Religion and Politics by xiaopangnv


									Religion and Politics
         Religion and Politics
• In some parts of the world,
  religion and politics are
  inseparable. Notable
  examples of countries
  where there is a solid
  connection include:
  Ireland, India and Israel.
• The Middle East, parts of
  Asia and many African
  nations also reflect a
  strong religious approach
  to politics
                     Terms to consider
Dogma: a set of doctrines proclaimed to be absolutely true by the representatives of a
   religious faith

Fundamentalism: any religious movement that seeks to return to the founding principles of a
   faith in the belief that the holy texts are the literal and authentic word of God

Terrorism: the usage of violence and terror to achieve political ends, particularly when
    directed by individuals against a society or state.

Jihad: in Islam, a holy war or spiritual struggle against non believers; also, an individual
    Muslim’s struggle for spiritual perfection

Non-Sectarian: not limited to, or associated with a particular religious denomination or belief

Secular State: a state that is governed without reference to religious doctrine

State Religion: a religious body or belief officially supported by the state.

Theocracy: A form of government in which religious law is dominant over civil law (e.g. Iran)
             Northern Ireland
• After the partition of
  Northern Ireland
  from the Republic of
  Ireland (1921) there
  has been conflict
  between two main
• Republicans              The “peace wall” in West Belfast
• Unionists
       Background of the conflict
• “Ulster” or “six counties” is the
  name of the region in the Northern
  part of Ireland that was partitioned
  in 1921.
• The majority of Ulster’s population
  was protestant (approx 60%) and
  wished to remain apart of Great
• The South of Ireland is
  overwhelmingly catholic and
  wished to leave Great Britain.
  After the Irish Civil War, the South
  was granted independence from
  the British. However, they gave up
  control of the North. The
  government of the South was a
  republic while the North of Ireland
  remained apart of Great Britain
  (union)                                Ireland and Northern Ireland
                         The two sides
• Those who wish to unite Northern Ireland
  with the South are referred to as
  republicans since they wish to join the
  republican South. In addition, they wish
  to break away from Britain which they
  see as repressive. They do not
  recognize the British occupation of the
  North and its institutions. Their flag is the
  Irish tri-color.
• The Sein Fein (Gaelic for “we ourselves)
  party represents the interests of the
  republican community
                                                  Sein Fein leader Gerry Adams
• Republicans tend to be Roman Catholic.
  However, they are often on the left of the
  political spectrum and do not necessarily
  espouse religious/moral approaches to
            Republican Murals

Mural of former Republican MP
Bobby Sands                     Republican Mural in West Belfast
       Connection to Terrorism
• There are elements of
  the republican
  community in Ireland
  who sponsor terrorism
  as a means of
  achieving their goals.
• The Irish Republican
  Army (IRA) is a
  terrorist organization
  which seeks to unite
  Ireland through the
  usage of terrorism
  (e.g. pub bombings)
• Unionists seek to
  maintain the union
  between Northern
  Ireland and the rest of
  Great Britain
  (England, Scotland
  and Northern Ireland).
• They tend to be
  members of Ulster’s
  protestant community.
• In politics, the
  interests of the
  unionist community
  are represented by
  the Ulster Unionist
  Party                          David Trimble
      Connection to Terrorism
• There are extremist
  elements within the
  unionist community who
  wish to maintain the status
  quo through intimidation.
  Loyalists who seek to use
  terror as a means of
  securing their objectives
  join one of two groups:
• UDA (Ulster Defence
• UVF (Ulster Volunteer
                     Orangemen’s Day Parade

Hibernian's Parade
    Glasgow Rangers vs. Celtic
• Rangers did not sign
  a catholic player until
  they signed Mo
  Johnston in 1989
• Protestants tend to
  support Rangers;
  Catholics support
• Sectarian violence is
  a constant concern
  when these two
  teams meet                Rangers vs. Celtic: More than a
                            football match. War by proxy
            The Sectarian Divide

Glasgow Rangers and Celtic Fans
Not quite!                        Paul Gasgoine
Celtic and Rangers Fans and a whole bunch of police officers

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