radio by xiaopangnv


									            Popular Radio: History of Technology

1844: Samuel F.B. Morse introduces the telegraph:
interrupt a wired electrical signal in code.

1873: James Clark Maxwell theorizes the
electromagnetic spectrum.

1876: Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone:
modulated wired electrical signal allows for voice

1888: Heinrich Hertz sends first electromagnetic
signal in the laboratory.
            Popular Radio: History of Technology

    Guglielmo Marconi:    First practical wireless
                                telegraphy, 1894
                          Forms British Marconi, 1897

                                First signal across
                          English            Channel,
.                         1899
                          First Transatlantic signal,
                          Marconi monopolizes wireless
    Popular Radio: History of Technology

      1906: Lee DeForest refines the vacuum
      tube as the Audion (three elements);
      allows for amplification of the signal,
      increasing volume and distance.

           1906: Reginald Fessenden
.          sends first broadcast
           voice transmission
           (Westinghouse) from
           Brant Rock, MA.
    Popular Radio: Radio Corporation of America

    By 1914, Marconi Wireless of America dominates
    wireless telegraphy. In the wake of World War I,
    the U.S. government seizes all assets: patents and
    stations. In 1919, the government facilitates the
    formation of Radio Corporation of America, owned
    jointly by General Electric, Westinghouse, AT&T
    and the United Fruit Company to control wireless.

David Sarnoff at the telegraph
during the sinking of the Titanic. He
is appointed general manager of
RCA in 1921.
               Popular Radio: The 1920s-1930s

1920: First licensed broadcast by KDKA, Pittsburgh
(Frank Conrad for Westinghouse.
1922: First “commercial” broadcast (WEAF, NY) by
AT&T, toll broadcasting.
1926: Establishment of NBC Red and Blue networks by
RCA; AT&T gets out of broadcasting.
1927: Establishment of United Independent
Broadcasters( becomes CBS with William Paley, 1928).
1934: Establishment of Mutual Broadcasting System (by
remaining major independent stations).
        Popular Radio: Legal Issues, 1912-1943

1912: First Radio Act in response to sinking of Titanic.
1919-1934: RCA is government monopoly in wireless.
1926-27: Government regulation of radio denied by
Supreme Court: “Age of Chaos.”
1927: Radio Act establishes government regulation of
radio: discretionary power
1934: Communications Act (F.C.C.)
1943: Duopoly Rules in wake of U.S. v. NBC. NBC
forced to sell one network (Blue --> ABC) and CBS must
loosen ties with affiliates.
              Popular Radio: Programming

1920s-1930s: Development of most program formats:
variety shows, dramas, series, serials (soap operas).
Radio produces its own stars and programs, including
Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy, Jack Benny and
The Lone Ranger.
1938: Orson Welles’ Mercury Theater of the Air presents
“War of the Worlds” demonstrating the power of radio.
1940s: Radio becomes dominant in breaking news
during WW II.
1940s: First disk jockey programs (lack of musicians):
Make Believe Ballroom
              Popular Radio: Technology to present

Transistor (1947): Radio becomes portable
Frequency Modulation (FM) invented by Edwin
     Armstrong (1933): reduced static and regularized
     channel size; eventually allows for easy adoption of
Stereo for FM broadcasting (1962).
Satellite delivery (NPR, 1972) allows for increased ease
       of national program networking and syndication
Digital Audio Broadcasting (1990s): Digitized signals
      deliver “CD quality” sound.
                 Popular Radio: Programming

1. Localization of programming: use of recorded music and disk
jockeys; local news predominates.
2. Localization of advertising: National ads went to television.
3. Top 40 formats: Limited playlists (replicates a juke box).
4. Rock ‘n’ Roll and the youth market
5. Discovery of FM (1967, Non-duplication).
6. Specialization in formats, daypart (mornings and afternoons),
new forms of networking (limited).
7. Rebirth of national programming (1980s): Satellite delivery to
provide programs for smaller markets; esp., Talk radio, sports
                                Radio Formats

80s Hits                          New AC (NAC)/Smooth Jazz
Active Rock                       New Country
Adult Contemporary (AC)           News/Talk/Information
Adult Standards/MOR               Nostalgia
Album Adult Alternative (AAA)     Oldies
Album Oriented Rock (AOR)         Other
All News                          Pop Contemporary Hit Radio
All Sports                        Religious
Alternative                       Rhythmic Contemporary Hit Radio
Children’s Radio                  Rhythmic Oldies
Classical                         Soft AC
Classic Country                   Southern Gospel
Classic Hits                      Spanish Contemporary
Classic Rock                      Spanish News/Talk
Contemporary Christian            Spanish Oldies
Contemporary Inspirational        Spanish Religious
Country                           Spanish Tropical
Easy Listening                    Spanish Variety
Educational                       Talk/Personality
Ethnic                            Tejano
Gospel                            Urban AC
Hot AC                            Urban Contemporary
Jazz                              Urban Oldies
Mexican Regional                  Variety
Modern AC
Alternative Radio
•National Public Radio
•Community Radio
    (Pacifica, KRAB Nebula)
•Low Power FM Radio (LPFM)
•Pirate Radio
•Internet Radio
•Satellite Radio (XM, Sirius)
                 Popular Radio: Current Trends

1. Ownership limits lifted (F.C.C. and Telecommunications Act of
   1996 encourages concentration locally and nationally: Clear
2. Programming homogenization: Increased specialization within a
   few popular formats (rock, country, etc.) leads to little overall
   diversity in available music and informational programming.
3. Satellite Radio: Will this form of signal delivery (better sound at
   increased use of electromagnetic spectrum) lead to the death of
   local radio broadcasting?
4. Digital Audio Broadcasting

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