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					    A C A Occupational Health & Safety
              Resources Inc.

              Hydrogen Sulfide H2S Preventive Action


                     By: Engr. Arnel Ariap
                  Health and Safety Consultant

20 MAY 2011                  Engr. Arnel Ariap         1
 What is H2S?


Hydrogen Sulfide is an extremely
toxic gas that is colorless, flammable,
heavier than air, soluble in water,
and has the smell of rotten eggs at
lower concentrations



20 MAY 2011      Engr. Arnel Ariap        2
                                                  H2S
        Characteristic of H2S
        • Chemical symbol: H2S
        • Specific Gravity: 1.192 (heavier than air)
        • Explosive limits: Lower: 4% , Upper: 44% volume
        in air
        • Ignition Temperature: 500o F
        • Solubility in water: 2.9 volumes of gas , per
        volume of water at 20o CC



20 MAY 2011                Engr. Arnel Ariap                3
              How Is Hydrogen Sulfide Formed?
 • H2S is a by-product formed when organic matter decays.

• Hydrogen Sulfide is generated as a common by-product of
chemical processes.

• Hydrogen  Sulfide is formed under low oxygen conditions
when sufficient amounts of sulfur and bacteria are present.
H2S can be formed in many places such as:

              1. Oil and gas tank, lake, pool

              2. Sewers and sewage processing facilities.

               3. Dark damp places where bacteria is present.


20 MAY 2011                    Engr. Arnel Ariap                4
                  Where Is Hydrogen Sulfide Found?

     • Hydrogen Sulfide can be found almost anywhere that
     oil, water, and gas are produced.

       Examples are:



          Production Separators                        Vapor Recovery Units
          Sulfur Removal Systems                         Flotation Cells

          Water Knock-Outs                             Wellheads or Tanks

              Heater Treaters
                                                  Pits, Cellars or Sewers.



20 MAY 2011                        Engr. Arnel Ariap                          5
              What are the Health Hazards of H2S?

   • Hydrogen Sulfide can have an array of health
   effects on the body depending on exposure
   concentrations.

   • H2S will enter through the lungs and is
   considered a chemical asphyxiate.

   • It blocks the transfer of oxygen to the blood cells
   and causes paralysis of the respiratory system.


20 MAY 2011                Engr. Arnel Ariap               6
                      Exposure Limits

     Here are the Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) exposure
     limits.


 • Permissible Exposure Limit: 10 ppm for an 8-hr period avg.

 • Short Term Exposure Limit: 15 ppm for a 15-minute avg.

 • Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health: 100 ppm




20 MAY 2011                 Engr. Arnel Ariap                   7
                       Concentration Levels & Effects
    The following table below lists the health effects of
    exposure to H2S.

       Concentration                                   Health Effects
      10 ppm            Beginning eye irritation
      50-100 ppm        Slight respiratory tract irritation after 1 hour exposure.
      100 ppm           Coughing, eye irritation, loss of sense of smell after 2-15 minutes. Altered
                        respiration, pain in the eyes, and drowsiness after 15-30 minutes followed by
                        throat irritation after 1 hour. Several hours exposure results in gradual
                        increase in severity of these symptoms and death may occur within the next
                        48 hours
      200-300 ppm       Severe respiratory tract irritation after 1 hour of exposure. Possible
                        pulmonary edema (fluid in the lungs).
      500-700 ppm       Loss of consciousness and possibly death in 30 minutes to 1 hour.

      700-1,000 ppm     Rapid unconsciousness, loss of respiration, and death after 1-3 minutes.
      1,000-2,000ppm    Unconsciousness at once, loss of respiration and death in a few minutes.
                        Death may occur even if individual is removed to fresh air at once.




20 MAY 2011                                 Engr. Arnel Ariap                                           8
         Monitoring
   • As mentioned, one of Hydrogen Sulfide's effects on the body is it deadens
   the sense of smell at fairly low concentrations.

   • This can cause a false sense of security and therefore we must use air
   monitoring equipment to detect H2S.


 A variety of equipment can be used to do this:
    • Fixed monitors can be located where contamination is possible.

    • Alarms to alert personnel when H2S levels exceed permissible
    exposure limits.

    • Portable monitors that can be hand held or attached to yourself.


20 MAY 2011                           Engr. Arnel Ariap                          9
                    Detection Methods for H2S




   Personal monitors


   Manual monitors Pump type detector
     tubes


   Fixed systems

   Stand alone



20 MAY 2011                      Engr. Arnel Ariap   10
                         When Do We Monitor?
  Air monitoring should be done anytime there is a potential
  for someone to be exposed over the PEL of H2S.

   Examples of when air monitoring shall
   be performed are:
      • At all times when working around H2S concentrations

      • During all confined space entries.

      • Any time there is a potential to be exposed over the PEL. (Permissible
      Exposure Limit)

      • When gauging tanks.



20 MAY 2011                            Engr. Arnel Ariap                         11
        Escape Guidelines:
 Should a release occur here are some escape
 guidelines you must follow.
    Know the alarm systems.

    Know where the potential sources for H2S are located.

    Know the wind direction at all times.

     Escape by getting upwind to a higher elevation (if possible) from the
     source.

     When escaping, always go cross wind and around the source.

     Never go directly upwind (you may be running into the     source).




20 MAY 2011                           Engr. Arnel Ariap                      12
20 MAY 2011   Engr. Arnel Ariap   13
              Personal Protective Equipment
                • Protective equipment shall be provided and maintain in
                a sanitary reliable condition wherever it is necessary by
                reason of hazards. An employee shall assess the
                workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are
                likely to be present, which necessitate the use of PPE
                (PPE evaluation).

                • Employee-owed equipment – Where the employees
                provide their own protective equipment, the employer
                shall be responsible to assure it adequacy, including
                proper maintenance and sanitation.

                • Required PPE shall be provided by the employer at no
                cost to the employees

20 MAY 2011                     Engr. Arnel Ariap                           14
        Quiz:

      Short exposure to 100ppm hydrogen
      sulfide will cause immediate death.


         Answer:   (FALSE)



20 MAY 2011             Engr. Arnel Ariap   15
       Quiz:
     When a hydrogen sulfide emergency occurs,
     rescue any victims first, then protect
     yourself.



      Answer: (FALSE)



20 MAY 2011             Engr. Arnel Ariap    16
    Quiz:

    Hydrogen sulfide is heavier than air, so it
    collects in low-lying areas.


     Answer: (TRUE)




20 MAY 2011           Engr. Arnel Ariap           17
          Quiz:

     Hydrogen sulfide is invisible, flammable,
     explosive and deadly.



        Answer: (TRUE)



20 MAY 2011              Engr. Arnel Ariap       18
        Quiz:

     You do not need to worry about H2S unless
     you detect a rotten-egg odor.



       Answer: (FALSE)



20 MAY 2011              Engr. Arnel Ariap       19
       Quiz:
    Emergency escape units can be used to
    enter and work in H2S environments.



      Answer: (FALSE)




20 MAY 2011             Engr. Arnel Ariap   20
        Quiz:
       To avoid exposure to H2S, you should
       remain “wind conscious”.


      Answer: (TRUE)




20 MAY 2011            Engr. Arnel Ariap      21
       Quiz:

     Your breathing apparatus should always
     be positive-pressure, never air-purifying.


     Answer: (TRUE)




20 MAY 2011            Engr. Arnel Ariap          22
      Quiz:

    After you’ve been trained to use respiratory
    protection, you won’t have to worry about
    additional training.


     Answer: (FALSE)




20 MAY 2011            Engr. Arnel Ariap       23
      Quiz:
     If you suspect H2S is present in your work
     area, you should move immediately
     downwind away from the area.


     Answer: (FALSE)




20 MAY 2011            Engr. Arnel Ariap          24
20 MAY 2011   Engr. Arnel Ariap   25
              Thank you!




20 MAY 2011      Engr. Arnel Ariap   26

				
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