Breeds by xiaopangnv

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									 Common U.S.
 Breeds of Pigs
Swine Production



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          Breeds of Pigs

 White-line breeds and crosses
  -- Traditionally maternal breeds
 Dark-colored breeds
  -- Traditionally meat breeds
 Today: Color does not matter since the
  color genes have been identified and
  manipulated

                                           2
                     Breed Numbers
Table 1. The numbers of Pure Breeds of pigs born in 1990 in the USA. Shown
also are the estimated number of litters from two major USA breeding stock
companies.
                                                 Numbers of    Percentage of the
Breed                    Originated            litters in 1990  USA sow herd
Yorkshire                 England                   23,861          0.34%
Duroc             New Jersey & New York             22,179          0.32%
Hampshire                 England                   18,925          0.27%
Chester White               Ohio                     5,544          0.08%
Spot                        Ohio                     6,443          0.09%
Landrace                 Denmark                     4,365          0.06%
Berkshire                 England                    2,071          0.03%
Poland China                Ohio                     1,848          0.03%
                     Total Pure Breeds              85,236          1.22%
PIC USA, Inc.             England                   millions
DeKalb                     Texas                    millions

                                                                                   3
       Common Breeds


-Yorkshire
-Landrace
-Chester White
-Duroc
-Hampshire
-Poland China
-Berkshire
-Spot

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                    Yorkshire
                              -“The mother breed”
                              -All white
                              -Erect ears
                              -Large and long
                              -Fertile
                              -Produce large litters


-Boars known for early
 sexual maturity and
sire fast-growing
offspring
-Most litters registered in
the U.S.                                               5
                  Landrace
                           -Large, droopy ears
                           -All white
                           -Maternal breed
                           -Heavy birthweights
                           -Long bodied
                           -Ease of breeding
                           -Originated from Danish
                            and Norwegian Landrace

-Thought to have the highest # weaned of any breed.



                                                      6
                     Duroc
                        -Noted for feed efficiency and
                         muscle quality (marbling)
                        -Low PSE and DFD
                        -Solid red in color
                        -Droopy ears
                        -Excellent terminal sire
                        -High average daily gain
                        -Hair can be a problem at
                        packing plants (deep-rooted
                        hairs)

-Require less feed to make a pound of muscle than other
 breeds.
                                                          7
Hampshire
      -Terminal sire breed
      -Erect ears
      -Black with white belt
      -Lean and heavy muscled
      -Napole (RN) gene




                                8
                  Berkshire
                            -Black with six white points
                            -Erect ears
                            -Has a short dished snout
                            -Noted for excellent marbling
                             and loin muscle quality
                            -Early maturing
                            -Backfat
                            -Small framed
                            -Slow growth

-Some markets pay a premium for Berkshire breeding
 (Berkshire Gold Program).
                                                       9
Spot
 -High growth rate
 -Lacks advantage in meat quality
 -Black and white spotted
 -Drooping ears
 -Boars are aggressive




                              10
Poland China
     -Black with six white points
     -Drooping ears
     -Developed in Ohio
     -Not very adaptable to intensive
      systems
     -Large loineye areas
     -Meaty carcasses




                                   11
Chester White

       -White
       -Semi-lop eared
       -Durable breed
       -Good for both indoor and
        outdoor systems
       -Was a popular lard pig
       -Large litters at birth and
        weaning
       -Sows milk well, good
        mothering ability
       -Boars are aggressive

                                     12
   Extremes: Meishan and
          Pietran
                      -prolific (20+ pigs per litter)
                      -very fat!




-Halothane gene
-extremely lean and
 heavy muscled

                                                        13
         Common Commercial
           Crossbred Pigs
Monsanto Choice Genetics (formerly DeKalb Swine Breeders)




              PIC, USA




                                                            14
               PIC, USA

 Has the largest share of U.S.
  commercial pig market
 Camborough females are most popular
  sow line: 15 or 22
    » Large White x Landrace x Duroc




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      Pigs at TTU Farm

 Newsham  sows
 PIC USA gilts and young sows




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