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					War of 1812
       War of 1812: Effects
• Disappearance of Federalist Party
• Development of American industry
• Growth of American Nationalism: US is
  free & independent
• Strengthening of Isolation
• Increase of Westward Migration
The American System
What does this picture suggest might be
improvements included in the American System?
       The American System

                  Tariff of 1816


                Second Bank of the
                 U. S.


                Internal improvements
                 at federal expense.
 Henry Clay,        - National Road
 “The Great
Compromiser”
            Historical Note
• Compare internal improvements, national
  road, to the thesis in Hamilton’s Report on
  Industry and Manufactures
The American System
           The American System

   WEST  got roads, canals, and
          federal aid.


 EAST  got the backing of
         protective tariffs from the
         West.


 SOUTH  ??
                    Cumberland
               “National Road,” 1811




How did the building of this road affect growth in these
areas?
         Compare to Today
• What might be considered a “national
  road” today?
• What is the preferred form of national
  transportation today comparable to the
  national road of the mid 19th century?
    First Turnpike
  Lancaster, PA (1790)




By 1832, nearly 2400 mi. of road
  connected most major cities.
President Monroe
James Monroe [1816-1824]
            Panic of 1819
What do you think were the major
 components of this panic?
                 The Panic of 1819




What type of panic does this portrayal show?
               Panic of 1819
• The Panic of 1819 was the first major financial
  crisis in the United States. 1] It resulted in
  widespread foreclosures, bank failures,
  unemployment, and a slump in agriculture and
  manufacturing.
• However, things would change for the US
  economy after the Second Bank of the United
  States was founded in 1816,[2] in response to the
  spread of bank notes across United States from
  private banks, due to inflation brought on by the
  debt following the war.[3]

• Wikipedia
Adams-Onis Treaty
            Adams-Onis Treaty
• In addition to granting Florida to the United States, the
  treaty settled a boundary dispute along the Sabine River
  in Texas and firmly established the boundary of U.S.
  territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and
  west to the Pacific Ocean in exchange for the U.S.
  paying residents' claims against the Spanish
  government[clarify] up to a total of $5,000,000 and
  relinquishing its own claims on parts of Texas west of the
  Sabine River and other Spanish areas.

• Wikipedia
Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819
Compromise of 1820- Missouri
       Compromise
The Compromise of 1820:
 Jefferson in letter of April 1820
• “I thank you, Dear Sir, for the copy you have been so
  kind as to send me of the letter to your constituents on
  the Missouri question. it is a perfect justification to them.
  I had for a long time ceased to read the newspapers or
  pay any attention to public affairs, confident they were in
  good hands, and content to be a passenger in our bark
  to the shore from which I am not distant. but this
  momentous question, like a fire bell in the night,
  awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it at
  once as the knell of the Union. it is hushed indeed for the
  moment. but this is a reprieve only, not a final sentence.
  a geographical line, coinciding with a marked principle,
  moral and political, once concieved and held up to the
  angry passions of men, will never be obliterated; and
  every new irritation will mark it deeper and deeper.”
• Compare to previous “solutions” of the
  race problem in the US
• 3/5 Compromise
• North South Compromise
Slave Rebellion
             Denmark Vessey
• Slave Rebellion in South Carolina in 1822
• Purchased his own freedom and was caught and
  executed before he could start a rebellion
• Many believe that as many as 9,000 slaves were
  prepared to rebel
• 35 leaders were eventually hung for conspiracy
• IN response to continuing fears guardsmen were hired
  and an arsenal created. Eventually cheaper cadets were
  hired and a military academy started called the Citadel.
Monroe Doctrine
What is
portrayed in this
cartoon on the
Monroe
Doctrine?
           Monroe Doctrine
• "The American continents ... are
  henceforth not to be considered as
  subjects for future colonization by any
  European powers."

• Monroe Doctrine
          Connect to Today
• Are there any foreign policy doctrines
  associated with our current president?
Andrew Jackson
Voting Requirements
Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
Voter Turnout
  Voter
 Turnout:
1820 - 1860
    The
 “Common
  Man’s”
Presidential
 Candidate
Election of 1824
Results of
 the 1824
 Election

    A
 “Corrupt
Bargain?”
Rachel Jackson
    1828 Election: Key Issue
        Rachel Jackson




Final Divorce Decree
1828 election
1828 Election Results
              The Reign of “King Mob”




"The reign of King Mob seemed triumphant," said an old
gentleman; "I was glad to escape from the scene as soon as
possible."
           JQA on Jackson
• “I could not be present to see my darling
  Harvard disgrace herself by conferring a
  Doctor’s degree upon a barbarian and
  savage who could scarcely spell his own
  name.”
              Spoils System
• “…a spoils system is an informal practice
  where a political party, after winning an election,
  gives government jobs to its voters as a reward
  for working toward victory, and as an incentive to
  keep working for the party—as opposed to a
  system of awarding offices on the basis of some
  measure of merit independent of political activity.
  “

• Wikipedia
Cherokee Nation and Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
Indian Removal & Trail of Tears

1.   1830  Indian Removal Act – “voluntary” remobval
     of native Americans rom valued lands I the
     southeastern United States.
2.   Cherokee Nation v. Georgia - 1831
3    Worcester v. GA (1832)
4. Jackson:
       John Marshall has made his
       decision, now let him enforce
       it!
   Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
“…enacted a series of laws which stripped
  the Cherokee of their rights under the laws
  of the state, with the intention to force the
  Cherokee to leave the state.”

Wikipedia
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia - 1831
The Supreme Court did not have original
 jurisdiction under Article III of the
 Constitution to hear a suit brought by the
 Cherokee Nation, which as an Indian tribe,
 was not a sovereign nation.
  Worcester v. Georgia - 1832
States were not permitted to redraw the
  boundaries of Indian lands or forbid
  residence in those territories, because the
  Constitution granted sole authority to
  Congress to regulate relations with
  sovereign Indian tribes. Superior Court of
  Gwinnett County, Georgia reversed and
  remanded.
       Worcester v. Georgia
Worcester v. Georgia, 31 U.S. (6 Pet.) 515
 (1832), was a case in which the United
 States Supreme Court held that Cherokee
 Native Americans were entitled to federal
 protection from the actions of state
 governments which would infringe on the
 tribe's sovereignty. It is considered one of
 the most influential decisions in law
 dealing with Native Americans.
 Jackson v. the Supreme Court
"John Marshall has made his decision;
  let him enforce it now if he can."
Indian Removal
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
 Trail of Tears – sample. Of the 22,000 who started over 5,000 died on
                                the trail.
Leader             Departed         Arrived         # Departed   # Arrived

Hair Conrad        Aug. 23, 1838    Jan. 17, 1839      729         654

Elijah Hicks       Sept. 1, 1838    Jan. 4, 1839       858         744

Jessy Bushyhead    Sept. 3, 1838    Feb. 27, 1839      950         898

John Benge         Sept. 28, 1838   Jan. 17, 1839     1200         1132

Situwakee          Sept. 7, 1838    Feb. 2, 1839      1250         1033

Old Field          Sept. 24, 1838   Feb. 23, 1838      983         921

Moses Daniel       Sept. 30, 1838   Mar. 2, 1839      1035         924

Choowalooka        Sept. 24, 1838   Mar. 5, 1839      1150         970

James Brown        Sept. 10, 1838   Mar. 5, 1839       850         717

George Hicks       Sept. 7, 1838    Mar. 14, 1839     1118         1039

Richard Taylor     Sept. 20, 1838   Mar. 24, 1839     1029         942

Peter Hildebrand   Oct. 23, 1838    Mar. 24, 1839     1766         1311

John Drew          Dec. 5, 1838     Mar. 18, 1839      231         219
What would we call the forced movement of
 a group of people based upon their racial
 or ethnic background today?
Peggy Eaton Affair
The “Peggy Eaton Affair”- 1831
Slave Rebellion
                Nat Turner
• Started a rebellion in Southampton County
  Virginia with the killing of a ll of the family
  of his owner. Eventually, at least 55
  whites were killed and at least 15 slaves
  were hung as responsible for the murders.
               Nat Turner
• Attempted slave rebellion in Virginia in
  1831
Portrayal of Turner’s Rebellion
Portrayal of Turner’s Rebellion
Abolitionist Press
       William Lloyd Garrison
• The Liberator - 1831

• "I do not wish to think, or speak, or write,
  with moderation. . . . I am in earnest—I will
  not equivocate—I will not excuse—I will
  not retreat a single inch—and I WILL BE
  HEARD."
Tariffs and Nullification
    1832 Tariff Conflict and
      Nullification Crisis
3   1828 --> “Tariff of
             Abomination”
3   1832 --> new tariff
3   South Carolina’s reaction?
3   Jackson’s response?
3   Clay’s “Compromise” Tariff?
                   Tariff of 1828
•   “Tariff of Abominations”
•   Protective tariff for northern industries
•   No tariff protection for southern agricultural products
•   Southerners thought unconstitutional because one
    section of trhe country was favored over another
The Webster-Hayne
     Debate



Sen. Daniel   Sen. Robert
 Webster        Hayne
   [MA]          [SC]
       Webster-Hayne Debates
•   1830
•   Tariffs
•   Nullifications
•   States rights
            1830
Webster:
    Liberty and Union, now and
    forever, one and inseparable.
Jackson:
    Our Federal Union—it must be
    preserved.
Calhoun:
    The Union, next to our liberty,
    most dear.
                      Hayne
• " It is said, sir, that we learn from our own
  misfortunes how to feel for the sufferings of
  others; and perhaps the present condition of the
  southern states has served to impress more
  deeply on my mind the grievious oppression of a
  system by which the wealth of a country is
  drained off to be expended elsewhere. In that
  devoted region, sir, in which my lot has been
  cast, it is our misfortune to stand in that relation
  to the federal government, which subjects us to a
  taxation, which it requires the utmost efforts of
  our industry to meet.
                  Hayne contd.
• Nearly the whole amount of our contributions is
  expended abroad -- we stand towards the United States
  in the relation of Ireland to England. The fruits of our
  labors are drawn from us to enrich other and more
  favored sections of the union, while, with one of the
  finest climates and the richest products in the world,
  furnishing, with one-third of the population, two-thirds of
  the whole exports of the country, we exhibit the
  extraordinary, the wonderful and painful spectacle of a
  country, enriched by the bounty of God, but blasted by
  the cruel policy of man. The rank grass grows in our
  streets; our very fields are scathed by the hand of
  injustice and oppression.
                Hayne contd
• I am opposed, therefore, in any shape, to all
  unnecessary extension fo the powers or the
  influence of the legislature or executive of the
  union of the states; and, most of all, I am
  opposed to those partial distributions of favors
  whether by legislation or appropriation, which
  has a direct and powerful tendency to spread
  corruption through the land -- to create an abject
  spirit of dependence -- to sow the seeds of
  dissolution -- to produce jealousy among the
  different portions of the union, and, finally, to sap
  the very foundations of the government itself.
                Webster
• “I have not allowed myself, sir, to look
  beyond the Union, to see what might be
  hidden in the dark recess behind. I have
  not coolly weighed the chances of
  preserving liberty when the bonds that
  unite us together shall be broken asunder.
  I have not accustomed myself to hang
  over the precipice of disunion, to see
  whether, with my short sight, I can fathom
  the depth of the abyss below …”
              Webster contd.
• “God grant that in my day, at least, that curtain
  may not rise! God grant that on my vision never
  may be opened what lies behind! When my eyes
  shall be turned to behold for the last time the sun
  in heaven, may I not see him shining on the
  broken and dishonored fragments of a once
  glorious Union; on states dissevered, discordant,
  belligerent; on a land rent with civil feuds, or
  drenched, it may be, in fraternal blood!”
                Webster contd.
• “Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold
  the gorgeous ensign of the republic, now known and
  honored throughout the earth, still full high advanced, its
  arms and trophies streaming in their original luster, not a
  stripe erased or polluted, nor a single star obscured,
  bearing for its motto, no such miserable interrogatory as
  "What is all this worth?" nor those other words of
  delusion and folly, "Liberty first and Union afterwards";
  but everywhere, spread all over in characters of living
  light, blazing on all its ample folds, as they float over the
  sea and over the land, and in every wind under the
  whole heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true
  American heart— Liberty and Union, now and forever,
  one and inseparable!”
Nullification Crisis
    South Carolina Exposition on
            Nullification
• South Carolina’s legislature paid for the
  printing of 5,000 copies of the pamphlet
    South Carolina Exposition
” . . [The Federal] Government is one of specific
  powers, and it can rightfully exercise only the
  powers expressly granted, and those that may
  be "necessary and proper" to carry them into
  effect; all others being reserved expressly to the
  States, or to the people. It results necessarily,
  that those who claim to exercise a power under
  the Constitution, are bound to shew [sic], that it
  is expressly granted, or that it is necessary and
  proper, as a means to some of the granted
  powers. The advocates of the Tariff have
  offered no such proof. “
                Exposition contd.
“It is true, that the third [sic; eighth] section of the first article
    of the Constitution of the United States authorizes
    Congress to lay and collect an impost duty, but it is
    granted as a tax power, for the sole purpose of
    revenue; a power in its nature essentially different from
    that of imposing protective or prohibitory
    duties. . . . The Constitution grants to Congress the
    power of imposing a duty on imports for revenue; which
    power is abused by being converted into an instrument
    for rearing up the industry of one section of the country
    on the ruins of another. The violation then consists in
    using a power, granted for one object, to advance
    another, and that by the sacrifice of the original
    object. . . . “
         Calhoun Resigned
• July 1832
              New Tariff
1. A tariff with some changes was
   introduced in 1832
2. 45% to 35%
   South Carolina Nullification
• In November of 1932, the South Carolina
  Legislature nullified the tariffs of 1828 and
  1832 by a vote of 136 to 26.
          Nullification Crisis
• South Carolina prepared military trops or
  what it believed to be an eminent invasion
  by northern
      Force Bill – March 1833
“The United States Force Bill (enacted
  March 2, 1833) authorized U.S. President
  Andrew Jackson's use of whatever force
  necessary to enforce tariffs. It was
  intended to suppress South Carolina's
  nullification of tariffs. Opponents of the bill
  referred to it as Jackson's Bloody Bill or
  War Bill.
Wikipedia
             Tariff of 1833
At the same time as the passage of the
  Force Bill, congress passed the Tariff of
  1833 that ended up being acceptable to
  South Carolina.
               Nullification
South Carolina nullified the Force Bill
Since no specific state right to nullification is
Expressed in the Constitution, is it possible
  that such a right exists?
               Force Bill
What 20th Century president used the Force
 Bill?
Jackson on South Carolina
• "If one drop of blood be shed in South
  Carolina in defiance of the laws of the
  U.S., I will hang the first of the nullifiers I
  can get my hands on."

• Andrew Jackson
   Jackson on South Carolina
• "Those who told you," he wrote to the
  people of his native state, "that you might
  peacefully prevent . . .execution [of the
  laws] deceived you. . . . Their object is
  disunion. But be not deceived by names.
  Disunion by armed force is treason. Are
  you really ready to incur its guilt?“

• Andrew Jackson
2nd Bank of the US
        Jackson on the Bank
• "The Bank, Mr. Van Buren, is trying to kill
  me, but I will kill it!"
The National Bank
     Debate



Nicholas     President
 Biddle       Jackson
1832 election
                Bank Issue
•   Jackson’s view of banks?
•   Jackson’s veto
•   1832 election
•   Effects
    – Deposits?
    – Panic of 1837
1832 Election Results




                         Main
                        Issue?
              Lead-in to crisis
• Madison pushed for rechartering to handle debt from
  the war of 1812 – rechartered in 1816
• By 1818, the bank had over extended itself and
  began to call back loans, causing financial
  contraction and leading to panic
• Corruption problems in the 1830s
• Jackson on the bank, “beyond question that this great and
  powerful institution had been actively engaged in attempting
  to influence the elections of the public officers by means of its
  money.”
• Jackson wants to kill the bank before it dies
• Jackson vetoed an extension of the bank, pushed through
  congress by Henry Clay in 1832
                2nd BUS
Jackson ordered his Secretaries of the
  Treasury to stop depositing money in the
  BUS
One refused and was fired
A second refused and was fired
A third, Roger Taney, agreed
An 1832
Cartoon:
  “King
Andrew”?
The Downfall of “Mother
       Bank”
The 1836 Election
Results



 Martin Van Buren

  “Old Kinderhook”
       [O. K.]
  The
Panic of
 1837
Spreads
Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in
   Retirement
   Photo of Andrew
    Jackson in 1844
(one year before his death)



                 1767 - 1845
 Jackson’s Use of
  Federal Power

           VETO
1830  Maysville Road project
       in KY [state of his
       political rival, Henry
       Clay]
Opposition to the                          2 nd

      B.U.S.
      “Soft”                            “Hard”
    (paper) $                         (specie) $

3    state bankers felt    3   felt that coin was
     it restrained their       the only safe
     banks from issuing        currency.
     bank notes freely.
                           3   didn’t like any bank
3    supported rapid           that issued bank
     economic growth           notes.
     & speculation.
                           3   suspicious of
                               expansion &
                               speculation.
    The “Monster” Is
3   “pet Destroyed!
         banks”?
3   1832  Jackson vetoed the
           extension of the 2nd
           National Bank of the
           United States.
3   1836  the charter expired.
3   1841  the bank went
           bankrupt!
     The Specie
    Circular (1836)
3   “wildcat banks.”
3   buy future federal
    land only with gold or
    silver.
3   Jackson’s goal?
Results of the Specie
          Circular
 $ Banknotes loose their value.
 $ Land sales plummeted.
 $ Credit not available.
 $ Businesses began to fail.
 $ Unemployment rose.


    The Panic of 1837!
             Jackson 1837
• "After eight years as President I have only
  two regrets: that I have not shot Henry
  Clay or hanged John C. Calhoun."--

				
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