PSSA Friday - Figurative Language

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					10th Grade English/Adcock/Hammond
PSSA Fridays

Name: ______________________________________________________ Period: _______

                            Figurative Language Warm-Up

Directions: Answer the following questions THOROUGHLY and in complete sentences.

   1. What is a symbol? What is its purpose in a piece of literature?

   2. What is the relationship between symbols and an allegory?

   3. What is the difference between verbal, situational, and dramatic irony?

10th Grade English/Adcock/Hammond
PSSA Fridays

Name: ______________________________________________________ Period: _______

                            Figurative Language Warm-Up

Directions: Answer the following questions THOROUGHLY and in complete sentences.

   1. What is a symbol? What is its purpose in a piece of literature?

   2. What is the relationship between symbols and an allegory?

   3. What is the difference between verbal, situational, and dramatic irony?
10th Grade English/Adcock/Hammond
PSSA Fridays

Name: ______________________________________________________ Period: _______

                                 Figurative Language Practice

Directions: Read the passages below. Then, choose the BEST answer to the questions that

1.      When I turned four, my father taught me the salt dance: he sprinkled a line of salt
     on the living room floor, positioned my bare feet on top of his shoes, and told me to
     leave everything I feared or no longer wanted behind that line. His gold-flecked eyes
     high above me, he walked me across that salt border into my brand-new year—he
     backward, I forward—my chin tilted against the buttons of his silk vest.
     adapted from Salt Dancers by Ursula Hegi

     The line of salt symbolizes:

      A. a delicious meal.
      B. a close relationship.
      C. a difficult dance.
      D. a new beginning.

    Soiree had been looking forward to the summer all year long. She had just turned sixteen.
Finally, she would be able to get a job and earn independence. Soiree had dreams of
working in the mall as a sales representative for the make-up department. Better yet, she
wanted to work at her favorite clothing store so that she could get a discount. Then, she
filled out the applications and applied to all the departmental stores. Her father also helped
her out by taking her applications to the other stores in the mall.
    As summer approached, Soiree panicked when she did not hear back from a single store.
"Dad, what do I do now? Looks like all the stores are booked," she voiced her fears.
    "Just wait a few more days, kiddo," the father assured Soiree.
    Before she knew it, Soiree was riding to the mall with her father. She had managed to put
on the seat belt despite the thickness of the penguin costume.
    "You okay there?" the father asked.
    "Yes, just a little toasty," Soiree replied, taking her hat off. "It's only June in Arizona."
    "Well, at least you got your first job, darling," the father tried to cheer her up.
    "Yes, I am honored to be a penguin in a pet store," Soiree said without a laugh.

2. Which of these sentences from this passage demonstrates verbal irony?

      A. Better yet, she wanted to work at her favorite clothing store. . .
      B. "Just wait a few more days, kiddo," the father assured Soiree.
   C. She had managed to put on the seat belt. . .
   D. Yes, I am honored to be a penguin in a pet store.

3. At the end of the story, what should Soiree say to her father to demonstrate sarcasm?

   A. Yes, it is better than being without a job, dear father.
   B. It's only fitting since we are so near the North Pole.
   C. Can you pick me up at six so we can grab some dinner?
   D. You never told me about your first job in high school.

4. The sentence "It's only June in Arizona" is ironic because:

   A. Soiree's father thinks his daughter should drive to work on her own.
   B. Soiree is trying to say that the summer is not that bad in Arizona.
   C. Soiree's father is used to living in colder places like Rhode Island.
   D. Soiree means to comment on her thick outfit in the Arizona summer.

5. What is sarcastic about this sentence from the story?

  "Yes, just a little toasty," Soiree replied, taking her hat off.

   A. She thinks her father is feeling warm in the car as well.
   B. Soiree means to say that she feels very hot in the outfit.
   C. Soiree can greatly adapt to changes in temperature.
   D. She is sharing her excitement about her very first job.

                                         Save the Dance
                                          by A. Gautam

Stage Set: The dining hall of a college cafeteria. Only a few lights are on. HARI and
LUDMILLA are seated. HARI doesn't know that he has just won the elections because of a

          HARI: So, why did I get nothing after all my hard work?
LUDMILLA: Don't say that. You've got our love and respect.
          HARI: Nah. I lost! I lost the election by a landslide.
LUDMILLA: Well, what can we do when somebody decides to bring all their friends to
          vote? I mean, everybody knows you deserved to win.
          HARI: Anyway, I will still be a member and give the new president my time and
LUDMILLA: That's the spirit! I knew you would not give up. (Smiles, pauses, and
          blushes) Hey, by the way have you decided about the international dance?
          HARI: What do you mean—decided?
LUDMILLA: Well, who are you taking?
          HARI: Oh, I thought MONGOO already told you. Yep, I'm taking her. Who are you
                going with?
LUDMILLA: Huh. (Looks away as if to hide her sad face) That's fantastic!
          HARI: Hey, best friend! (Gives LUDMILLA a big hug) Who is the lucky guy that
                gets to dance with you?
LUDMILLA: Ohh. I. . .I'm actually not going.

          LUDMILLA: Huh. (Looks away as if to hide her sad face) That's fantastic!

      Which literary element is used in the lines above?

      A. verbal irony
      B. climax
      C. exposition
      D. dramatic irony

7. The audience knows that Hari has won the election because of a recount, but Hari
   doesn't. This literary element is called:

      A. historic irony.
      B. situational irony.
      C. dramatic irony.
      D. verbal irony.
    "This is the perfect end to my day," Martinique yelled at the door when it suddenly
started raining. He could not find the key to the house. So, there he stood holding his cell
phone with a dead battery and watching his flat-tired car. His watch was the only
functioning item he owned at the moment. He knew it would be an hour before his mother
would be home. Martinique also knew she would hate to see grass stains on his trousers and
mud on his t-shirt. He had slipped and fallen after football practice, misplacing things in his
backpack and dropping the phone in the rain.
    He remembered Sahara helping him in the football field. "Don't you have all the luck!"
she exclaimed as she pulled out a Band-Aid from her purse and put it on his scraped knee.
    "You always appear when I need you," Martinique said with a smile. He wished he had
let her come over to study math as she had wanted. Then, she could have helped me with my
flat tire. Why did I think I had to change, shower, and look good for a math assignment?
    Martinique felt tormented by waiting for what seemed like centuries. Thoughts kept
churning in his head. Finally, his mother's sparkly red wagon appeared in the driveway.
    "Don't you look fantastic, my darling," the mother uttered.

8. Which sentence from the story is an example of verbal irony?

   A. Then, she could have helped me. . .
   B. "You always appear when I need you,"
   C. "This is the perfect end to my day,"
   D. He could not find the key to the house.

9. Which of these would demonstrate sarcasm if added to the mother's dialogue?

   A. Look at your torn backpack!
   B. How did you lose your braces?
   C. I love what you did with the outfit.
   D. Your hair is all muddy and wet.

10. What is ironic about Sahara saying "Don't you have all the luck!"?

   A. She means to comment on Martinique's bad luck.
   B. She hates having to help out Martinique in the rain.
   C. She envies Martinique's good luck that afternoon.
   D. She thinks it is good luck to fall while it is raining.
                                        A Cold Night

    In the cold night, Damon and his father walked silently down the empty city street. The
hypnotizing clump, clump, clump, clump of their four shoes echoing off the pavement was
the only sound they made. Damon tilted his head at a slight angle to look at his father
without getting caught staring. As they passed the dim streetlights, shadows on his father's
face shifted and rolled but always shaded his eyes and his mouth.
    "So, when do you think you'll be coming to see me again?" Damon asked, trying not to
sound like a little kid.
    His father did not respond right away. Damon felt a catch in his throat, but in the dark, he
was able to hide it well.
    "Well, I know you are busy, and so am I," his father said. "Maybe I can see you again in
May when you graduate. That is, if I can get the time off work, and if I feel well, and if I can
afford the ticket at the time."
    Damon nodded. When he imagined his graduation day, he imagined his mother and
father together, with him in the middle of their bright, smiling faces. However, Damon knew
what his graduation photo would probably look like. His dad would not be in it. His dad
always promised to show up, but he usually broke his word. Damon turned to look his father
in the eye, but he only saw a heavy shadow where a face should be.

11. Which of the following is used as a symbol for deception and lies in the story?

   A. streetlights
   B. shadows
   C. photos
   D. shoes

12. What does the empty street symbolize in this passage?

   A. the end of one path in life and the beginning of another
   B. the stress of getting ready for Damon's graduation
   C. the excitement of embarking on a new adventure
   D. the lack of a strong relationship between father and son

    Aleya had almost made it. Nobody could have believed that she actually baked the red
velvet cake and carried it on a glass tray by herself to the Student Center. "Anyone who
knows me is familiar with my grace and skills," Aleya told herself. She had not made it to
school a single day without falling down one place or another. In fact, she'd had close
encounters with all the ditches and potholes on the way to school. Once, her hair caught on
fire in the chemistry lab.
    The whole crowd watched as Aleya slowly balanced her steps and almost approached the
Student Center. "They just might think differently of me," she told herself and smiled. The
bake sale table was two steps away, and Aleya's smile was never more radiant. She bent
down carefully to place the cake on the table when her friend Josh offered to help her. He
attempted to carry the cake without Aleya's permission, and disaster struck. The world
stopped spinning for a fraction of a second. The cake fell on the ground, the tray broke into
pieces, and Aleya's heart sank. "Well, thanks, Josh," she nearly screamed and stormed out of
the Student Center.

13. What Aleya says to Josh is sarcastic because:

   A. she is generally doing things at the Student Center alone.
   B. she is thankful that her attempt of being graceful is over.
   C. she is confused about Josh trying to help her at all.
   D. she is not grateful for his role in the cake disaster.

14. What is ironic about Aleya telling herself "Anyone who knows me is familiar with
    my grace and skills"?

   A. She does not like baking delicacies.
   B. She hates walking to school alone.
   C. She knows that she is pretty clumsy.
   D. She is unaware of what people think.

15. In this story, the bus is a symbol of:

   A. the town's hidden evil.
   B. the fear of growing old.
   C. Katya's unknown future.
   D. Katya's anger toward Irina.

16. Which of the following is used as a symbol of hope in this story?

   A. the cold wind
   B. the rising sun
   C. the bus driver
   D. the bus bench
                                           The Chase

                     Benny gave happiness a shot.
                     He kissed his wrinkled Mom who loved him best.
                     He gave the rest of love to his sweet Dad.
                     With torn shoes and a threadbare shirt,
                     He spent the very last dollar he had on a dream.
                     He bought a ticket for lottery, the age-old game—
                     The short-cut to some money and some fame.

                     The days turned into nights, and he had won
                     A million dollars from the crumpled one.
                     He danced with joy and sang around the block.
                     His feet moved lighter than a feather's flight.
                     Benny was richer than all the folks he knew.
                     He had it all a wealthy man desired—
                     A shiny house, a sparkly car, and silky suits.

                     But, Benny could not sleep at all at night.
                     The sight of so much wealth gave him a fright.
                     He guarded his treasure more than Mom and Dad.
                     And every day, our Benny was just sad.
                     "I'm happier than a prisoner," Benny cried.
 17. Which of these best describes the irony in the poem?

   A. Benny tries to buy shiny and sparkly things for himself.
   B. Mom and Dad don't believe in buying lottery tickets.
   C. Benny pursues happiness, but he ends up being sad.
   D. The lottery money can buy Benny everything he wants.

18. Read this sentence from the passage.

                        "I'm happier than a prisoner," Benny cried.

   The dialogue an example of which literary element?

   A. personification
   B. foreshadowing
   C. imagery
   D. irony
    The lady with the pet dog tried to walk as fast as she could. This was her time for
exercising, thinking, relaxing, and planning. On the evenings, she got out of the house to
flee the constant outpour of relatives and neighbors. She even wanted to escape the
television, the radio, or her husband reading the newspaper out loud. When the sun was
about to set, it was her time to be herself. She adjusted her scarf and smiled to herself for
she had an hour of absolute bliss. May be I can think of the next book to read, she thought,
trying to narrow down her interests. The dog trotted in his pace, and the lady now took
dainty, little footsteps. She was slowly relaxing until she saw a group of her neighbors
walking to her directions. Her hopes of peace and quiet sank. They seemed overly excited
and chatty upon spotting her.
    "Hey, how in the world are you?" the loudest in the group asked.
    "Oh great," the lady with the pet dog responded. "You guys showed up just on time."
    "Would you like to join us for a little shopping spree?" the loud lady asked again. "We
are going to the big sale. It is rush hour at the mall, but you enjoy company. Maybe drop off
your dog first?"
    "That's exactly what I was thinking of doing," she said, trying to think of ways to escape
the group.

19. Which sentence from the story is an example of verbal irony?

   A. When the sun was about to set, it was her time to be herself.
   B. They seemed overly excited and chatty upon spotting her.
   C. The lady with the pet dog tried to walk as fast as she could.
   D. "That's exactly what I was thinking of doing," she said. . .

20. What is ironic about this sentence from the story?

   "You guys showed up just on time."

   A. The group shows up when the lady least wants them to.
   B. The lady with the pet dog is in need of some company.
   C. The group seems to have an accurate timing that evening.
   D. The lady with the pet dog is impolite and inconsiderate.

   Cassie was on her hands and knees and could feel the rough ground against her skin. The
night was so dark that Cassie felt blind. She spent a couple minutes moving her hands across
the forest floor, trying to find what she had tripped over. Giving up, she stood up and
immediately felt dizzy from the sensation of being lost in a void. The nature sounds around
her seemed preternaturally loud and menacing. Cassie's heart raced in her chest as it had
since she first got lost in the woods.
   The gravity of her situation began to sink in. She needed to sit down and wait until
sunrise. She could not sleep tonight; she had to stay alert to her surroundings.
   Sticking her arms out, Cassie felt her hands brush against a large tree trunk. She squatted
down and leaned against the tree. She closed her eyes to help her focus on the sounds
around her.
    Suddenly Cassie's body jolted. Cassie opened her eyes, but they felt heavy. She silently
scolded herself for letting her guard down, but she forgot all about that when she saw the
light in the distance. It was faint and far off, but it was definitely glowing. The night was
still dark, and Cassie was still alone, but now she felt a renewed strength. She stood up and
began the laborious task of moving through the treacherous forest. She kept her gaze toward
the light and felt its warm glow inside her.

21. The light symbolizes Cassie's:

      A. solitude.
      B. fear.
      C. disorientation.
      D. hope.

22.      Juan whistled on his way to the library. He smiled at the birds perched on the
      sycamore tree. He would have blown a kiss to the clear sky if he had known that no
      one was watching. He would have also frolicked down the sidewalk if he had been
      younger than 13 years old. Juan felt so good that he started singing his favorite song
      about spring. As he looked upon the budding leaves, he was overcome with joy.
         "You look ecstatic," Benito said tapping Juan from behind.
         "Well, I certainly hate this terrible weather," Juan responded, giving Benito a

      What is ironic about Juan's response to Benito?

      A. He hates being disturbed on his way to school.
      B. He despises admitting that he loves the weather.
      C. He is really confused by Benito's remarks.
      D. His actions show that he really likes spring.

23.      As a team captain, Selma believed in giving each of her teammates a fair chance.
      So, even after repeated oppositions from them, she chose Eve as the speaker for the
      next quiz bowl. As Ralph, Tom, and Bianca rolled their eyes, Eve smiled the biggest
      smile and rolled up her sleeves. Being the smart aleck that she was, Eve hastily
      answered the questions without consulting the team. Before they knew it, Team Star
      Far was at the bottom in the first round.
         Although Ralph and Bianca tried to keep their cool, Tom could not control
      himself. "Congratulations, you did it," Tom said to Eve and angrily waited for the
      second round.

      What is sarcastic about the Tom's congratulating Eve?
      A. He is actually angry about losing the first round.
      B. He thinks Eve can do a better job in the next round.
      C. He is encouraging Eve to help the team win.
      D. He is confused about Selma being the team captain.

24.       Today was the day. Ernesto was going to confront his father. In fact, Ernesto was
      going to face himself. He had long made the decision of going to college for social
      work, but he could not dare tell his father. Ernesto's family was made of lawyers and
      war veterans. Even his cousins were in law school. But his heart desired a different
      path. His father knew about his acceptance but not about the program he had chosen
      to study. So, Ernesto had to state the fact to his expectant father.
          "Father, I have decided to study social work at Yale," he said.
          The father responded with his back facing Ernesto, "        "

      Which of these would best fill in the blank and add verbal irony or sarcasm to this

      A. They teach social work at that university?
      B. Why are you not listening to your father?
      C. Well, doesn't that just light up my day!
      D. Congratulations on your acceptance, son!


     Juan had finally decided to give yoga a try. After all, he had heard so much about it. The
senior year had not been all it was hyped to be, and Juan needed to relieve stress before the
midterms arrived. In preparation for yoga, Juan read some fitness magazines in the library
and watched some video on the Internet. He decided against going to a gym class because
he wanted to try something on his own. Juan was ready to make the stiffness of his muscles
disappear and to become a relaxed person.
     To Juan's dismay, yoga did not turn out to be as simple as people had made it look. The
stretching and balancing took a toll on his back. Although Juan thought about asking a
professional yoga instructor for advice, he did not want to waste more time before the
midterms. He tried his best to relax before he hit the books and tried yoga. Before he knew
it, Juan ended up spending more time practicing yoga than studying for his exams. Juan was
more stressed out than ever when the mid-term week began.

25. Which of these BEST describes the irony in Juan's situation?

      A. Juan already knows how to best prepare for his midterm exams.
      B. Juan tries so hard to relieve stress that he gets more stressed out.
      C. Juan wants to learn and practice yoga, but he is already good at it.
      D. Juan reads fitness magazines in the library, but they misinform him.

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