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GEOPOLITICS

VIEWS: 2 PAGES: 40

									Political Geography
 Knowing where countries are is
  considered “old school” but without
  such knowledge, you lack a basic
  frame of reference: Knowing where
  things are. It is like translating an
  article in a foreign language by
  looking up each word in a dictionary.
STATE:
 An area organized into a political unit
  and ruled by an established
  government that has control over its
  internal and foreign affairs. It
  occupies a defined territory on the
  earth’s surface and contains an
  permanent population.
Sovereignty:
 A state’s independence from control
  of its internal affairs by other states.
1933 Montevideo Convention:
 The state as a person of international
  law should possess the following
  qualifications: (a) a permanent
  population; (b) a defined territory;
  (c) government; and (d) capacity to
  enter into relations with the other
  states.
Declarative Theory of Statehood:
 "The political existence of the state is
  independent of recognition by the
  other states."
KOREA: One State or Two?
Korea:
 Former colony of Japan
 Divided into two zones post World
  War II (US and USSR)
 Superpowers est a gov’t and
  withdrew
 1950 N. Korea invaded S. Korea
 1953 cease-fire near 38th parallel
 1992 both countries admitted to UN
  as separate nations.
China and Taiwan:
 China (People’s Republic of China): Taiwan is a part
  of China and not a sovereign state
 Taiwan (Republic of China): Taiwan is a sovereign
  nation and NOT part of China
 Communists won China
 Nationalists fled to Taiwan in 1949 and set up a gov’t
 1971 US transferred support to ROC and UN
  transferred the seat from Nationalists to Communists
 1999 Taiwan regarded itself as a sovereign nation
GEOPOLITICS
               The power of
                the state to
                control space
                or territory
                and shape
                foreign policy
                of individual
                states and
                international
                relations.
The seven laws of state growth
are:
  1. The space of the state grows with the
   expansion of the population having the same
   culture.

  2. Territorial growth follows other aspects of
   development.

  3. A state grows by absorbing smaller units.

  4. The frontier is the peripheral organ of the
   state that reflects the strength and growth of
   the state; hence it is not permanent.
The seven laws of state growth
are:
  5. States in the course of their growth seek to
   absorb politically valuable territory.

  6. The impetus for growth comes to a primitive
   state from a more highly developed civilization.

  7. The trend toward territorial growth is
   contagious and increases in the process of
   transmission.
The Shape of a state can
 affect a state by
 fostering or hindering
 effective organization.
Compact: The most efficient
form.
.
    A state whose
    territory is nearly
    circular. Because all
    places could be
    reached from the
    center in a minimal
    amount of time
    making it the most
    efficient for roads,
    railway lines, other
    infrastructure.
 PRORUPT:
                        The proruption can
 - A state that is      be a physical
  nearly compact         (penninsula)
  but possess one        elongation of land or
  or two narrow          may have economic
  extensions of          or strategic
  territory, which       significance – access
  isolates a portion     to resources, sea,
  of the state.          establishment of a
                         buffer zone, etc…
ELONGATED:
 – A state whose
  territory is long
  and narrow. The
  least efficient
  shape
  administratively.
  It may sacrifice
  national cohesion
  to promote eco
  strength.
Fragmented:
 Entirely made up
  of islands or terr.
  Is separated by
  another state.
 - contains
  isolated parts,
  separate and
  discontinuous.
Perforated:
  A state that
  completely
  surrounds a territory
  that it does not rule.
 That area is called an
  ‘enclave’ and it may
  be independent or
  part of another state.
 (Enclaves are terr.
  ‘outliers’ located
  inside another
  state.)

Organic state

Friedrich Ratzel   The state is an
                     organism
                     conforming to
                     natural laws and
                     forced to grow &
                     expand into new
                     territories in order
                     to secure resources
                     needed for
                     survival.
Heartland Theory
                    World power is
Halford Mackinder    based on the
                     assumption
                     that the land
                     based state
                     controlling
                     the
                     EURASIAN
                     heartland
                     has the key to
                     world
                     domination.
Rimland Theory
Spykman            Balance of
The state            power issue--
  controlling the
  area AROUND        divide the
  the area           Rimland to
  surrounding the
  Eurasian           keep one
  heartland has      state from
  the key to world   dominating…
  domination.
Sea Power Theory
 Alfred Mahan    Who ever controls
                   the seas, controls
                   the world
                  Used the British as
                   an example > they
                   controlled world
                   commerce
                  US
                  Interested in
                   maritime (sea)
                   boundaries
Domino Theory

                  Destabilization
     applied
     1st           from any cause in
   during the      1 country can
                   result in the
   Cold War.       collapse of order
  Was applied     in a neighboring
                   country leading to
   to E.           a chain of events
   Europe,         that affect
   Vietnam,        adjoining states in
                   turn.
   Cuba….
SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
 is a method of decision-making in
  multi-national political communities,
  wherein power is transferred or
  delegated to an authority by
  governments of member states.
Some international Unions:
   African Union (AU)
   Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
   Caribbean Community (CARICOM)
   Central American Integration System (SICA)
   Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG)
   Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC)
   South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
   Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)
   Union State
   Arab League into an "Arab Union"
   North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) into the
    "North American Union"
   Pacific Islands Forum into the "Pacific Union"
Political and Military Cooperation:
 United Nations: created at the end of WW
  II
 Began with 49 states; today has 192 today
  (excluding: Taiwan, Vatican, Kosovo) of
  the 195 states in the world.
 Allows virtually all states in the world to
  meet and vote on issues without resorting
  to war.
 Permanent members-Security Council:
  China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom,
  and the United States.
NATO:
 North Atlantic Treaty Organization:
   After WW II became a military alliance of
    democratic states.
   Answer to the Warsaw Pact-military
    agreement among Communist Eastern
    European countries
European Union
Main task is to promote development
  within the member states through
  economic cooperation.

								
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