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					Library Information Systems
 Origins of LIS
 Why Automate?
 On Functions and Functionality
 Management Considerations
 Trends and Issues within LIS
Origins of LIS
   1936 Ralph H. Parker – Punched Card Methods for Circulation
   1960s – Use of computers to automate technical services functions (proprietary solutions);
            Focus is on SYSTEMS
   1965 – LC explores standards related to bibliographic records
   1967 -- Frederick Kilgour founds OCLC
   1969 – LC MARC record established (Z39.2 “Bibliographic Information Interchange”)
   1967-70 – Bibliographic Utilities formed (OCLC, RLIN, WLN, UTLAS).
   1971 – The first “Turnkey” library system from CLSI (LIBS 100 : circulation control);
   1974 Library Automation marketplace reaches $50 million; Online DBs become available
   1976 DataResearch formed in St. Louis (Mike Mellinger and Jim Michael);
        UM Libraries gets OCLC services
   1981 First OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) from CLSI
   1983 UM Libraries bring up LUMIN – the online card catalog
   1981 – 1990 – Focus on OPACs as the “yacht” with CIRC Control and other technical services being the “dinghies”
   1986 CD-ROM hits the “cataloging marketplace”; beginnings of Local Area Networks of interconnected PCs
   1988 Z39.50 the “Interoperability Standard” is approved; The beginnings of OPEN SYSTEMS designs
   1990s LIS marketplace “peaks” around $500 million annually; Rapid introduction of PCs as points of access to library services; Some
    market segmentation into “type of library” (school, public, academic, special/corporate); The Internet starts to make its way into
    the home/office. Early development of Digital Libraries begins. Focus is on USERS
   mid 1990s: The Internet and Web access enters the picture.
               Mergers, failures, & acquisitions of LIS companies by one another.
               Many management teams change.
                  CLSI merges into GEAC
                  DRA buys INLEX, then gets acquired itself
                  Ameritech buys Dynix and NOTIS
                  Several “fast tracks” surface (Endeavor)
Possible Reasons why Libraries
attempt to Apply Technology:
 Modernization
 Patron Services
 Transformation

    To cope with increasing demands for
    To reduce staff or prevent staff
    To allow more activities to be
     performed by clerical and
     paraprofessional staff
Patron Services

    To  provide new forms of old services
     (electronic access)
    To improve access to existing
     services (remote login, etc.)

   To provide new (increasingly digital)
    information services
        Document Delivery
        Digital Libraries
Why Automate?
 Extracted from Christine Borgman
 “From Acting Locally to Thinking
    Globally: A Brief History of
       Library Automation”
 Library Quarterly July 1997 pages
 Stage I : Efficiency of
  internal operations
 Internalworkflow
 Sharing cataloging data
Stage II : Access to Local
 IOLS  marketplace
 Retrospective conversion of bib
Stage III : Access to Outside

   Document   delivery services
   Online data exchange (Z39.50)
   Integrated online resources
    (mounting DBs onto OPAC)
   Web resources
Stage IV:Interoperability of
  Thinking  globally
  Digital Libraries
                       On Functions and
       First came technical services (backroom processes)
                Acquisitions
                Cataloging

       Then Circulation control

       Finally Online Public Access Catalogs

       Compounded by online DBs, then Document Delivery Systems

       Then we enter the world of the “Web”…
       And don’t forget Digital Libraries !!!

         Most of these applications were designed separately, or at best independent of one
                      another, and then grafted together to look presentable….
    Proprietary versus Open
       Systems Designs
 First we began with proprietary solutions
 Then we moved to Open Systems – a
  design philosophy, not a specific software
 Now we implement Open Systems using
  Client-Server architectures, often based
  on TCP/IP (the “Internet Protocol”)
On Selection and Management:
    General Observations
   There are many additional revelations regarding the practical side of managing a
    large scale automation project and selecting appropriate technology for the library.
    An abbreviated list follows:
   .Recognize that advances are occurring outside of your organization – visit other institutions!
   .Develop an organizational culture that is open to change and welcomes outside advances.
   .Recognize that some libraries shouldn’t automate and that some will anyway due to
    “organizational politics”
   .Set up and support a “technology tracker” within your organization – a full time professional
    to monitor and keep abreast of important developments, and a “first point of contact” to
   .Develop a long term attitude – not a “stop gap” attitude.
   .Seek external advice to support your selection process and your decision making.     Consider
    hiring professional. "If you don’t do it well, or you don’t do it often, hire someone else to do
       Costs Associated with
    Library Information Systems
   Costs to prepare and decide
   Final contractual price, including:
   Hardware, software, telecommunications
   Maintenance charges (annual)
            Training
            Conversion of DB costs
   Cost to prepare site for implementation
   Cost to evaluate system once in place
   Ongoing or long term costs:
            Continued maintenance contract
            Possible expansion of system
            Upgrade costs (hardware)
            Licensing fees (software)
            Continual training programs
            Staffing costs
            Cost to replace
    Keys to Successful IT Projects in Libraries and
            Related Information Agencies

   Success is dependent on the interaction of
    several key factors:
           Focus on the process and the people, not the technology
           Build management support
           Conduct a needs analysis, including resulting
           Involve all participants in the decision process (staff and
           Seek to convert as much of your collection as necessary
           Continually train and develop your staff and patrons in the
            proper use of the system
Trends and Issues within LIS
 Impact of the Web on end users
 Amalgamated sources and services or the
  “Frankenstein approach”?
 Multiple marketplaces (ILS, DB, DL)
 Standards for representation (MARC, DC)
 Standards for development (XML?)
 Document delivery services (esp. digital)

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