-reaching        well-informed

H. Adverb + preposition + noun

  Up-to-date            out-of-date

I. Numeral + noun (+ed)          five-year (plan) four-cornered

J. Adverb + adjective       ever-green           over-sensitive

K. Adjective + participle        ready-made         good-looking

L. Noun + noun + ed           iron-willed        strong-willed     weak-willed

(3) Compound pronoun

   Pronoun objective case or possessive pronoun + self (selves)

     Himself                 ourselves

Indefinite pronoun (some, any, no, every) + body (one, thing )

Everybody,        anybody   something,        nothing


                                        9
 (4) Compound verb

 A. Adverb + verb :        overcome            uphold

 B. Noun + verb       sunbathe

(5)compound adverb

 A. Noun + noun              sideways

 B. Noun + adverb            headfirst

 C. Adjective + noun      meanwhile

 D. Preposition + noun           before-head

 2) Affixation

It is called derivative method to change the meaning with prefix or suffix.

A.    Prefix can case the meaning change without change of parts of

speech.

Unfair, dislike,      amoral, superman,           cooperate,        foretell,

Bicycle, tricycle,    pentagon, sexangle

B.    Suffix can case the change of parts speech, and sometimes the

     meaning of word changed.

 Piglet,    armlet, friendship,       happiness, childless

 3)Conversion

 Parts of speech change

 (1) Noun turned to verb: form           to form,       heat        to heat

 (2) Adjective turned to verb: slow      to slow,          direct      to direct

 (3) Adjective turned to noun:


                                        10
      Wounded           the wounded,             beautiful      the beautiful

(4) Adverb turned to verb:          down           to down

2. The word of special purpose extension in vertical and horizontal

1) The words of special purpose in vertical extension

(1) The words from Greece and Latin word element

          50-70% English words are come from Greece and Latin.

A. The compound method from Greece and Latin word elements

          Many derivative words are compounded from more than three

          word elements

     Polyavitaminosis         poly- a- vita- amin(o)- osis

     Polyuria     polytrophy aminoacid               acidosis leucocytosis

     Leucocyt(a)emia

B.     One stem of organ can composed to new word with suffix of disease,

 symptom, skill


         terminology
      organ -algia -rragia    -otomy -rrhaphy       -plasty -it is -oma   -osis   -cele

      Entero- entero- entero- entero- entero- entero- entero- entero- entero- entero-
               algia rragia tomy rrhaphy plasty tis                             cele
      gastro- gastro- gastro- gastro- gastro- gastro- gastri-        gastro- gastro-
             algia rragia tomy rrhaphy plasty tis                       sis   cele

      hepato hepatal- hepato- hepato- hepato-          hepati- hepato- hepato- hepato-
                gia rragia tomy rrhaphy                  tis     ma     sis      cele




                                            11
C.Vertical extension in some hematology noun terminology

    haemocyte                                  haemocytoblast

    myelo-                                     myeloblast

    lympho-                   -blast           lymphoblast

    mono-                                      monoblast

    megacaryo-                                 megacaryoblast

    erythro-                                   erythroblast

    pro- + myelo + cyte                               promyelocyte

    meta- + myelo + cyte                              metamyelocyte

    Furthermore, above mentioned the cell words can added with other

    suffix , e.g. –blast(o)osis,       -cytohaemia,        -oma   etc.


 2) The character of Greece and Latin and rule of synthesis

  (1)     The morphem of Greece and Latin is as same as common English

        word structure, and it is divided into prefix, root and suffix.

   A.     Prefix: Greece and Latin preposition, number or word derivation

        e.g. a- aleukia, anti- antibody,              dys- dyscontrol,

   B. Root: Greece and Latin words change

        e.g. entero- enterotoxin,       thoraco- thoracotomy,

        haemo- haemorrhagia

   C. Suffix: Greece or Latin suffix or word change

   D. e.g. –itis enteritis, -osis babesiosis, -tomia enterostomy

 (2) Divided into primary word derivative and compound words
                                          12
Primary word: entero-,         stoma-

Derivative word: primary + prefix or suffix

anti- + toxinum            antitoxin

Compound word: compound from two or more words

Haemo- + thorax             haemothorax

(3) The major rule of formation and connection in stem

A. Stem and prefix mostly come from single meaning

Take off the suffix of single meaning word , if the end of word is

consonant, it need s to connect “o”. But if it is vowed, it does not need to

change. But spleen is coming from Greece spleen, the suffix is needing to

add “o” , splenoo-.

B. When the stem has prefix, there is a vowel in front of the stem, the

vowel is taken out in the end of prefix . If there is a vowel in front of the

stem, the vowel is kept.

Enter (o) + it is, “o” meet “i”, take out “o”            enteritis

Entero + rrhagia, “o” meet “r”, keep “o”                 enterorrhagia

C. If “o” take out , two consonant add “o”, it is difficult to know the stem,

adding “-” in the middle.

Chondro-osteodystrophia,               intra-abdominal

D. gastro- + -enter(o)- +-it is, “o” meet with “e”,                  keep “o”

gastroenteritis

2) Come from general English words with new meaning


                                         13
  energy,      base,    normal,         cell

3) New words

(1) Compound new words from Greece and Latin

 atom, a + tomos ,             bicycle (bicyclette France)

(2) Condensation from first word

Laser           Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

Rader          Radio Detection and Ranging

(3) Compound from head and tail of words

Transfer + resistor          transistor, Positive + electron         positron

(4) Take part word instead of whole word

Gram-molecular-weight             mole or mol

(5) Change word

Television       televise,     laser           lase ,   diagnosis    diagnose

(6) Reverse the word

Frequency      quefrency,      filter   lifter

(7) Condensation word

Atom-bomb         a-bomb,         undersea boat             u-boat

(8) Condensation of Latin

Et al. (et alifi), e.g. (exampli gratia), ie. (id est)

2. Horizontal extension of special words

  Using Greece and Latin stem

1) Latin For the name of animal, plant, microorganism, parasites and


                                        14
   drugs etc.

 Nephritis haemorrhagicaaa,        Bacillus mallei zopf,

  Natrium chloratum

2) Translate to special words from Latin by different countries

Avitaminosis (L. E. W.),       Avitaminose(F. G. ),        Avitaminosi(I.)

Septicaemia haemorrhagica suum (L.)

Haemorrhagic septicemia swine (E.)

Septicemia (haemorphagique) du pore (F.)

Haemorrhagische septikamie der schweigne (G.)

3. Harf English wors and phrasse of Science and technology

It means that using and meaning are changed from general English.

Specimen,          sample,      germ,      case,       carrier

Section 3        Grammar for English of science and technology

1. Using passive voice         One third verbs are using passive voice in

English for science and technology. Because the article of science and

technology are introduced the outcome and results.

1) The sentence without person

Using passive voice is more confidence.

Research was being done.

Parasites have to be controlled.      Parasites have controlled.

2) expression the necessary and responsibilityThe instruments need to be

   sterilized.


                                      15
There are several factors to be considered.

3) Expression item, plan and aim

The results of research are to be published soon.

The results of research are (was) published.

4) Expression the probability and tendency

These animals are liable to be attacked by germs.

5) Expression the performer in passive voice

The operation was performed by the surgeon.

6) Expression the method and manner

The solution is weakened by the addition of more water.

7) The subject is animal, plant and other substance

Decay is accelerated by enzymes.

8) Expression inverted sentence order

By the addition of water, the solution is weakened

2. Using noun and noun word group instead of verb or adjective

noun> verb,     preposition> adjective and adverb

If we compare Type A with Type B, we will find that Type A is more

advantageous to our purpose.

* A comparison of Type A with Type B shows that Type A has more

advantageous to our purpose.

3. Using more non-predicate verb phrase

To determine the number of cells, a sample is put under a microscope.


                                    16
 The cell units were found to be filled with living substances.

4. Using more participle as attribute

The quantity of oxygen liberated to atmosphere by growing vegetation is

obviously very large.

5. Using subjunctive mood

But for the heat of the sun (if there were no heat of the sun), nothing

could live.

6. Using fixture sentence

It is ( or verb) + adjective(or noun) + that (clause)

It is common knowledge that water is made from oxygen and hydrogen.

Chapter 3      The style and structure of sentence in English for

science and technology

Section 1 Stylistics in English for science and technology

A. Chinese is different from English on oral expression.

E.g.    # I want to ask you a question.

* I’d like to ask you a question.          * May I ask you a question?

B. Style in English is different from Chinese. The English for Science

and technology has special individual character in word, grammar

and structure of sentence.

1. The structure of style is rigor, concision and briefness .

1) We made a hole in a cork and pushed into a narrow glass tube. Then

we pushed this into neck of a bottle which we had filled with colored


                                      17
water. When we did this some of the colored water went up into the tube.

We marked the level of the colored water in the tube was marked. Then

the bottle was placed into a pan of hot water.

  Almost immediately, the water level in the tube fell slightly, but then it

started to rise until the water overflowed.

* 2) After a hole was made in a cork, a narrow glass tube was inserted

and the cork was inserted into neck of a bottle filled with colored water.

On doing this, some of the colored water rose in the tube. The level of the

colored water in the tube was marked. Then the bottle was placed into a

pan of hot water.

  Almost immediately, the water level in the tube fell slightly, but then it

started to rise until the water overflowed.

 2. The article of science and technology is strictness, refine, in focus

and concision.

1) This piece of metal expanded when it was heated. It will contract

   when cooled.

 Metals expand when heated and contract when cooled.

2) The chick embryos are chopped up and are put into a jar, then

   they are poured into a large flask. An enzyme is added to break

   down the tissue.

3) There is a choice in article for science and technology

       A. Tin resists corrosion by air or water.


                                     18
       B. Tin is resistant to corrosion by air or water.

       C. Tin has a resistance to corrosion by air or water.

Section 2 Structure of sentence in English for science and

technology

One sentence has subject, predicate verb, object and modifier parts.

The basic parts are subject and predicate. The modifier parts are attribute,

adverbial and complement.

 3.    Type of sentence

 1) Simple sentence

All of us must learn Dr. Bethune.

2)Compound sentence

After liberation the incidence of occupational and epidemic diseases has

dropped remarkably, the general health condition of the workers has

greatly improved.

3)Complex sentence

That China is a big country with all kinds of resources is well known.

The question was whether it was common cold or influenza.

We are know that red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest

of the body.

The air that animals breathe is a mixture of different gases.

Every bit of food eaten must be dissolved in water before it can be

absorbed and utilized.


                                     19
 4)Members of the sentence

 A.Subject

 Streptomycin preparations can be administered by a variety of methods.

 B.Predicate verb

Our country has a great future.

First aid should always first be directed toward the control of haemorrhage.

One of the functions of bone is to protect important organs.

 5)Predicative        Most colds appear to be communicable.

 6)Object

 We must hold ourselves responsible to the people.

 7)Complement

 We call the new method acupuncture anaesthesia.

 8)Attribute

 Normally, each beat of the heart cause a pulse in the arteries.

 9)Adverbial

 On clinical examination no changes in the animal’s condition were found.

 4.   Analysis of English for science and technology

 To find the subject, predicate ( how many ) and other parts.

 *e.g. In the early days of sea travel, seamen on long voyages lived

 exclusively on salted meat and biscuits. Many of them died of scurvy, a

 disease of the blood which causes swollen gums, livid white spots on the

 flesh and general exhaustion. scurvy: a disease (formerly common among


                                      20
sailors) marked by blooding and caused by not eating fruit and vegetables

(with vitamin C).

livid: pale

exhaustion: the state of being tired out

Chapter 4       Reading and translation of English for science and

technology

Section 1 Reading of English for science and technology

You must understand the article for reading.

The basic require for reading: pronunciation, words and grammar

The method of reading:

1) Extractive reading

2) Extensive reading

Section 2 Translation of English for science and technology

1. The calibrate of translation: confidence, clarity and volubility

1) Literal translation               2) Free translation

2. The method of translation

1) Understanding the words and sentences

From syntactical function to understand the meaning

A.Though usually of a round shape, the nucleus may sometimes be

elongated and rod-shaped, as in nonstriated muscle cells, or irregular in

shape, as in some white blood corpuscles.

B.An electron is an extremely small corpuscle with negative charge


                                     21
which rounds about the nucleus of an atom.C.The encouraging news

soon got round.

 In making the rounds the medical workers attach great importance

to the prevention of disease.

 Red rash developed round the neck in the wake of two day’s fever.

2) The meaning of word according to article up and down

   In recent reports of eight cases of viral hepatitis, four were seen with

acute urticaria in the preicteric phase.

Massive bleeding may not be brought under control in time. Such being

the case, prompt operation is indicated.

lFurther improvements in the instrumentation includes the fitting of a

small case containing ultrafine motor.

3) According to the partner of words known the meaning

general anesthesia,

general check-up,

general outline,

general peritonitis,

general pathology,

general secretary

4) Words change and extension                e.g. we, you, they

We have 365 days in a year.                You can never tell.

They say it is so.


                                      22
 The activity of this enzyme in these sites can be maintained at normal

levels by sulfate feeding.

2) Understand the sentence

 (1) Some times the members of sentence are ellipsis

* Just think of the difficult.

 To think that you should fail. (2) Using it , there



 It is no use trying.

 It is the people that are really powerful.



     It is thought that……



     It is supposed that……



               ree kinds of bacteria in the tube.

(3) Using parenthesis

     Even a slight lack of Vitamin C, for example, the vitamin most

plentiful in fresh fruit and vegetables, is thought to increase significantly

our susceptibility to colds and influenza.

3) What kind of sentence

(1)Simple sentence

    On meeting the ovum, the head of the spermatozoon penetrates it.


                                      23
 (2)Compound sentence

   It has long been known to bacteria experts that the tubercle bacillus is

the germ in milk which most strongly resists heat treatment.

4) known the word order

(1) Inverted word order in compound sentence

A. Only in our country can science serve the interest of the people.

B. It has been roughly estimated that forty percent of animal’s diseases

are the result of infection by bacteria.

C. Nutritional experiments have made it evident that vitamins are

indispensable for animal’s health and growth.

D. The lymph vascular system differs from the blood vascular system in

that it is not a circulatory system but simply a drainage system and

possesses no pump.

E. The truth is that men are developed from anthropoid apes.

F. There is a little doubt that antibiotics particularly those of the broad

spectrum, can be used to reduce secondary bacterial infection.

(2) Inverted word order in passive sentence

A. Vitamin K is not absorbed from the upper intestine.

verted word order in preposition sentence

She treats sick animals with a needle

(3) Separating sentence and adding some pronoun and conjunction

A nearby object falling into a black hole is never heard of a gain.


                                      24
4) Adding or reducing words

(1)Adding words

Some of the gases in the air are fairly constant in amount, while others

are not.

(2)Reducing words

         In the course of the same year, anthrax broke out in that area.

         Microoganisms are so small that they cannot be seen at all with the

naked eyes.

5) Changing translation

     It was not until 1959 that chemists succeeded in obtaining this

compound.

    He can not read the book without a dictionary.

6) expression true meaning

         The heart lies between the lungs, more to the left side than to the

right.

7) Logic relation

         There substances pass from the tissue fluid into the cells, while

waste products pass in the opposite direction.

8) Using Chinese custom

          He is too wise not to understand such things.

Section 3 Translation for long and difficult sentences

          English sentence is longer than Chinese, especially using article


                                        25
for Science and technology.

1) Analysis long sentence needs to find central words and sentence

pattern.

However great the joy with which he welcomed a new discovery in some

theoretical science whose practical application perhaps it was as yet quite

impossible to envisage, he experienced quite another kind of joy when the

discovery involved immediate revolutionary changes in industry, and in

historical development in general.

2) Known the subject and predicate and separation sentence

To separate long sentence for simple sentence and finding central words.

           reactions may occur in a large percentage of normal

individuals without evident hereditary predisposition.

                                                                     we say

that heat has been added to it.

3) Known the relation parts of sentences by conjunction

  While the process meets the presently accepted definitions of

emphysema, it may be simply anatomic consequence of aging.

  Just as a disturbance in metabolism of one metabolite will affect all

other metabolites, so a deficiency in the intake of one nutrient affect all

others.

There is little doubt that antibiotics, particularly those of the broad

spectrum can reduce secondary bacterial infections.


                                      26
  As has already been mentioned above, patients differ in their tissue

sensitivity.

Aggressive dosage of penicillin as high as 40,000,000 units per day in the

absence of untoward effects are required, which it can do only by

applying “push” doses.

  What has been found by necropsy is of almost importance.

4) Translation of Modifier attached to subject and predicate

(1)Attribute translation       * cardiac failure

 The advanced world levels



to the factors responsible for this upset.

                 aken in though the mouth, where it is chewed and mixed

with saliva, then it passes down the esophagus to the stomach, where the

food collects.

(2) Adverbial translation



early in life.

     rotene which is a precursor of vitamin A can be given in such large

amounts that it causes a yellowish discoloration of the skin which often is

mistaken for jaundice.

5) Translation for long sentence

(1) Translation by order of sentence


                                       27
* Here the emphasis is on disease as a process, and an effort is made to

explain the clinical picture by the pathological changes found in the tissue,

not only in the surgical pathology laboratory, but, it may be, in the

autopsy room, where the object is not merely to determine the cause of

death, but to study the particular disease in all its aspects and various, and

to correlate it with the signs and symptoms observed during life.

(2) reverse translation

                                                                   ed the

infection may be demonstrated seven to ten days after the onset of illness,

the maximal antibody response is observed two to four weeks after onset.

6)Renew and separating translation

                                                                        um of

patients in the early stages of acute viral hepatitis of varying proportions

(13-18%) of an antigen variously referred to as the Australia antigen, the

SH antigen and the hepatitis antigens.

Chapter 5 Writing abstract for English paper

Section 1 writing title

1.Title

1) Simple and understand



2)Using noun without predicate




                                      28
3)Using whole sentence for title without period

                              -carcinogenic for human colon cancer

4)Interrogative sentence for title with note of interrogation




5)Methods of written title:

(1) Capital the first word of first denominator of title

(2) Capital every word of first denominator of title without some empty

word, article and three denominator word ( conjunction and preposition)

but capital more than fore denominator word (with, from, after, before,

during, against and between etc.)

Outlook into the future: new perspectives to safeguard insecticides

The Pathway of Cell Death Induced by Lead in Wish Cells

2. Subtitle

To project some contains of paper e.g. cases, research method or different

parts of long paper topic. The title and subtitle can separated by different

size of words or colon.

  Abdominal pain in the emergency room: A study of 100 consecutive

cases

  Fatty liver syndrome in dairy cattle: A review



I. Oestradiol-17β


                                      29
Factors Affecting Uterine and Cervical Involution in the Cow and Ewe: II.

Progesterone

3. Compare the different of characteristic of title in Chinese and

English

1) # Study of……,

Study on……,

Investigation of……,

A report of……

Ultrasound in the diagnosis of cholestatic jaundice



2) Translation some Chinese Title to English

(1) Discussion, evaluation, approach, study and investigation etc.

Discussion on          treatment for fracture of

An evaluation of      patella by combined Chinese

An approach on        traditional and Western

 Study on                    Medicine

(2) Experience



                                                   -negative organisms

(3) Problem, aspect




                                    30
membrane

(4) Preliminary



                                             liver transplantation

4. Ellipsis front article of title and collocation of noun

1)Ellipsis article

                       -negative shock (the treatment)

2)Collocation of noun

(1) Study + of, on, in

      study           studies

(2) Report + of, on

(3) Survey + on or of

(4) Observation + of, on, or in

(5) Duce to,

      caused by

 # because of ,

      owing to



(6) After                 following



                                           wing) liver surgery.

Section 2 Written name, position and address


                                      31
1.Name of author



Alfred--first name,

Bernhard—second name, Nobel—last name

Albert Einstein       Albert—first name, Einstein—last name

To write the name of writer:

Whole words of first and last name,

ellipsis for second name

e.g. Alfred B. Nobel

2. Degree

The degree after name of article

e.g. Gary W. England, MD,

Joseph L. Allen, MD, PhD

M.B.(MB)=Bachelor of Medicine, M.S.(MS)=Master of science

Ph.D.(PhD)=Doctor of Philosophy

Abbreviate of membership of association of institute

FRCP=Fellow of the Royal College

 of Physicians

MRCVS=Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons

3.Organization

1)Department

e.g. Dept. of Physiology, University of California,


                                      32
SanFrancisco, Califorlia 94143

But in China using Teaching and Research Group             department

e.g. Normal Human Body Teaching and Research Group, Hubei Collage

of Traditional Chinese Medicine

Department of Histology and Embryology

Departments of Medicine and Surgery, Washington University, School of

Medicine

2) China using Group

           English using division, section

or unit

e.g. Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine

Laboratory in China

          Lab. or Research group

Section 3 Contents and structure of English summary

1.Voice

      More using passive voice of third personal pronoun (90%)

     Because it is emphasized in resorts or facts, it does not talk about

think of writer in article for science and technology.

     In general it does not using first or second personal pronoun.

Do not using

 I feel……,

 I think……,


                                      33
 I believe……

   If needs to using first personal pronoun in summary, it can use as

follows:

1)Using we instead of I

We still consider, due to the above, that the conservative method of

treatment should be used for treating the cow with retained fetal

membrane.

2)Using passive voice without writer

   Level of serum calcium were measured in 85 postpartum cows.

Using author instead of I, the authors instead of we

*The author(s) presents (present) the experience of treating 210 cases of

cows with clinical mastitis.

2.Tense

1)Past tense Because research work is finished when author write paper.

     The effect of imipramine hydrochloride on blood pressure was

examined in a prospective and a retrospective study.

2)Past perfect tense

   The work beginning or finished before research

* Twenty six pluriparous Suffolk ewes, which had been inseminated,

were used to monitor uterine involution.

3) Present tense

Write or publish paper in present time


                                    34
that after slaughter indicates that such a method of monitoring uterine

involution macroscopically in fairly accurate.

Using verb in present time : report, describe, present, discuss

, review, emphasize and stress etc.



syndrome.

                                  and safe surgical procedure is justified in

selected cases.

4) Present perfect tense finish work before writinging



that it completed averagely in 37 days after parturition.

5) Future tense

 future work , predict result or future prospect



determinations will increase.

3.Contains of abstract

     Abstract (summary) is in front of text of article. There are about 200

words long. It contains purpose, methods, results and conclusion of

research. It is used past indefinite tense for research process and results,

present tense for conclusion.




                                      35
Effect of Exogenous PGF2a on Fertility of Postpartum Cow

                           Abstract

  Twenty-five mg of prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) was injected

intramuscularly to each of the 20 normally calved dairy cows within six

hours after calving to study the effect of the hormone on their subsequent

fertility. The cows with PGF2a injection had shorter intervals both from

calving to the completion of uterine involution and to the subsequent

conception as compared with the control group. Results suggest that 25

mg of exogenous PGF2a can improve the fertility of the postpartum cow.

4. Sentence pattern in abstract

1)Sentence pattern for expression conclusion

*Our results suggest that……,

* The data obtained suggest that……,

These observation strongly suggest that……

In conclusion,

we suggest that……,

*It is concluded that……

The data show that……,

*Data fail to confirm……

*It is recommended that……

Above sentences have suggest, propose or recommend with that guidance




                                      36
clause,

that clause uses subjunctive mood.

It is proposed that nonspecific ulcers of colon should be managed

conservatively.

2) Sentence pattern for expression purpose of research




The objectives of this study were to……




                              s made to……

  In an attempt to……

   In order to……

   In an effort to……

Expression approximate number

About, some, almost, nearly, over, above, more than, greater than,

Less than

The loss of water from the skin and respiratory tract approximates 750 ml

per day.

                        -induced ovarian disorder which persisted for 2

years or so.

Section 4 Examples of Writing abstract for English paper


                                     37
将以下论文标题和摘要写成英文

1.标题:我国禽病流行新动态

2.摘要:近 10 年来, 余种新禽病在我国出现,
             10          我国兽医科技工作者

对其进行了研究与报道。这些疾病大多为急性、烈性传染病,危害较

大,且大多病原没有确定。本文介绍了在我国出现并流行、危害养禽

业健康发展、可能尚未引起人们足够重视的几种新病,如鸡大肝大脾

病、雏鹅新型病毒性肠炎等,以期引起同行重视,并对禽病防治和研

究有一定的启发。

关键词:禽;疾病;流行动态

Gosling New poultry viral development enteritis disease epidemic

enterprise liver spleen

harmed occurred according recognize article appear recent harm

veterinarian acute          Epidemic Developments of New Poultry

Diseases in China

Abstract: With the development of poultry enterprises, more than ten new

diseases which harmed the poultry farms occurred accordingly, such as

big liver and spleen disease, new gosling viral enteritis, and some other

diseases. This article is briefly introduced on some new diseases, which

appeared and recognized in recent ten years.

  Key words: poultry, disease and epidemic development 请将以下中文

译成英文

题目:中华竹鼠大肠杆菌分离与鉴定


                                     38
摘要:从圈养状态下的中华竹鼠中分离出一株大肠杆菌,通过形态观

察、培养、生化试验、血清学鉴定和动物致病性试验,表明分离菌其

培养特性与生化特性为 O 血清型。它对中华竹鼠具有很强致病力。

关键词:

中华竹鼠; 大肠杆菌; 分离; 鉴定

Identification, isolation, bamboo, rat,Escherichia coli, strain, biochemical,

serotype, pathogenicity,

state, ring breeding Isolation and identification of Escherichia Coli in

Chinese Bamboo Rat

Abstract: One strain of Escherichia coli was isolated from Chinese

bamboo rat in the state of ring breeding. It showed that the strain had

almost the same cultural and biochemical characteristics, with O serotype

and high pathogenicity by observation of biochemistry test, serotype

identification and pathogenicity test.

Key words: bamboo rat; escherichia coli; isolation; identification 请将以

下中文译成英文:

题目:昆明小鼠体内寄生虫净化技术研究

摘要:本文用 0.04mg/kg 剂量的吡喹酮(Pyquton)对昆明小鼠体内寄

生虫进行了药物净化,从血液学、生化学和病理学等方面,对用药动

物进行了观察。结果表明:吡喹酮不但是一种有效、安全的的昆明小

鼠多种体内寄生虫净化药物,而且对昆明小鼠没有损害。因此它是一

种实验小鼠体内寄生虫净化的候选药物之一。


                                     39
关键词:昆明小鼠;吡喹酮;药物净化

technique, cleaning, Kunming mice, safe, efficient, damage, choose,

technique Study on Cleaning Technique for Endoparasite in Kunming

Mice

Abstract: Using dosage 0.04 mg/kg Pyquiton to clean endoparasite in

Kunming mice. The results indicated that Pyquiton is not only safe and

efficient, but also is no damage to mice under observing hematology,

biochemistry and pathology as cleaning drug for endoparasite.

Therefore, Pyquiton is one of choosing drugs for cleaning endoparasite.

Key words: kunming mice; pyquiton; endoparasite; cleaning tecnique

PROTECTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES TO THEILERIA ANNULATA

OF RELEVANCE TO VACCINE DEVELOPMENT

PATRICLA M. PRESTON, ASTRID VISSER AND A. ABRAHAM

Division of Biological Science, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, U.K.

SUMMARY

    A series of projects on Theileria annulata funded by the European

Union have provided convincing evidence that macrophage and natural

killer (NK) cell-dependent immune mechanisms may directly control the

proliferation of different stages of T. annulata in cattle. The evidence for

this conclusion and the implications for vaccine development are

discussed in the following paper. MACROSCHIZONTS OF THEILERIA

ANNULATA AS VACCINE AND DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS


                                     40
J.S. Ahmed1, P. Shayan1, F.U. Hugel1, R. Biermann1,

Ch. Ewald2

1Forschungszentrum Borstel; 2Tierarztlische Ambulanz Schwarzenbek

der Freien Universitat, Berlin

Summary

     T. annulata-infected cells present infection-associated peptides.

These peptides represent target molecules of the cytotoxic acting cells.

Their preparation and characterization may help to develop a sub-unit

vaccine. Our studies show that macroschizont-infected bovine cells can

be used as parasite antigen in serology for the detection of arasite-specific

antibodies in serum of infected animals. Primers derived from the

macroschizont of T. annulata can be used as molecular tools for the

detection of parasite DNA in blood samples of cattier cattle.



Chapter 6     Basic knowledge for Animal Science and veterinary

medicine

Lesson 1 THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

       The circulatory system is the transport system that supplies O2 and

substances absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract to the tissues, returns

CO2 to the lungs and other products of metabolism to the kidneys,

functions in the regulation of body temperature, and distributes hormones

and other agents that regulate cell function. The blood, the carrier of these


                                     41
substances, is pumped through a closed system of blood vessels by the

heart, which in mammals is really 2 pumps in series with each other .

From the left ventricle, blood is pumped through the arteries and

arterioles to the capillaries, where the blood equilibrates with the

interstitial fluid. The capillaries drain throuth venules into the veins and

back to the right atrium. This is the major (systemic) circulation.

From the right atrium, blood flows to the right ventricle, which pumps it

through the vessels of the lungs- the lesser (pulmonary) circulation- and

the left atrium to the left ventricle. In the pulmonary capillaries, the blood

equilibrates with the O2 and CO2 in the alveolar air.

Some tissue fluids enter another system of closed vessels, the lymphatic,

which drain lymph via the thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct into

the venous system (the lymphatic circulation).

The circulation is controlled by multiple regulatory systems that function

in general to maintain adequate capillary blood flow- when possible, in

all organs, but particularly in the heart and brain.

New words and phrases

Circulatory system       循环系统

interstitial                      间质的

Gastrointestinal           胃肠的

venule          小静脉

vein            静脉                           atrium              心房


                                      42
hormone         激素                          pulmonary      肺的

vessel          脉管                         alveolar          肺泡的

ventricle       心室                          lymphatic      淋巴的

capillary     毛细血管                          thoracic duct 胸导管

equilibrate     平衡



Lesson 2      Metabolism

     The endocrine system, like the nervous system, adjusts and

correlates the activities of the various body systems, making them

appropriate to the changing demands of the external and internal

environment .

Endocrine integration is brought about by hormones, chemical

messengers produced by ductless glands that are transported in the

circulation to target cells, where they regulate the metabolic processes .

The term metabolism, meaning literally “change”, is used to refer to all

the chemical and energy transformations that occur in the body.

The animal organism oxidizes carbohydrates, proteins, and fats,

producing principally CO2, H2O, and the energy necessary for life

processes. CO2, H2O, and energy are also produced when food is burned

outside the body.




                                     43
However, in the body, oxidation is not a one step, semi-explosive reaction

but a complex, slow, stepwise process called catabolism, which liberates

energy in small, usable amounts.

Energy can be stored in the body in the form of special energy-rich

phosphate compounds and in the form of proteins, and complex

carbohydrates synthesized from simpler molecules. Formation of these

substances by processes that take up rather than liberate energy is called

anabolism.

New words and Phrases

Metabolism             新陈代谢

endocrine               内分泌

integration            综合,一体化

messenger             信使

oxidize               氧化

oxidation                 氧化

Catabolism             分解代谢

 phosphate             磷酸盐

 anabolism             合成代谢




Lesson 3 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

      The respiratory system, is made up of the gas-exchanging organs


                                     44
(the lungs and respiratory passages) and a pump that ventilates the lungs.

The pump consists of the chest wall, the respiratory muscles, which

increase and decrease the size of the thoracic cavity; the centers in the

brain that .control the muscles.; and the tracts and nerves that connect the

brain to the muscles.

      Respiration, as the term is generally used, includes 2 processes:

External respiration, the absorption of 02 and removal of CO2 from the

body as a whole; and internal respiration, the utilization of 02 and

production of CO2 by cells and the gaseous exchanges between the cells

and their fluid medium.

      The respiratory passages that lead from the exterior to the alveoli

do more than serve as gas conduits. They humidify and cool or warm the

inspired air so that even very hot or very cold air is at or near body

temperature by the time it reaches the alveoli. Bronchial secretions

contain secretory immunoglobulins (IgA) and other substances that help

to resist infections and maintain the integrity of the mucosa.

      The pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMS), the dust cells, are

important components of the pulmonary defence mechanisms. Like other

macrophages, these cells come originally from the bone marrow. They are

actively phagocytic and ingest inhaled bacteria and small particles.

       In addition to the gas exchange and defence, the lungs have a

number of metabolic functions. They manufacture surfactant which


                                     45
adjusts surface tension during breathing, helps to prevent pulmonary

edema and aids to the infant respiration. They also contain a fibrinolytic

system that lyses clots in the pulmonary vessels. In lungs, some

biologically active substances are removed from the blood, but some axe

synthesized and released into the blood. The lungs also activate one

hormone; the physiologically inactive decapeptide angiotensin I is

converted to the pressor, aldosterone-stimulating octapeptide angiotesin

II.

      New Words and Phrases

      Respiration.n.呼吸               macrophage.n.巨噬细胞

      to be made up of 由……组成             phagocytic.a.吞噬作用的

      respiratory passage 呼吸道            surfactant.n.表面活性剂

      thoracic. a.胸的、胸廓的                 edema.n.水肿

      tract.n.(神经)径、束、道             fibrinolytic.a.血纤维蛋白溶解的

      alveoli.n. 肺泡(复)               decapeptide. n 十肽.

      bronchial.a.支气管的               angiotensin I 血管紧张肽 I

      immunoglobulin.n.免疫球蛋白 aldosterone.n.醛固酮

      infection.n.感染                     octapeptide.n.八肽

      integrity.n.完整、完善                  angiotensin II 血管紧张肽 H



Lesson 4 Digestion and Absorption

      The gastrointestinal system is the portal through which nutritive


                                    46
substances, vitamins, minerals and fluids enter the body. Proteins, fats,

and complex carbohydrates are broken down into absorbable units

(digested) , principally in the small intestine. The products of digestion

and the vitamins, minerals, and water cross the mucosa and enter the

lymph or the blood (absorption).

    Digestion of the major foodstuffs is an orderly process involving the

action of a large number of digestive enzymes. Some of these enzymes

are found in the secretions of the salivary glands, the stomach, and the

exocrine portion of the pancreas. Other enzymes are found in the luminal

membranes and the cytoplasm of the cells that line the small intestine.

The action of the enzymes is aided by the: hydrochloric acid secreted by

the stomach and the bile secreted by the liver.

      The mucosal cells in the small intestine have a brush border made

up of numerous microvilli lining their apical surface. This border is rich

in enzyrnes. It is lined on its luminal side by a layer that is rich in neutral

and amino sugars, the glycocalyx . The membranes of the mucosal cells

contain glycoprotein enzymes that hydrolyze carbohydrates and peptides,

and the glycocalyx is made up in part of the carbohydrate portions of

these glycoproteins that extend into the intestinal lumen. Next to the

brush border mad glycocalyx is a 100- to 400µm unstirred water layer

(UWL) similar to the UWL adjacent to other biologic membranes.

Solutes must diffuse across the UWL to reach the mucosal cells. The


                                      47
mucous coat overlying the cells also constitutes a significant barrier to

diffusion.

      Substances pass from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract to the

extracellular fluid and thence to the lymph and blood by diffusion,

facilitated diffusion, solvent drag, active transport, secondary active

transport (coupled transport), and endocytosis. Most substances must pass

from the intestinal lumen into the mucosal cells and then out of the

mucosal cells to the extracellular fluid, and the processes responsible for

movement across the luminal cell membrane are often quite different

from those responsible for movement across the basal and lateral cell

membranes to

the extracellular fluid.

  New Words and Phrases

     digestion.n.消化              pancreas.n.胰

     absorption. n.吸收            hydrochloric acid 盐酸

     small intestine 小肠         bile.n.胆汁

     muosa. n.黏膜                 brush border 刷状缘

     enzyme.n.酶                  microvilli.n.微绒毛

     salivary gland 唾液腺          glycocalyx.n.腊梅糖

     stomach.n.胃                 glycoproteinn.n.糖蛋白

     exocrine.n.外分泌              hydrolyze.n.水解

endocytosis.n.内吞噬作用 unstirred water layer (UWL) 稳定水层


                                    48
   Chapter 7 Specific knowledge for Animal Science and

veterinary medicine

Lesson 1       Diagnosis of diseases

   A cow lies in the middle of the pasture after the herd has moved in to

be milked. The owner looks closely at the cow and urges her to get up.

She makes a feeble attempt to rise but is either unable or too depressed to

try. Is the cow injured? Has she become intoxicated by something she ate?

Does she have a severe systemic infection? Is there some functional

change in her nervous system, digestive system, or urogenital system?

The process of determining the nature of disease is diagnosis. Making a

diagnosis is a systematic process of collecting all the facts and making an

objective evaluation of them while considering all that is known about

specific diseases and their signs .

  Why make a diagnosis? In the example of the “downer” cow, a

diagnosis is necessary for the protection of the rest of the herd, it must be

eliminated to prevent further loss. Of secondary importance is the correct

approach to restoring the cow to health, which depends on determining

the nature of the disease.

  Most diagnosticians have learned not to jump to conclusions, even

when apparently clear-cut signs point to specific diseases. The chance for

error from hasty and superficial evaluation is great. Facts to be evaluated


                                      49
are collected by questioning the owner and examining records, if

available, regarding all the information about the health of the herd,

current production, reproduction status, nutrition, previous sickness and

treatment, vaccinations, recent actions and behavior, and signs the owner

may have noticed.

     Then, a careful examination of the cow is made to collect signs of

altered structure or function. This physical examination involves an

appraisal of the overall appearance of the cow, her general condition, and

mental attitude.

     It also includes the collection of indices to her general condition by

determining the body temperature, respiratory rate and quality, and pulse

rate and quality. Increase in body temperature or fever may be an

indication of systemic infection or may simply indicate high

environmental temperature. Decrease in body temperature could indicate

intoxication. An increase in respiration could indicate excitement

, fever, lung infection, or anemia. Pulse condition and rate are affected by

pain, fever, blood volume, and general circulatory changes. Absence of

changes from the normal in any of these values is just as important as the

presence of a change.

     The examination proceeds by evaluation of each system (i.e.,

circulatory, respiratory, digestive, nervous, musculoskeletal, urogenital),

separately or concurrently, in as much detail as necessary.


                                     50
By doing so, the diagnostician continues to collect facts as to what is

normal and what is altered. If the exact disease is still questionable after a

complete physical examination is made, it may be necessary to collect

tissues, blood, secretions, or excretions for laboratory analysis.

Other diagnostic tools, such as radiographs, may help but are

inconvenient to use in an open pasture.

  Once the diagnosis is made, the course of action selected to control or

prevent the disease from affecting the rest of the herd and to treat the cow

can be initiated.

If the disease is metabolic, nutritional changes can be made. If the disease

I infections, steps must be taken to prevent the other cattle from contact.

If the disease is intoxication, the source, plant or chemical, must be found

and removed.

If the disease is due to a tumor or individual anomaly, the herds is not

threatened. If the disease is traumatic, the cause must be determined and

eliminated.

The need for and benefit from diagnosis of a sick animal or animals in a

herd are obvious. But, what if the cow in the example were already dead?

The need to protect the herd is still present, perhaps even more urgently

because the cause can kill. Since farm animals usually condesed into

herds, the losses from disease can be rapid and severe unless immediate

active steps are taken to remove or block the cause and protect


                                      51
susceptible animals. Losses can be reduced by making certain that no sick

or dead animal is undiagnosed. Veterinarians are trained in the art of

diagnosis. The objective of their education and experience is

fundamentally to develop an understanding of the signs of disease and the

effects of disease processes.

Diagnosis n. 诊断                 feeble a. 虚弱的

depressed a. 抑郁                 Urogenital a. 尿生殖的

sign n. 症状                      downer n. 卧地不起者

Climinate vt. 消除                restore vt. 恢复

clear-cut a. 明显的                Hasty a. 仓促的

superficial a. 肤浅               vaccination n. 接种

Appraisal n. 评价                 mental attitude 精神状态

Anemia n. 贫血                    concurrently ad. 共同

radiograph n. 射线照相              Traumatic a. 创伤性

carcass n. 尸体                    postmortem a. 死后的

Necropsy n. 尸体解剖                 veterinarian n. 兽医



Lesson 2 Use of drugs and control of diseases

      Sick animals in a herd are an expensive nuisance and also may

harbor, grow and shed organisms dangerous to the healthy animals. The

obvious solution is to isolate them, get them well, or get rid of them.




                                     52
Getting rid of them while they are sick may be possible by unloading

them on an unsuspecting buyer.

     However, this not only may be illegal but also increases the

possibilities of spreading and perpetuating a disease problem. Getting rid

of sick animals by examination and burial may be practical in some

instances, but it eliminates the possibility of their potential value.

If there is an economical cure for whatever affects the sick animal,it is

usually feasible to attempt to restore the animal to health. Treatment or

therapy to restore health is directed toward aiding the natural r3epair

process to return the animal to normal function or structure. Treatment

may be undertaken by using medicines or drugs, by surgical intervention,

or by time and nursing. Frequently, the best method for restoration is

patient nursing without any interference with the healing process except

through enforced rest in a comfortable environment. The livestock

producer is not usually inclined to be patient in dealing with sick animals.

Furthermore, his operation is tightly geared for maximum efficiency of

production of healthy animals. The provision of extra labor and facilities

for a sick bay or a hospital is not always feasible, and consequently, there

is a strong tendency to seek a quick effective cure by a medicine or drug.

The use of medication, especially to suppress or cure infectious diseases,

is frequently necessary as well as economically feasible. The use of

medication, especially to suppress or cure infectious diseases, is


                                      53
frequently necessary as well as economically feasible.

  There are medicines or drugs for all purposes. Drugs can substitute for

the function of organs, drugs can stimulate functions, drugs can slow

down the actions or movement of structures, drugs can speed up

movement, dugs can cause contraction or expansion, drugs can dilate and

contract blood vessels, drugs can reduce pain, drugs can create euphoria

or a sense of well-being, and so on.

     There are medicines or drugs for all purposes. Drugs can substitute

for the function of organs, drugs can stimulate functions, drugs can slow

down the actions or movement of structures, drugs can speed up

movement, dugs can cause contraction or expansion, drugs can dilate and

contract blood vessels, drugs can reduce pain, drugs can create euphoria

or a sense of well-being, and so on.

     However, because these agents are added to nature’s effort to heal,

they may cause damage (side effects) and they may remain in the body as

a residue. Because the main purpose of farm animals is the production of

food for human consumption, these residues of drugs are potentially a

part of the human diet. Investigations have indicated that residues in meat,

milk, or animal products are harmful to people if consumed.

     As testing techniques because more sensitive and as knowledge of

harmful effects increases, more and more restrictions are being placed on

the use of drugs for food-producing animals. Regulations for withdrawal


                                       54
time of drugs before marketing meat or milk are stringent. The antibiotics

are most commonly used for livestock to control or cure infectious

diseases. Antibiotics reduce the number of microorganisms (primarily

bacteria) responsible for infections. Some antibiotics are effective against

certain bacteria and ineffective against others. None is directly effective

against viruses and some actually help to stimulate the growth of some

types of bacteria. Some antibiotics can be given to animals either orally

or by injection. Some can be given only by injection. When some

antibiotics are given orally to ruminants, their effect is either harmful or

nonexistent.

  Some antibiotics can be effective when added to feed or drinking water.

All antibiotics have definite characteristics as to what type of organism

they affect, how much is required to be effective, how they are eliminated

from the body, and how long and where they remain in body tissues.

Present regulations require that no residues of antibiotics can appear in

meat or milk sold for human consumption. Antibiotics are effective not

only for restoring health but also for preventing infections. Extensive

unnecessary use of antibiotics as a substitute for other management

practices is unwarranted and unproductive.

     However, they may by indicated as a means of precautionary support

to stressed animals, e.g., after shipping. They are also indicated as support

to an animal suffering from a viral infection to avoid secondary bacterial


                                      55
infection. Their use as routine additions to feeds for growth stimulation or

disease prevention is controversial and is considered by many to be a

poor substitute for good husbandry.

  The introduction of medicines to an animal’s body can aid in restoring

normal function. However, the indiscriminate use and overuse of

medicines may delay healing and can actually cause further damage to

normal functions. In the subsequent lessons describing specific diseases,

emphasis is places on means of prevention. In addition, if economical,

effective, therapeutic measures can contribute to disease control, they will

be indicated.

     Specific dosages and techniques may not be given because the

rapidly increasing knowledge of pharmacokinetics is continually altering

the concept of drug administration. The purpose of this text is to increase

the understanding of disease control and the understanding of the

limitations of therapy. Specific dosages and techniques may not be given

because the rapidly increasing knowledge of pharmacokinetics is

continually altering the concept of drug administration. The purpose of

this text is to increase the understanding of disease control and the

understanding of the limitations of therapy.

New words and phrases




                                      56
Burial 埋葬                     residue 残留

Therapy 治疗                 restriction 限制

Surgical 手术的             withdrawal 停药

Nursing 护理                antibiotic 抗生素

Suppress 抑制            Orally 口服

Contraction 收缩          injection 注射

Expansion 扩张            precautionary 预防的

euphoria 欣快症            pharmacokinetics 药物动力学

Stimulate 刺激            Side effect 副作用



Lesson 3     BOVINE VIRUS DIARRHEA

     Bovine virus diarrhea is an acute or chronic contagious and

infectious disease of cattle characterized by fever, nasal discharge,

coughing, profuse watery diarrhea, rapid dehydration, and emaciation.

Bovine virus diarrhea was first described in New York in 1946 and has

been found since that time by serological survey to be widespread

through all countries where cattle are produced. Up to 56% of adult cattle

have antibodies to this virus, and it is difficult to find baby calves, either

dairy or beef, without demonstrable antibodies.

Cause

   Bovine virus diarrhea is caused by one of several strains of a virus. All

strains are serologically and immunologically related, although some are


                                       57
cytopathogenic whereas others are not. Manifestations of the disease vary

for each strain of the virus. The causative agent propagates in cell

cultures of sheep, goats, cattle, and embryonating egg.

Transmission

   The mode of transmission is through to be direct contact from

infected to susceptible cattle, but the exact method of transfer is not

known. The virus may be transmitted indirectly by contaminated feed,

water, and bedding, and by contact with fecal matter during the stage of

viremia. The disease often appears in a herd after the addition of

replacement cattle or after subjection to the stress of shipment. Subacute

signs appear in 1 or 2 animals, followed in a week to 10 days by a

fulminating out break in the herd.

Clinical Signs

       Bovine virus diarrhea is characterized by a chain of signs initially

of a respiratory nature: serous or mucous nasal discharge, labored

breathing, coughing, and elevated temperatures. In addition, an affected

animal usually appears gaunt as a result of decreased feed consumption

and diarrhea. Acute laminitis occurs occasionally. Other signs include

fatal anomalies, weak calves, muscular tremors, and incoordination.

Bovine virus diarrhea has a course of several days in adult dairy cattle.

The course in feedlot cattle, on an individual basis, is usually from 10

days to 2 or 3 weeks in acute outbreaks and from 4 to 6 weeks on a lot


                                      58
basis. Chronic cases extend over a period of months, and affected cattle

are finally sold or eventually die.

       The onset often is sudden, with temperatures ranging from 104 to

1060F. Because cattle can appear well with a high fever, the temperatures

of several animals in the herd should be checked. Depression is moderate

to severe; respirations and pulse are rapid. Affected cattle have almost no

appetite, however, they drink large amounts of water.

Moderate to severe nasal discharge occurs shortly after onset and may be

accompanied by a low, throaty, unproductive cough. The nasal discharge

is serous at first but, in chronic cases, may become mucopurulent and, in

severe cases, can cover the entire muzzle. The nasal mucosa may show

marked hyperemia, and at this stage, the disease may be confused with

infectious bovine rhinotracheitis or even shipping fever. In some

outbreaks, there may be many subclinical cases.

During the early febrile stage, the feces are hard and dry, and may be

covered with mucus and a few flecks of blood. Diarrhea may occur in

about 10% of cases. When present, it begins after the peak of the febrile

response has passed and may continue intermittently for 4 to 6 weeks or

even longer. The feces are watery and fetid, containing many bubbles and

long strings of mucus, they vary from yellowish to slate gray to red, when

more erythrocytes are present. Because diarrhea occurs so inconsistently

in affected cattle. The term “virus diarrhea” may be considered somewhat


                                      59
of a misnomer.

Dehydration is severe, and some affected animals lose considerable body

weight. The eyes are dull and sunken, and the skin becomes dry and

scurfy. The skin changes are particularly severe on the neck.

There are three distinct forms of bovine virus diarrhea. The inapparent

form is evidenced by mild symptoms and slightly elevated temperature.

However, because of the diphasic temperature pattern, the clinical

examination may reveal a temperature of from 102 to 1070F without

serious complications.

The acute or severe form is sudden in onset and involves an entire herd

with the full gamut of symptoms.

     The chronic form is likely to be an extension of the inapparent form.

It is characterized by rough hair coat, poor condition, persistent nasal

discharge, failure to gain weight, and lameness. Diagnosis

    A presumptive diagnosis can be made from clinical evidence and

postmortem lesions. A definitive diagnosis can be made by isolating the

virus from nasal discharges and blood during the acute febrile phase,

before circulating antibodies are formed. The virus can also be isolated

from the spleen and mesenteric lymph glands.

The most practical way to arrive at a definitive diagnosis is serologic.

Cross-protection or serum neutralization studies can be made with

paired-serum samples. The first or acute blood samples should be taken


                                     60
when the sick animal is first observed. A second or convalescent blood

sample should be taken 2 to 3 weeks later and processed the same way.

Ideally, there will be no bovine virus diarrhea antibodies in the first serum

sample, whereas the second will contain demonstrable antibodies.

Prevention

   The virus of BVD is ubiquitous. As a result, 60 to 80% of all cattle

have antibodies to the virus. Those that do not have antibodies are either

incapable of developing antibodies or have never been exposed to the

virus. Because the disease is so widespread and can cause economic

losses through abortions, weak or deformed calves, unthrifty cattle, and

death loss, protection provided by vaccination is usually necessary. The

exception to vaccination would be in the closed herd in which the disease

have never been diagnosed and whose area is free of the disease.

Treatment

     There is no specific treatment for cattle affected by BVD.

Appropriate supportive therapy to nourish and rehydrate severely sick

animals and antibiotics to suppress secondary bacterial infection are

indicated. Treatment of the acute and chronically affected cattle is

disappointing. Treatment of mild or subclinical disease is unnecessary.

Prevention

     The virus of BVD is ubiquitous. As a result, 60 to 80% of all cattle

have antibodies to the virus. Those that do not have antibodies are either


                                     61
incapable of developing antibodies or have never been exposed to the

virus. Because the disease is so widespread and can cause economic

losses through abortions, weak or deformed calves, unthrifty cattle, and

death loss, protection provided by vaccination is usually necessary.

     The exception to vaccination would be in the closed herd in which

the disease have never been diagnosed and whose area is free of the

disease.

New Words and Phrases

Bovine            a. 牛的           virus          n. 病毒

Viremia n. 病毒血症              subacute      a. 亚急性的

Nasal       a.     鼻的             fulminating     a. 急性的

Discharge n. 排出物           dehydration     n. 脱水

Mucous       a. 浆液的           emaciation        n. 消瘦

Labored breathing         呼吸困难

gaunt       a. 瘦削的

Strain n. 菌株、群                serological a. 血清学的

Laminitis n. 蹄叶炎

cytopathogenic a. 致细胞病变

Tremor      n. 震颤             feedlot        n. 饲养群(组)

Propagate        vt. 传播

mucopurulent       a. 粘液脓性的

Embryonating       a. 胚胎的


                                    62
transmission n. 传播

Rhinotracheitis n. 鼻气管炎

susceptible             a. 敏感的

Subclinical a. 亚临床的                 febrile     a. 发热的

Fetid             a. 恶臭的

mesenteric a. 肠系膜的

Abortion        a. 流产的

deformed calf        n. 畸形犊牛

   Lesson 4 LAMB MANAGEMENT

           The majority of lamb deaths occur in the first two weeks of life.

There are numerous causes of these early deaths (as well as later ones)

which may or may not be preventable through proper management. A list

of some of the major causes of death and the management procedures

which help overcome them follows.

   Injuries sustained during birth such as collection of fluids in the head,

liver rupture or fractured limbs or ribs can cause death in the new born

lamb. These often occur if the ewe becomes excited so she should be left

alone as much as possible during lambing. If assistance is required, it

must he provided in an extremely careful and gentle manner. Before

putting your hand into a ewe, wash your hands and arms and trim your

fingernails. Lubricate your hand and arm with medicinal liquid paraffin

or soap and water.


                                     63
    If the newborn lamb is not breathing, dean its mouth and nostrils of

mucus and membranes then blow gently into the nostrils then gently slap

it over the heart.

    If the newborn lamb does not suckle or if, for some reason, the ewe

does not milk , the lamb will die of starvation. If the ewe will not allow

the lamb to suckle or has no milk the shepherd must take corrective

action. In many cases if .there has been a difficult or disturbed birth, the

ewe tends to be nervous and will force the lamb away. She often will

settle down within several hours and, if closely confined in a lambing pen

with the lamb, will accept it. If' not, it may be necessary to tie the ewe's

head and assist the lamb to suckle. Very small or weak lambs may also

require help in: suckling

     If the ewe has no milk, attempts should be made to force the lamb

on a ewe which has lost her lamb, or on one which has sufficient milk to

rear two lambs. There are several ways of fostering lambs including

wrapping the foster lamb in the pelt of the dead lamb or, if both are alive,

soaking both thoroughly in salt water to cover the smell of the lambs so

the ewe does not know which lamb is hers. Some times smearing faeces

from her own lamb on a ewe's nose will cause her to accept a foster lamb.

Carefully observe the ewes when fostering lambs as they may try to butt

strange lambs and may injure them. Rearing orphan lambs on a bottle is

not advised since the death rate is high and the problems encountered


                                     64
with these "pet" lambs are many. Bottle rearing also requires special ewe

milk substitute if it is to be successful,

    If the lambs are exposed to long periods of cold, wet weather, many

may succumb to pneumonia. The obvious method of prevention is to

provide shelter during such weather. As the lambs grow older, they

become less susceptible to exposure.

     The faeces which result from colostrums are very sticky. This may

stick the tail to the anus and dry so the lamb is unable to defaecate.

Lambs should be watched and the faeces removed if it appears, to be a

problem.

     If the lamb suffers an open wound or if the ewe is assisted during

lambing without proper sanitary precautions being taken, the organism

Clostridium tetani which causes tetanus may be introduced.

     Prevention requires use of rigid sanitary procedures and, where

tetanus is a problem, all ewes should be immunized with the toxoid with

two injections 30 to 60 days apart. An annual booster should be given just

prior to lambing.

     Enterotoxemia (pulpy kidney, overeating disease, apoplexy) is

caused by a sudden release of toxins by bacteria of the genus Clostridium

in the digestive tract as a result of stress. The disease has high mortality

and there is no cure.: Prevention depends on: good management i. e.,

make changes of feed slowly, minimize the worm burden in the lambs


                                       65
and be sure ample feed is available at' all times and vaccinate the ewes 6

to 8 weeks and again 2 to 4 weeks, prior to lambing. This confers

immunity on the lambs for the first few weeks of life. All lambs should be

vaccinated at 12 weeks of age. Do not deworm lambs before vaccination

unless the ewes were vaccinated.

    Dogs and other predators can create havoc in a lamb flock.

Precautions must be taken to keep such predators out of the flock. If,

however, lambs are killed by predators, the carcass remains should be left

as they are but injected with toxaphene which will poison the predators

should they return to the kill as they often do . Do not forget to tell your

neighbours that you are putting out poison. Before putting out poison

check that iris legal!

    As pointed out previously, if any sort of selection programme is to be

carried out, it is imperative that each individual animal he identified and

ree6rds kept, Sheep can be identified by ear tags, tattoos or ear notches.

For lamb production, records kept should include lambing results, birth

weights and 12 and 18 week weights;Comparison of these,weights

provides an indication of the quality of the lambs and the mothering

ability of the ewes Tweleve weeks is a convenient time for weighing as

                                                                   The
the lamb can also be vaccinated against enterotoxemia at this time. l8

week weighing should occur at or just prior to weaning.For wool type

Sheep, one should also keep records d the wool production of the lambs


                                     66
when shearlings.

     New words and phrases

   Anus ([复]anus(es).n . 肛门

   havoc .n. 大破坏; 浩劫

   apoplexy.n.中风

   lamb. n . 羊羔

   butt.vt.抵触,顶撞

   booster.n.辅助药剂,佐剂

   limb. n . 肢

   confine.vt.禁闭;舍饲

   nostril. n . 鼻孔

   Clostridium.n.梭状芽胞杆菌

   noteh. n . (V 字形) 刻痕; 切迹

   orphan. n . 无母幼畜

   confer.vt.赋与;赐予;授与

   paraffin. n . 石蜡; 石蜡油

   deworm.vt.驱虫;灭虫

   pelt n . 毛皮; 生皮

   dock.vt.断尾

   enterotoxemia.n.羊传染性肠毒病

   fingernail.n.指甲

   foster. vt . 护养; 扶养


                              67
    genus. n . 类; 属

    shearling.n.剪过一次毛的羊;一岁半

             ,n.毒杀芬;氯化莰烯
    toxaphene.

    tattoo.n.(皮肢上的) 刺标;刺字

    trim.vt.修剪;修整

    pulpy kidney 髓样肾;肠毒血症;魏氏梭菌病

    tetanus.vt.破伤风

    toxoid.n.类毒素

    extensive sheep farm 粗放式牧羊场.



Lesson 5       PARASITES

      Livestock management is continuously challenged to control the

effect of parasites. The job of achieving efficient production and

maintaining healthy animals is difficult enough without the added

disadvantage of feeding and nourishing a parasite population,

      When an animal harbors a parasite that lives either in or on it, that

animal is a host. Parasites can be considered in two general categories.

External parasites live on or are nourished by the outside of an animal.

These are arthropods, such as lice, flies, fleas , ticks, and mites. Internal

parasites are usually associated with the digestive system and are

commonly considered as worms or a larval form of them. Exampies of

internal parasites are round worm, tapeworm, flukes and nematodes.


                                      68
      Parasites reproduce themselves and may live parts of their stages of

life free in the environment or on other hosts. As a consequence, they are

difficult to control, difficult to eradicate, and are constantly affecting the

growth and health of animals. Internal parasites not only deprive the host

of nourishment required to sustain the parasite but also damage the

tissues they invade.

      Ostertagia Ostertagi (internal parasites):

      Ostertagia ostertagi, the medium stomach worm of cattle, is an

economically significant parasite. The adults are found on the mucosa of

the abomasums, where male and female mate and produce eggs. Eggs are

passed out of the digestive tract in feces. Depending on the conditions of

temperature and moisture, the eggs will hatch and larval stages will

develop. Adverse weather during winter reduces the chances of survival

of :free living stages. Under ideal conditions, larvae reach the infective

stage in 2 weeks or less. The infective stage could Survive in soil or

vegetation for several months. Cattle, as the host, ingest the infective

stage along with vegetation. The larvae enter and live in the mucosa of

the abomasum for a varying period. Infective larvae can develop into the

adult stage in 3 weeks. However, this development may be inhibited or

delayed for as long as 6 months. This delay may be caused by the

immunity of the host, but research indicates it is more likely caused by

conditioning of the infective larval stage in a cold environment prior to


                                       69
ingestion.

Clinical signs of diarrhea and unthriftiness occur when the young adult

parasites emerge from the gastric mucosa. At this time, there are

considerable changes in the stomach wall, which becomes thickened and

red around the white nodular areas where the adult emerged . The number

of parasites determines the extent of damage and the severity of clinical

signs.

         This information suggests several possibilities for control. The first

and most obvious is to deprive the free-living, infective stage of the

larvae of a host for a sufficient time to, prevent survival. This would

require removing cattle from potentially infected pastures for several

months, possibly, over winter, and may not be economically feasible. The

second possibility is to prevent the adult females from producing eggs to

perpetuate the cycle. At present, the administration of drugs, to infected

cattle destroys the adults. This relieves the host from the burden of

supporting the parasites and reduces egg contamination. The larval stages

remain embedded in the gastric mucosa and must: be dealt with as they

emerge. In severe infestations, administering antiparasitic drugs every 10

days eventually eliminates supply of infective larvae.

     Sheep Scab or Scablies (external parasites)

         This disease has been economically significant and debilitating to

sheep. The life cycle of the mite is short and is completed entirely on


                                        70
sheep as the host. The female and male adults feed on the skin of the host.

The female lays her eggs on the edge of the lesion on the skin. Tiny,

six-legged larvae emerge from the egg and develop into eight-legged

nymphs and then into eight-legged adults. Adults are 0.6 to 0.8 man in

length and can be seen if scraped from the edges of the lesion, The mite

is host specific and does not survive for long when not on the host.

Transfer from animal to animal is by direct contact.

      The life cycle, which is completed on the host, gives no alternative

for control. The mite must be killed while on the host. Because of the

cycle, the mite cannot exist in any form. in the environment except on an

infected sheep. Since there are no intermediate hosts or larval forms to

perpetuate the mite other than on the animal, eradication is more possible.

Methods used include dipping or spraying with 0.5 % toxaphene and

preventing movement of infected sheep.

      Diagnosis of Parasitism

      Such clinical signs as debilitation, progressive loss of weight,

anemia, diarrhea, loss of hair coat or wool, itching, rubbing, or skin

lesions are characteristic of many diseases. Such general signs should

alert the diagnostician to the possibility of a parasitic disease.

Confirmation of parasitic disease must be made by finding direct

evidence of the presence of parasites in or on the animal in sufficient

numbers to cause disease.


                                       71
      The evidence required for confirming the existence of internal

parasites is usually available in the feces in the form of eggs or larvae or

adult stages. There are various laboratory techniques and methods for

recovering eggs and larval forms from feces, Adults may be grossly

visible. Forms of external parasites may be seen in the form of eggs

attachedto hairs, or the adult mite or louse may be seen on the skin.

Microscopic forms may be scraped from the edges of lesions caused by

external parasites.

      Effective control of any parasite depends on measures to interrupt

its life cycle. To interrupt life cycles that have variable characteristics,

one must, identify the parasite. A diagnosis of parasitism is not complete

without identifying the specific parasite involved.

      As noted in the examples cited, C0ntrol measures are adapted not

only to the life cycle of the parasite but also to the susceptibility of forms

of the parasite to various drugs. There are two critical considerations for

using drugs to rid animals of parasites:

        1. The drug used must be tolerated by the host at the level of

dose required.

      2. The drug must not leave residues in the animal that could be

toxic or harmful to people if the animal is to be used for food production.

Lesson 6      PNEUMONIA OF CALVES

        Calves develop pneumonia in a variety of circumstances and as a


                                       72
result of infection with various organisms. One pneumonia is a part of

or :follows neonatal diarrhea of calves. This pneumonia is some times

called a pneumoenteritis syndrome. There is a viral pneumonia of calves

caused by the parainfluenza 3 virus. Another pneumonia is caused by

bacterial complication of the viral pneumonia. Some pneumonias result

from extension of viruses. Also, calves develop pneumonia as a sequel

to any debilitating disease.

        Pneumonia and Diarrhea

        Neonatal diarrhea was described before as causing excessive fluid

loss and dehydration. Tissue dehydration is detrimental to a defense

mechanism against respiratory infections; The normal lining of the

trachea and bronchii consists of specialized epithelial cells. with hairlike

cilia. These hairlike projections create a reverse or outward current to

expel foreign material and exudate from the lungs. If there is excessive

fluid loss from tissue cells because of diarrhea, the cells of the lining of

the trachea and bronchii are shrunken and cannot perform the function of

removing exudate from the lungs. The result is the inability to repel

infecting bacteria and the pooling of exudate in the lungs, For an already

weakened calf,, this result is often fatal.

      Signs of pneumonia in a newborn calf that is already suffering from

a severe diarrhea may be insufficient to attract attention. When the calf

starts to recover from the diarrhea, it is usually noticed to be breathing


                                       73
rapidly and to have, a temperature of 103 to,105 F. Appetite is poor, and

the calf is dull and depressed. The muzzle may become dry, and a

purulent nasal discharge develops. Unless signs of respiratory infection

are noticed early; the calf usually dies.

      Prevention is based on keeping the calf in a dry, well-ventilated

area away from aerosol contact with other calves. Damp, poorly cleaned,

and unventilated barns with a strong ammonia odor can cause respiratory

infection even without the stress of; dehydration and diarrhea. Also,

because these are nursing calve care must be taken to prevent inhalation

of milk or electrolyte solutions. Nipples with large openings allow fluids

to flow faster than calves can nurse, especially if the bucket or bottle is

held too high above the calf's head.

        Treatment for pneumonia must be combined with relieving the

dehydration and correcting the fluid balance. Systemic antibiotics should

be started at the first indication of pneumonia and continued for several

days after: apparent recovery. Expectorants to loosen exudates and

stimulate coughing are also indicated. Although a variety of organisms

could be involved, a broad-spectrum 'antibiotic should be used unless

there is 'tune to culture exudates

        Viral Pneumonia or Enzootic Pneumonia of calves

      The most common virus to cause pneumonia in young calves is

parainfluenza 3. This virus is present in all countries, and 85% of adult


                                       74
cattle carry its antibodies. Maternal antibodies in colostrum give some

protection but are either present for an insufficient time or incapable of

defending against heavy exposure. Calves raised in a single building are

most susceptible because of transmission by air. The disease is mild if

uncomplicated and generally streets calves from 1 to 4 months of

age.

       Signs

       Clinical signs after exposure run a course of 5 to 8 days.

Lacrimation , conjunctivitis, increased mucoid discharge, inappetence,

mad general malaise are observed. Uncomplicated parainfluenza infection

is characterized as an upper respiratory infection of sudden onset, with a

temperature ranging from 104 to 108 F. Early in the infection, many

animals show an initial high fever with no other evidence of clinical

illness. In some animals, the elevated temperature persists for 25

to 48 hours and may be followed by prompt recovery. Most animals

remaining febrile for more than 2 days show anorexia and mild

depression and develop a dry, hacking cough with a clear, serous

discharge.

       An increase in respiration is a common clinical observation, and

labored breathing is present in some cases. There appears to be no

hypersalivation in uncomplicated eases, and diarrhea is, not noted.

Morbidity may reach 100%, although fatalities in uncomplicated cases


                                      75
are virtually nonexistent.

      Diagnosis

             Diagnosis can be confirmed ,by virus isolation and: tissue

culture inhibition study. Presumptive diagnosis can be made from history,

clinical signs, and failure to isolate any causal bacterial pathogens. An

acute or mild upper-respiratory infection of short duration with

concurrent leukopenia and absence of other findings is suggestive of

parainfluenza.

      Prevention

      Because the disease is so easily transmitted to susceptible calves by

inhaling air contaminated by the virus exhaled by infected calves, healthy

calves must be separated from infected calves. Ventilation and sanitation

for housed calves must be sufficient to "keep the air clean." Calf barns are

notorious for air heavy with an ammonia odor and dampness. Although

direct draft should be avoided, it is preferable to poor ventilation. I and

many others believe that calves are healthier when staked out and widely

separated atop a well-drained hill than when kept in a barn.

      Vaccines are recommended for the protection of healthy animals

against the respiratory disease. Because maternal antibodies may persist

in calves until 4 or 5 months of age, vaccination is particularly

recommended at 2 or 3 weeks prior to weaning of beef calves.

      Treatment


                                      76
      As with other viral diseases, there are no specific therapeutic agents.

Antibiotics are of value only in preventing complications caused by

secondary bacterial agents, Uncomplicated parainfluenza pneumonia is

best treated by avoiding all possible stress.




                                      77

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:2
posted:10/17/2012
language:Unknown
pages:77