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Political Geography Knowing where countries are is considered “old school” but without such knowledge, you lack a basic frame of reference: Knowing where things are. It is like translating an article in a foreign language by looking up each word in a dictionary. STATE: An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government that has control over its internal and foreign affairs. It occupies a defined territory on the earth’s surface and contains an permanent population. Sovereignty: A state’s independence from control of its internal affairs by other states. 1933 Montevideo Convention: The state as a person of international law should possess the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states. Declarative Theory of Statehood: "The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states." KOREA: One State or Two? Korea: Former colony of Japan Divided into two zones post World War II (US and USSR) Superpowers est a gov’t and withdrew 1950 N. Korea invaded S. Korea 1953 cease-fire near 38th parallel 1992 both countries admitted to UN as separate nations. China and Taiwan: China (People’s Republic of China): Taiwan is a part of China and not a sovereign state Taiwan (Republic of China): Taiwan is a sovereign nation and NOT part of China Communists won China Nationalists fled to Taiwan in 1949 and set up a gov’t 1971 US transferred support to ROC and UN transferred the seat from Nationalists to Communists 1999 Taiwan regarded itself as a sovereign nation GEOPOLITICS The power of the state to control space or territory and shape foreign policy of individual states and international relations. The seven laws of state growth are: 1. The space of the state grows with the expansion of the population having the same culture. 2. Territorial growth follows other aspects of development. 3. A state grows by absorbing smaller units. 4. The frontier is the peripheral organ of the state that reflects the strength and growth of the state; hence it is not permanent. The seven laws of state growth are: 5. States in the course of their growth seek to absorb politically valuable territory. 6. The impetus for growth comes to a primitive state from a more highly developed civilization. 7. The trend toward territorial growth is contagious and increases in the process of transmission. The Shape of a state can affect a state by fostering or hindering effective organization. Compact: The most efficient form. . A state whose territory is nearly circular. Because all places could be reached from the center in a minimal amount of time making it the most efficient for roads, railway lines, other infrastructure. PRORUPT: The proruption can - A state that is be a physical nearly compact (penninsula) but possess one elongation of land or or two narrow may have economic extensions of or strategic territory, which significance – access isolates a portion to resources, sea, of the state. establishment of a buffer zone, etc… ELONGATED: – A state whose territory is long and narrow. The least efficient shape administratively. It may sacrifice national cohesion to promote eco strength. Fragmented: Entirely made up of islands or terr. Is separated by another state. - contains isolated parts, separate and discontinuous. Perforated: A state that completely surrounds a territory that it does not rule. That area is called an ‘enclave’ and it may be independent or part of another state. (Enclaves are terr. ‘outliers’ located inside another state.) Organic state Friedrich Ratzel The state is an organism conforming to natural laws and forced to grow & expand into new territories in order to secure resources needed for survival. Heartland Theory World power is Halford Mackinder based on the assumption that the land based state controlling the EURASIAN heartland has the key to world domination. Rimland Theory Spykman Balance of The state power issue-- controlling the area AROUND divide the the area Rimland to surrounding the Eurasian keep one heartland has state from the key to world dominating… domination. Sea Power Theory Alfred Mahan Who ever controls the seas, controls the world Used the British as an example > they controlled world commerce US Interested in maritime (sea) boundaries Domino Theory Destabilization applied 1st from any cause in during the 1 country can result in the Cold War. collapse of order Was applied in a neighboring country leading to to E. a chain of events Europe, that affect Vietnam, adjoining states in turn. Cuba…. SUPRANATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS is a method of decision-making in multi-national political communities, wherein power is transferred or delegated to an authority by governments of member states. Some international Unions: African Union (AU) Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Central American Integration System (SICA) Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG) Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) Union State Arab League into an "Arab Union" North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) into the "North American Union" Pacific Islands Forum into the "Pacific Union" Political and Military Cooperation: United Nations: created at the end of WW II Began with 49 states; today has 192 today (excluding: Taiwan, Vatican, Kosovo) of the 195 states in the world. Allows virtually all states in the world to meet and vote on issues without resorting to war. Permanent members-Security Council: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization: After WW II became a military alliance of democratic states. Answer to the Warsaw Pact-military agreement among Communist Eastern European countries European Union Main task is to promote development within the member states through economic cooperation.
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