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									Ivan Palau Martínez 3ºB y Roque Hernández Such 3ºD




Lisbon

Coordinates:   38°42′N 9°11′W38.7°N 9.183°W


Lisbon
Lisboa
Flag                             Seal


Location of Lisbon in Portugal
Coordinates:      38°42′N 9°11′W38.7°N 9.183°W

Country           Portugal
Region            Lisboa Region
District          Lisbon District
Government
- Mayor           António Costa (elected) PS
Area
- City            84.8 km2 (32.7 sq mi)
- Metro           2,957.4 km2 (1,141.9 sq mi)
Population
- City            480,766(est.2009)
- Density         6,368/km2 (16,493/sq mi)
- Metro           2,661,850(est.2009)
Time zone         GMT (UTC+0)
Website           www.cm-lisboa.pt

Lisbon (Lisboa, Portuguese pronunciation: [liʒˈboɐ]) is the capital and largest city of
Portugal. It is considered an alpha global city and is the seat of the district of Lisbon and
the main city of the Lisbon region. Its municipality, which matches the city proper
excluding the larger continuous conurbation, has a municipal population of 564,477[1] in
84.8 km2 (33 sq mi), while the Lisbon Metropolitan Area in total has around 2.8 million
inhabitants, and 3.34 million people live in the broader agglomeration of Lisbon
Metropolitan Region (includes cities ranging from Leiria to Setúbal).[2]

Due to its economic output, standard of living, and market size, the Grande Lisboa
(Greater Lisbon) subregion is considered the second most important financial and
economic centre in the Iberian Peninsula.[3] The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region
in Portugal and it is well above the European Union's GDP per capita average – it
produces 37% of the Portuguese GDP. It is also the political centre of the country, as
seat of government and residence of the Head of State.

The city was under Roman rule from 205 BC, when it was already a 1000 year old
town. Julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name
Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by
Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered
the city for the Christians and since then it has been a major political, economic and
cultural center of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of
Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form.
Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its
position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal.

Lisbon hosts two agencies of the European Union, namely, the European Monitoring
Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the European Maritime Safety
Agency (EMSA). The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), is also
headquartered in Lisbon.

Contents
[hide]

        1 Geography and location
            o 1.1 Location
        2 History
            o 2.1 Neolithic era to the Roman Empire
            o 2.2 Roman Empire to the Moorish conquest
            o 2.3 Moorish rule
            o 2.4 From the Middle Ages to the Portuguese Empire
            o 2.5 1755 Lisbon earthquake
            o 2.6 19th and 20th centuries
            o 2.7 Contemporary events
        3 Climate
        4 Demographics
        5 Culture and sights
            o 5.1 Alfama
            o 5.2 Baixa
            o 5.3 Chiado
            o 5.4 Bairro Alto
            o 5.5 Estrela
            o 5.6 Alcântara
           o   5.7 Belém
           o   5.8 Gare do Oriente
           o   5.9 Lisbon trams and funiculars
      6 Economy
      7 Transport
      8 Education
      9 Sports
      10 Parishes
      11 Prominent people born in Lisbon
      12 International relations
           o 12.1 Twin towns - Sister cities
      13 Gallery
      14 See also
      15 References
      16 External links



Geography and location
Location




Lisbon seen from a SPOT Satellite

Lisbon is situated at 38°42' north, 9°5' west, making it the westernmost capital in
mainland Europe. It is located in the west of the country, on the Atlantic Ocean coast at
the point where the river Tagus flows into the Atlantic Ocean.

The city occupies an area of 84.8 km2 (33 sq mi). The city boundaries, unlike those of
most major cities, are narrowly defined around the historical city perimeter. This gave
rise to the existence of several administratively defined cities around Lisbon, such as
Amadora, Queluz, Agualva-Cacém, Odivelas, Loures, Sacavém, Almada, Barreiro,
Seixal and Oeiras, which are in fact part of the metropolitan perimeter of Lisbon.
The western side of the city is mainly occupied by the Monsanto Forest Park, one of the
largest urban parks in Europe with an area close to 10 square kilometres (almost
4 sq mi).

History
Main article: History of Lisbon

Neolithic era to the Roman Empire




The Castle of Saint George has played an important role in the history of Lisbon
throughout the ages, for example, by protecting its citizens or being the residence of the
royal family.

During the Neolithic the region was inhabited by Iberian-related peoples, who also lived
in other regions of Atlantic Europe at the time. They built religious monuments called
megaliths. Dolmens and menhirs still survive in the countryside around the city.

The Indo-European Celts invaded after the first millennium BC and intermarried with
the Pre-Indo-European population, giving a rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as
the Cempsi.

Archaeological findings suggest that some Phoenician influence existed in the place
since 1200 BC, leading some historians to the theory that a Phoenician trading post
might have occupied the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle
hill. The magnificent harbour provided by the estuary of the river Tagus made it an ideal
spot for a settlement to provide foodstuffs to Phoenician ships travelling to the tin
islands (modern Isles of Scilly) and Cornwall.

The new city might have been named Allis Ubbo or "safe harbor" in Phoenician,
according to one of several theories for the origin of its name.[4] Another theory is that it
took its name from the pre-Roman name of the River Tagus, Lisso or Lucio.

Besides sailing to the North, the Phoenicians might also have taken advantage of a
settlement at the mouth of Iberia's largest river to trade with the inland tribes for
valuable metals. Other important local products were salt, salted fish, and the Lusitanian
horses that were renowned in antiquity.
Recently, Phoenician remains from the eighth century BC were found beneath the
Mediaeval Sé de Lisboa (Lisbon See), or main Cathedral of the modern city. Most
modern historians,[5] however, consider the idea of a Phoenician foundation of Lisbon
as unreal, and instead believe that Lisbon was an ancient autochthonous settlement
(what the Romans called an oppidum) that at most, maintained commercial relations
with the Phoenicians, to account for the presence of Phoenician pottery and other
material objects.

The Greeks knew Lisbon as Olissipo (Ολισσιπο) and "Olissipona" (Ολισσιπονα), a
name they thought was derived from Ulysses, though this was a folk etymology.
According to an Ancient Greek myth, the hero founded the city after he left Troy, and
departed to the Atlantic to escape the Greek coalition.

If all of Odysseus' travels were in the Atlantic as Cailleux[6] argued, then this could
mean that Odysseus founded the city coming from the north, before trying to round
Cape Malea, (which Cailleux located at Cabo de São Vicente), in a southeasterly
direction, to reach his homeland of Ithaca, supposedly present Cadiz. However, the
presence of Phoenicians (even if occasional) is thought to predate any Greek presence in
the area.

Later on, the Greek name was corrupted in vulgar Latin to Olissipona. Some of the
native gods worshiped in Lisbon were Aracus, Carneus, Bandiarbariaicus and
Coniumbricenses.

Roman Empire to the Moorish conquest




Lisbon Cathedral, built after 1147 over the remnants of the mosque of the Islamic
period.

During the Punic wars, after the defeat of Hannibal (whose troops included members of
the Conii[citation needed]) the Romans decided to deprive Carthage of its most valuable
possession, Hispania (the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian
Peninsula). After the defeat of the Carthaginians by Scipio Africanus in Eastern
Hispania, the pacification of the West was led by Consul Decimus Junius Brutus
Callaicus.

He obtained the alliance of Olissipo which sent men to fight alongside the Legions
against the Celtic tribes of the Northwest. In return, Olissipo was integrated in the
Empire under the name of Felicitas Julia, a Municipium Cives Romanorum. It was
granted self-rule over a territory going as far away as 50 kilometres (30 miles),
exempted from taxes, and its citizens given the privileges of Roman citizenship.

It was in the newly created province of Lusitania, whose capital was Emerita Augusta.
The attacks by the Lusitanians during the frequent rebellions over the next couple of
centuries weakened the city, and a wall was built.

During the time of Augustus the Romans built a great Theatre; the Cassian Baths
underneath the current Rua da Prata; Temples to Jupiter, Diana, Cybele, Tethys and
Idae Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from Asia Minor), besides temples to the Emperor; a
large necropolis under Praça da Figueira; a large Forum and other buildings such as
insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between the modern Castle hill
and Downtown.

Many of these ruins were first unearthed during the middle Eighteenth century, when
the recent discovery of Pompeii made Roman Archeology fashionable among Europe's
upper classes.

Economically strong, Olissipo was known for its garum, a sort of fish sauce highly
prized by the elites of the Empire and exported in Amphorae to Rome and other cities.
Wine, salt and its famously fast horses were also exported.

The city came to be very prosperous through suppression of piracy and technological
advances, which allowed a boom in the trade with the newly Roman Provinces of
Britannia (particularly Cornwall) and the Rhine, and through the introduction of Roman
culture to the tribes living by the river Tagus in the interior of Hispania.

The city was ruled by an oligarchical council dominated by two families, the Julii and
the Cassiae. Petitions are recorded addressed to the Governor of the province in Emerita
and to the Empreror Tiberius, such as one requesting help dealing with "sea monsters"
allegedly responsible for shipwrecks.

The Roman Sertorius led a large rebellion against the Dictator Sulla early in the Roman
Period.

Among the majority of Latin speakers lived a large minority of Greek traders and
slaves.

The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities,
Bracara Augusta in the province of Tarraconensis (today's Portuguese Braga), and
Emerita Augusta, the capital of Lusitania (now Mérida in Spain).

Olissipo, like most great cities in the Western Empire, was a centre for the
dissemination of Christianity. Its first attested Bishop was St. Potamius (c. 356), and
there were several martyrs killed by the pagans during the great persecutions; Maxima,
Verissimus and Julia are the most significant names.

At the end of the Roman domain, Olissipo was one of the first Christian cities. It
suffered invasions from the Sarmatian Alans and the Germanic Vandals, who controlled
the region from 409 to 429. The Germanic Suebi, who established a kingdom in
Gallaecia (modern Galicia and northern Portugal), with capital in Bracara Augusta
(Braga), from 409 to 585, also controlled the region of Lisbon for long periods of time.

In 585 the Suebi kingdom was included in the Germanic Visigothic kingdom of Toledo,
that comprised all of the Iberian Peninsula. Lisbon was then called Ulishbona.

Moorish rule

On August 6, 711 Lisbon was taken by the Moors (it was called al-ʾIšbūnah in Arabic
‫ ,)األ ش بون ة‬under whose rule the city flourished.[citation needed] The Moors, who were
Muslims from North Africa and the Middle East, built many mosques and houses as
well as a new city wall, currently named the Cerca Moura. The city kept a diverse
population including Christians, Berbers, Arabs, Jews and Saqalibas.

Arabic was forced on the Christians as the official language. Mozarabic was the mother
language spoken by the Christian population. Islam was the official religion practiced
by the Arabs and Muladi (muwallad), the Christians could keep their religion but under
Dhimmi status and were required to pay the jizyah.

The Moorish influence is still present in Alfama, the old part of Lisbon that survived the
1755 Lisbon earthquake. Many placenames are derived from Arabic; the Alfama, the
oldest existing district of Lisbon, for example, is derived from the Arabic "al-hamma".

For a brief time during the Taifa period Lisbon was the center town in the Regulo
Eslavo of the Taifa of Badajoz and then as an independent Taifa ruled by Abd al-Aziz
ibn Sabur and Abd al-Malik ibn Sabur sons of Sabur al-Jatib (Sabur the Slav), a Slav
that had been at the service of al-Hakam II before ruling the Taifa of Badajoz.

In 1147, as part of the Reconquista, crusader knights led by Afonso I of Portugal, sieged
and reconquered Lisbon. The city, with around 154,000 residents at the time, returned to
Christian rule.

The reconquest of Portugal and re-establishment of Christianity is one of the most
significant events in Lisbon's history; although it is known through the chronicle
Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, attributed to Osburnus, that there was a bishop in the town
that was killed by the crusaders and that the population was praying to the Virgin Mary
when afflicted with plague, which indicates that the Mozarab population followed the
Mozarabic rite. Arabic lost its place in everyday life. Any remaining Muslim population
were gradually converted to Roman Catholicism, or expelled, and the mosques were
turned into churches. (Though in Portuguese historiography this was often mentioned as
"turning the mosques back into churches", in fact many of the structures concerned were
built as mosques to begin with.)

From the Middle Ages to the Portuguese Empire
The Padrão dos Descobrimentos is a contemporary monument dedicated to the
Portuguese Age of Discovery




Belém Tower, a symbol of the Portuguese Age of Discovery.

It received its first Foral in 1179. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-
Andalus to ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In
raid against Lisbon in 1189, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female
and child captives.[7] Lisbon became the capital city of Portugal in 1255 due to its
central location in the new Portuguese territory. The first Portuguese university was
founded in Lisbon in 1290 by Dinis I of Portugal as Estudo Geral (General Study). The
university was transferred several times to Coimbra, where it was installed definitively
in the 16th century (today's University of Coimbra).

During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, the city expanded substantially and
became an important trading post with both northern Europe and Mediterranean cities.

Most of the Portuguese expeditions of the age of discovery left from Lisbon during the
15th to 17th centuries, including Vasco da Gama's departure to India in 1497. In 1506,
thousands of "New Christians" (converted Jews) were massacred in Lisbon.[8] The 16th
century marks the golden age for Lisbon. The city became the European hub of
commerce with Africa, India, the Far East and, later, Brazil, exploring riches like spices,
slaves, sugar, textiles and other goods. This was the time of the exuberant Manueline
style, which has left its mark in two 16th century Lisbon monuments, the Belém Tower
and the Jerónimos Monastery, both of which were declared World Heritage Sites by
UNESCO.

A description of Lisbon in the sixteenth century was written by Damião de Góis and
published in 1554.[9]

Portugal lost its independence to Spain in 1580 after a succession crisis, and the 1640
revolt that restored the Portuguese independence took place in Lisbon (see Philip III of
Portugal). In the early 18th century, gold from Brazil allowed King John V to sponsor
the building of several Baroque churches and theatres in the city.

1755 Lisbon earthquake

Main article: 1755 Lisbon earthquake




This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami
overwhelming the ships in the harbor.




Statue of King José I in Commerce Square (Praça do Comércio), erected in 1775 as
part of the rebuilding of Lisbon after the earthquake of 1755.

Prior to the 18th century, Lisbon had experienced several important earthquakes – eight
in the 14th century, five in the 16th century (including the 1531 earthquake that
destroyed 1,500 houses, and the 1597 earthquake when three streets vanished), and
three in the 17th century. On 1 November 1755 the city was destroyed by another
earthquake, which killed an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Lisbon residents[10] and
destroyed eighty-five percent of the city.[11] With a population estimated at between
200,000 and 275,000 residents,[12][13] Lisbon was, in 1755, one of the largest cities in
Europe. Among several important structures of the city, the Royal Ribeira Palace and
the Royal Hospital of All Saints were lost. The event shocked the whole of Europe.
Voltaire wrote a long poem, "Poême sur le désastre de Lisbonne", shortly after the
quake, and mentioned it in his 1759 novel Candide (indeed, many argue that this
critique of optimism was inspired by that earthquake). Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. also
mentions it in his 1857 poem, The Deacon's Masterpiece, or The Wonderful One-Hoss
Shay. In the town of Cascais, some 30 km west of Lisbon, the waves wrecked several
boats and when the water withdrew, large stretches of sea bottom were left uncovered.
In coastal areas such as Peniche, situated about 80 km north of Lisbon, many people
were killed by the tsunami. In Setúbal, 30 km south of Lisbon, the water reached the
first floor of buildings. The destruction was also great in the Algarve, southern Portugal,
where the tsunami dismantled some coastal fortresses and, in the lower levels, razed
houses. In some places the waves crested at more than 30 m. Almost all the coastal
towns and villages of Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro, which was protected
by sandy banks. In Lagos, the waves reached the top of the city walls. For many
Portuguese coastal regions, the destructive effects of the tsunami were more disastrous
than those of the earthquake proper. In southwestern Spain, the tsunami caused damage
to Cadiz and Huelva, and the waves penetrated the Guadalquivir River, reaching
Seville. In Gibraltar, the sea rose suddenly by about two metres. In Ceuta the tsunami
was strong, but in the Mediterranean Sea, it decreased rapidly. On the other hand, it
caused great damage and casualties to the western coast of Morocco, from Tangier,
where the waves reached the walled fortifications of the town, to Agadir, where the
waters passed over the walls, killing many. The tsunami also reached Cornwall, in the
United Kingdom, at a height of three metres. Along the coast of Cornwall, the sea rose
rapidly in vast waves, and then embedded equally rapidly. A two metre tsunami also hit
Galway in Ireland, and did some considerable damage to the Spanish Arch section of
the city wall.

After the 1755 earthquake, the city was rebuilt largely according to the plans of Prime
Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the 1st Marquess of Pombal; hence the
designation of the lower town as Baixa Pombalina (Pombaline Downtown). Instead of
rebuilding the medieval town, Pombal decided to demolish the remains of the
earthquake and rebuild the downtown in accordance with modern urban rules.

19th and 20th centuries




In 1834 the Assembly of the Republic was installed in the São Bento Palace.

In the first years of the 19th century, Portugal was invaded by the troops of Napoléon
Bonaparte, making Queen Maria I and Prince-Regent João (future John VI) flee
temporarily to Brazil. Considerable property was pillaged by the invaders.

The city felt the full force of the Portuguese liberal upheavals, beginning its tradition of
cafés and theatres. In 1879 the Avenida da Liberdade was opened, replacing a previous
public garden.

Lisbon was the centre of the republican coup of October 5, 1910 which instated the
Portuguese Republic. Previously, it was also the stage of the regicide of Carlos I of
Portugal (1908).

The city refounded its university in 1911 after centuries of inactivity in Lisbon,
incorporating reformed former colleges and other non-university higher education
schools of the city (such as the Escola Politécnica – now Faculdade de Ciências).
Today there are 3 public universities in the city (University of Lisbon, Technical
University of Lisbon and New University of Lisbon), a public university institute
(ISCTE – Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa) and a polytechnic
institute (IPL – Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa). See list of universities in Portugal.

During World War II Lisbon was one of the very few neutral, open European Atlantic
ports, a major gateway for refugees to the U.S. and a spy nest. More than 100,000
refuges were able to flee Nazi Germany via Lisbon.[14]

In 1974, Lisbon was the central destination point of the Carnation Revolution
maneuvers, the end of the Portuguese Corporative Regime (Estado Novo).

In 1988, a fire near the historical centre of Chiado greatly disrupted normal life in the
area for about 10 years.

In 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture.

Expo '98 was held in Lisbon. The timing was intended to commemorate the 500th
anniversary of Vasco da Gama's sea voyage to India.

Contemporary events




In 2007 the Treaty of Lisbon was signed in this city, which initiated a new chapter in
the history of the European Union.

The Lisbon Agenda was a European Union agreement on measures to revitalize the EU
economy, signed in Lisbon in March 2000.

On the 7 July 2007, Lisbon held the ceremony of the "New 7 Wonders Of The
World"[15] election, in Luz stadium, with live transmission for millions of people all
over the world.

In October 2007 Lisbon hosted the 2007 EU Summit, where agreement was reached
regarding a new EU governance model. The resulting Treaty of Lisbon was signed on
the 13 December 2007 and will come in to force on 1 December 2009.

Climate
Lisbon has a Mediterranean climate that is strongly influenced by the Gulf Stream,
giving it one of the mildest climates in Europe. The city is sunny throughout the year,
with an annual average of 2900-3300 hours of sunshine.
Summers are hot and dry with average daytime temperatures of 26–29°C, falling to 16–
18°C at night. Winters are cool and rainy with temperatures around 8–15°C, while
spring and fall are generally mild, or even warm during daytime. Extreme temperatures
may reach 37ºC in some of the warmest summer afternoons and 2°C in the coldest
winter mornings.

From May to September the weather tends to be settled most of the time with blues
skies and some wind as well.

Annual rainfall is around 700-750 mm, spread over 100 rainy days, mostly from
October to May.

[hide]Weather data for Lisbon
Month           Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Record high °C 21 25 28 29 35 42 41 38 37 33 25 25
(°F)            (70) (77) (82) (84) (95) (108) (106) (100) (99) (91) (77) (77)
Average high °C 15 16 18 19 21 25 28 28 26 22 18 15
(°F)            (59) (61) (64) (66) (70) (77) (82) (82) (79) (72) (64) (59)
Daily mean °C 11.5 12.5 14 15.5 17 20.5 23 23 21.5 18.5 15 12.5
(°F)            (53) (55) (57) (60) (63) (69) (73) (73) (71) (65) (59) (55)
Average low °C 8       9      10     12     13 16        18     18     17     15     12     10
(°F)            (46) (48) (50) (54) (55) (61) (64) (64) (63) (59) (54) (50)
Record low °C 0.4 1.2 2.9 5.5 6.9 10.3 13.1 13.8 10.7 8.0 3.9 2.4
(°F)            (33) (34) (37) (42) (44) (51) (56) (57) (51) (46) (39) (36)
Precipitation   97     90     51     65     56 17        6      7      29     80     107 122
mm (inches)     (3.82) (3.54) (2.01) (2.56) (2.2) (0.67) (0.24) (0.28) (1.14) (3.15) (4.21) (4.8)
Source: Instituto de Meteorologia (1971-2000 climatology) [16]


Demographics
The population of the city proper was 564,477 and the metropolitan area (Lisbon
Metropolitan Area) was 2,800,000 according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística[17]
(National Institute of Statistics). The Lisbon Metropolitan Area coincides with two
NUTS II units, Grande Lisboa (Greater Lisbon), in the northern bank of the Tagus, and
Península de Setúbal (Setúbal Peninsula), to the south, which are the two subregions of
Região Lisboa (Lisbon Region). The population density of the city itself is
6,658 inhabitants per square kilometre (17,240 /sq mi).

Like most big cities, Lisbon is surrounded by many satellite cities. It is estimated that
more than one million people enter Lisbon every day from the outskirts. Cascais and
Estoril are among the most interesting neighbouring towns for night life. Beautiful
palaces, landscapes and historical sites can be found in Sintra and Mafra. Other major
municipalities around Lisbon include Amadora, Oeiras, Odivelas, Loures, Vila Franca
de Xira and, in the south bank of the Tagus river estuary, Almada, Barreiro and Seixal.

Lisbon is ranked number 1 in the Portuguese most livable cities survey of living
conditions published yearly by Expresso.[18]
Demographic evolution of Lisbon (1801–2004)


1801    1849    1900    1930     1960    1981      1991   2001    2004    2009


203.999 174.900 350.919 591.939 801.155 807.937 663.394 564.657 529.485 480.766


Culture and sights
The city of Lisbon is rich in architecture; Romanesque, Gothic, Manueline, Baroque,
Traditional Portuguese, Modern and Post-Modern constructions can be found all over
the city. The city is also crossed by great boulevards and monuments along these main
thoroughfares, particularly in the upper districts; notable among these are the Avenida
da Liberdade (Liberty Avenue), Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, Avenida Almirante
Reis and Avenida da República (Republic Avenue). The most famous museums in
Lisbon are the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art), the
Museu do Azulejo (Museum of Portuguese-style Tile Mosaics), the Museu Calouste
Gulbenkian (Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, containing varied collections of ancient and
modern art), the Lisbon Oceanarium (Oceanário de Lisboa, the second largest in the
world), the Museu Nacional do Traje e da Moda (National Museum of Costume and
Fashion), the Berardo Collection Museum (Modern Art) at the Belém Cultural Center,
the Museu Nacional dos Coches (National Coach Museum, containing the largest
collection of royal coaches in the world), the Museu da Farmácia (Pharmacy Museum)
and the Museum of the Orient.

Lisbon's opera house, the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, hosts a relatively active
cultural agenda, mainly in autumn and winter. Other important theatres and musical
houses are the Centro Cultural de Belém, the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II and the
Gulbenkian Foundation.




Partial view of old Lisbon, viewed from Cacilhas
The monument to Christ the King (Cristo Rei) stands on the left side of the river, in
Almada. With open arms, overlooking the whole city, it resembles the Corcovado
monument in Rio de Janeiro, and was built after World War II, as thanks for Portugal's
being spared the horrors and destruction of the war.

Every June there are 5 days of popular street celebrations in memory of a saint born in
Lisbon – Anthony of Lisbon (or Santo António). Saint Anthony, also known as Saint
Anthony of Padua, was a wealthy Portuguese bohemian who was canonised and made
Doctor of the Church after a life preaching to the poor, simpler people. Although
Lisbon’s patron saint is Saint Vincent, whose remains are in the Lisbon Cathedral, there
are no festivities associated with him.

Parque Eduardo VII is the second largest park of the city after Parque Florestal de
Monsanto, prolonging the main avenue (Avenida da Liberdade). Originally named
Parque da Liberdade, was after renamed Park Edward VII of England who visited
Lisbon in 1903, it includes a large variety of plants in a winter garden (Estufa Fria).

Lisbon is home every year to the Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival,[19] the
Lisboarte,[20] the DocLisboa – Lisbon International Documentary Film Festival,[21] the
Arte Lisboa – Contemporary Art Fair,[22] the Festival of the Oceans,[23] the International
Organ Festival of Lisbon,[24] the MOTELx – Lisbon International Horror Film
Festival,[25] the Lisbon Village Festival,[26] the Festival Internacional de Máscaras e
Comediantes, the Lisboa Mágica – Street Magic World Festival, the Lisbon Book
Fair,[27] the Peixe em Lisboa – Lisbon Fish and Flavours,[28] the Lisbon International
Handicraft Exhibition,[29] the Lisbon Photo Marathon, the IndieLisboa – International
Independent Film Festival,[30] the Alkantara Festival,[31] the Temps d´Images Festival[32]
and the Jazz in August festival.[33]

Lisbon has been home three times (in 2004, 2005, and 2008) to Rock in Rio, one of the
world's largest pop-rock festivals. Annual popular music events within the metropolitan
area include the Optimus Alive! and Super Bock Super Rock festivals.

Lisbon is also home to the Lisbon Architecture Triennial,[34] the Moda Lisboa (Fashion
Lisbon),[35] ExperimentaDesign – Biennial of Design[36] and LuzBoa – Biennial of
Light.[37]

Alfama




View of the Alfama district.

The oldest district of Lisbon, spreading on the slope between the Castle of Lisbon and
the Tejo river. Its name comes from the Arabic Al-hamma, meaning fountains or baths.
It contains many important historical attractions, with many Fado bars and
restaurants.During the times of Moorish domination, Alfama constituted the whole of
the city, which later spread to the West (Baixa neighbourhood). Alfama became
inhabited by the fishermen and the poor, and its condition as the neighbourhood of the
poor continues to this day. The great 1755 Lisbon Earthquake did not destroy the
Alfama, which has remained a picturesque labyrinth of narrow streets and small
squares. Lately the neighbourhood has been invigorated with the renovation of the old
houses and new restaurants where Fado - Portuguese typical melancholy music - can be
enjoyed. The Castle of São Jorge and the Lisbon Cathedral are located in this area. 4
Other attractions include:

       Monastery of São Vicente de Fora
       Church of Santo António
       Santa Luzia Belvedere
       Largo das Portas ao Sol

Baixa




The Baixa Pombalina seen from the Elevador de Santa Justa.

The heart of the city is the Baixa (Downtown) or city centre; The Pombaline Baixa is an
elegant district, primarily constructed after the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. It takes its
name from Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquess of Pombal, the Prime
Minister to Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777 and key figure of The
Enlightenment in Portugal, who took the lead in ordering the rebuilding of Lisbon after
the 1755 earthquake. The Marquis of Pombal imposed strict conditions on rebuilding
the city, and the current grid pattern strongly differs from the organic streetplan that
characterised the district before the Earthquake.

The Pombaline Baixa is one of the first examples of earthquake-resistant construction.
Architectural models were tested by having troops march around them to simulate an
earthquake. Notable features of Pombaline structures include the 'Pombaline cage', a
symmetrical wood-lattice framework aimed at distributing earthquake force, and inter-
terrace walls that are built higher than roof timbers to reduce fire contagion.

It was placed on Portugal's "tentative list" of potential World Heritage Sites on 7
December 2004. Other monuments in this area include:

       Praça do Comércio (Commerce Square) and Rossio Square the oldest and
        historically most important squares in Lisbon
      Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha which has a beautiful manueline
       façade
      Church of São Domingos
      Restauradores Square
      Elevador de Santa Justa, an elevator (lift) in Gothic revival style, built around
       1900 to connect the Baixa and Chiado.

Chiado




Luís de Camões Square, in the Chiado neighbourhood.

The Chiado is a traditional shopping area that mixes old and modern commercial
establishments, concentrated specially in the Carmo's and Garrett's streets. Locals as
well as tourists visit the Chiado to buy books, garments, pottery as well as to have a cup
of coffee. The most famous café of Chiado is A Brasileira, famous for having had poet
Fernando Pessoa among its customers. The Chiado is also an important cultural area,
with several museums and theatres. Several buildings of the Chiado were destroyed in a
fire in 1988, an event that deeply shocked the country. Thanks to a renovation project
that lasted more than 10 years, coordinated by celebrated architect Siza Vieira, the
affected area is now recovered. Many international brands are there like Hugo
Boss,Pepe Jeans,G-Star,Hermès,Marc by Marc Jacobs,Fornarina,Colcci,Cartier,Diesel...

Attractions include:

      Basilica dos Mártires
      Brasileira Cafe
      Carmo Convent
      Church of Corpo Santo
      Church of Nossa Senhora do Loreto
      Museu do Chiado, which houses most important works of Portuguese
       contemporary art
      The richly-decorated Church of São Roque is located nearby.

Bairro Alto

Main article: Bairro Alto

Bairro Alto (literally upper quarter in Portuguese) is an area of central Lisbon. It
functions as a residential, shopping and entertainment district. Today, the Bairro Alto is
the heart of Lisbon's youth and of the Portuguese capital's nightlife. Lisbon's Punk, Gay,
Metal, Goth, Hip Hop and Reggae scenes, all have the Bairro as their home, due to the
number of clubs and bars dedicated to each of them. The fado, Portugal's national song,
still survives in the new Lisbon's nightlife. The crowd is a mix of local and tourist,
straight and gay, and almost anything else imagined.

Estrela

The Baroque-Neoclassical Estrela Basilica is the main attraction of this district. The
huge church has a giant dome, and is located in a hill in what was at the time the
western part of Lisbon and can be viewed from far away. The style is similar to the
Mafra National Palace, in late baroque and neoclassical. The front has two twin bell
towers and includes statues of saints and some allegoric figures. The Parliament, housed
in Sao Bento Palace, is in this district. Nearby is the official residence of Portugal’s
Prime Minister. and the Prazeres Cemetery is nearby as well.

Alcântara




A new hangout in Lisbon, the Docas.

Although today it is quite central, it was once a mere suburb of Lisbon, comprising
mostly farms and palaces. In the 16th century, there was a brook there which the nobles
used to promenade in their boats. Through the late 19th century, Alcântara became a
popular industrial area, with lots of small factories and warehouses. Through the
centuries, this area has lost all of its charm and old buildings, as well as its brook, and
the womenfolk used to go there to do their laundry. Around the early 1990s, Alcântara
started to become a place for pubs and discothèques, mainly because its outer area is
mostly commercial, and the noise generated at night, and the "movida", would not
disturb its residents. Today, some of these areas are slowly being taken over by loft
developments and new apartments that can profit from its excellent river views and
central location.

Belém

Main article: Belém




The Praça do Império with the Jerónimos Monastery in the background in the Santa
Maria de Belem parish.
Santa Maria de Belém, or just Belém (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈ ɐ ɐ ɐˈ iɐ     b ˈlɐĩ])
is a parish of Lisbon, Portugal, located 6 km west of the present city centre and 2 km
west of Ponte 25 de Abril (25th of April Bridge). Its name is derived from the
Portuguese for Bethlehem.

Belém is famous as the place from which many of the great Portuguese explorers set off
on their voyages of discovery. In particular, it is the place from which Vasco da Gama
departed for India in 1497. It is also a former royal residence and features the 17th-18th
century Belém Palace, former royal residence and now occupied by the President of
Portugal, and the Ajuda Palace, begun in 1802 but never completed.




Belém Tower

Perhaps Belém's most famous feature is its tower, Torre de Belém, whose image is
much used by Lisbon's tourist board. The tower was built as a fortified lighthouse late in
the reign of Dom Manuel (1515-1520) to guard the entrance to the port at Belém. It
stood on a little island in right side of the Tagus, surrounded by water.

Belém's other major historical building is the Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (Jerónimos
Monastery), which the Torre de Belém was built partly to defend. The building of the
monastery, an example of Manueline architecture, was begun in 1502 on the
instructions of Manuel I and took 50 years to complete. It was built as a monument to
Vasco da Gama's successful voyage to India and was funded by a tax on eastern spices.
The monastery contains the tomb of Vasco da Gama. Located in the wings of the
monastery are the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia (National Archaeological Museum)
and the Museu da Marinha (Maritime Museum).
Monument to the Discoveries




Detail of the Monument to the Discoveries

Belém's most notable modern feature is the Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument to
the Discoveries). This is a 52m high slab of concrete, erected in 1960 to commemorate
the 500th anniversary of the death of Henry the Navigator. The monument is carved into
the shape of the prow of a ship in which stand statues of various explorers, as well as a
statue of Henry himself. Adjacent to the monument is a square into whose surface is set
a map showing the routes of various Portuguese explorers.

In the heart of Belém is the Praça do Império: gardens centred upon a large fountain,
laid out during World War II. To the west of the gardens lies the Centro Cultural de
Belém. This was built for Portugal's 1992 presidency of the EU. It is now an arts
complex, containing Belém's Museu do Design (Design Museum). To the southeast of
the gardens is the Belém Palace (1770), the official residence of the Portuguese
President. Five hundred metres to the east of Praça do Império lies Belém's other major
square Praça Afonso de Albuquerque.

Belém is home to a number of other museums, many of which were established by
Salazar for the 1940 Belém Expo: Museu da Electricidade (Electricity Museum), Museu
do Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau (Macau Cultural Museum), Museu de Arte
Popular (Folk Art Museum) and Museu Nacional dos Coches (Coach Museum).

Belenenses, a renowned sports club from Lisbon is based in Belém.

Belém's main street is Rua de Belém, in which there is a 160-year-old pastry shop, at
which can be purchased one of the famous pastel de Belém (plural: pastéis de Belém) -
custard tarts made with flaky pastry. Other attractions within the area are:

      Padrão dos Descobrimentos (Monument of the Discoveries), built in mid-20th
       century, during Estado Novo dictatorial regime
      Belem Cultural Centre, example of Portuguese contemporary architecture,
       finished in 1994
      Belem Tower, an ex-libris of the city, built in the 16th century
      Belem Palace, 18th century palace, which is now the official residence of the
       President of the Republic
      Coach Museum, displaying most relevant and spectuacular carriages from 17th
       to 19th century.

Gare do Oriente

Main article: Gare do Oriente
The Gare do Oriente or Orient Station.

Gare do Oriente (Orient Station) is one of the main transportation hubs of Lisbon, for
trains, metro, buses and taxis. Its glass and steel columns are reminiscent of palms,
making the whole structure fascinating to look at (especially in sunlight or when
illuminated at night). It was designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava from Valencia
(Spain). Cross through the shopping mall just across the street and you are in Parque das
Nações (Park of the Nations), site of the 1998 World Expo.

Lisbon trams and funiculars



A typical tram.
  This section is written like an advertisement. Please help rewrite this section from a
  neutral point of view. (November 2009)

Transportation in Lisbon is more charming than in most cities. Much is owed to its
geography; a part of Lisbon has been built on its seven hills. No visit to Lisbon is
complete without riding the 1930s trams. The greatest attractions, though, are the
funiculars, of which there are three. These are Elevador da Glória, Elevador da Bica,
and Elevador da Lavra. Perhaps the most picturesque is the Elevador da Bica, which
passes through a charming residential neighborhood just below Bairro Alto.[38][39]

Economy




Overall view of the Nations' Park.

The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal and it is well above the European
Union's GDP per capita average – it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP. Lisbon's
economy is based primarily on the tertiary sector. Most of the headquarters of
multinationals operating in Portugal are concentrated in the Grande Lisboa subregion,
specially in the Oeiras municipality. Lisbon Metropolitan Area is heavily industrialized,
especially the south bank of the Tagus river (Rio Tejo).

The country's chief seaport, featuring one of the largest and most sophisticated regional
markets on the Iberian Peninsula, Lisbon and its heavily populated surroundings are
also developing as an important financial center and a dynamic technological hub.

Lisbon has the largest and most developed mass media sector of Portugal, and is home
to several related companies ranging from leading television networks and radio stations
to major newspapers.

The Euronext Lisbon stock exchange, part of the pan-European Euronext system
together with the stock exchanges of Amsterdam, Brussels and Paris, is tied with the
New York Stock Exchange since 2007, forming the multinational NYSE Euronext
group of stock exchanges.

Transport
Lisbon's public transport network is extremely far-reaching and reliable and has its
Metro as its main artery, connecting the city centre with the upper and eastern districts,
and now reaching the suburbs. Ambitious expansion projects will increase the network
by almost one third, connecting the airport, and the northern and western districts. Bus,
funicular and tram services have been supplied by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de
Lisboa (Carris), for over a century.

A traditional form of public transport in Lisbon is the tram. Originally introduced in the
19th century, the trams were originally imported from the U.S. and called americanos.
The original trams can still be seen in the Museu da Carris (the Public Transport
Museum) (Carris). Other than on the modern Line 15, the Lisbon tramway system still
employs small (four wheel) vehicles of a design dating from the early part of the
twentieth century. These distinctive yellow trams are one of the tourist icons of modern
Lisbon, and their size is well suited to the steep hills and narrow streets of the central
city.

There are other commuter bus services from the city: Vimeca[40], Rodoviaria de
Lisboa[41], Transportes Sul do Tejo[42], Boa Viagem[43], Barraqueiro[44] are the main
ones, operating from different terminals in the city.

There are four commuter train lines departing from Lisbon: the Cascais, Sintra and
Azambuja lines (operated by Comboios de Portugal (CP)), as well as a fourth line to
Setúbal (operated by Fertagus) crossing the Tagus river over the 25 de Abril Bridge. A
separate CP line to Setúbal ends at the southern bank of the Tagus and requires ferry
transfer to reach Lisbon. The major railway stations are Santa Apolónia, Rossio, Gare
do Oriente and Cais do Sodré.

The city does not offer a light rail service (tram line 15, although running with new and
faster trams does not fall onto this category), but there are plans to build some lines with
this service around the city (but not into the city itself).
The city is connected to the far side of the Tagus by two important bridges:

      The 25 de Abril Bridge, inaugurated (as Ponte Salazar) on August 6, 1966, and
       later renamed after the date of the Carnation Revolution, was the longest
       suspension bridge in Europe and although made by the same engineers as the
       Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, it is not, as thought by some, a replica
       (the Golden Gate Bridge does not have X braces).




Panoramic view of Lisbon from the top of Cristo-Rei, with 25 April Bridge in the
foreground.

      The Vasco da Gama Bridge, inaugurated on May 1998 is, at 17.2 km (10.7 mi),
       the longest bridge in Europe.




View of Vasco da Gama Bridge from atop Vasco da Gama Tower.

Another way of crossing the river is by taking the ferry. The company is Transtejo-
Soflusa ([45]), which operates from different points in the city to Cacilhas, Seixal,
Montijo, Porto Brandão and Trafaria under the brand Transtejo and to Barreiro under
the brand Soflusa.

Lisbon is connected to its suburbs and the rest of Portugal by an extensive motorway
network. There are three circular motorways around the city; the 2ª Circular, the CRIL
and the CREL.

The Portela Airport is located within the city limits. TAP and Portugalia have their hubs
here and the flights available are mostly to Europe, Africa and America.

Education
A building of the New University of Lisbon.

The city has several private and public secondary schools, primary schools as well as
Kindergärten. In Greater Lisbon area there are also international schools such as Saint
Julian's School, the Carlucci American International School of Lisbon, Saint Dominic's
International School, Deutsche Schule Lissabon, Instituto Español de Lisboa (Lisbon
Spanish Institute), and Lycée Français Charles Lepierre.

There are three major public universities in Lisbon: the University of Lisbon (Lisbon's
oldest university in operation, founded in 1911, also called the Classic University of
Lisbon), the Technical University of Lisbon (founded in 1930) and the New University
of Lisbon (founded in 1973), providing degrees in all academic disciplines. There is
also one state-run university institute – the ISCTE, and a polytechnic institute – the
Polytechnical Institute of Lisbon.

Major private institutions of higher education include the Portuguese Catholic
University, as well as the Lusíada University, the Universidade Lusófona, and the
Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa, among others.

The total number of enrolled students in higher education in Lisbon was, for the 2007-
2008 school year, of 125,867 students, of whom 81,507 in the Lisbon's public
institutions.[46]

Sports




Luz Stadium

The Lisbon sports clubs Sport Lisboa e Benfica (commonly "Benfica") and Sporting
Clube de Portugal (commonly "Sporting"), have many sports teams in the highest
Portuguese divisions and European competitions. Belenenses, another important club
with a great tradition in Portuguese sport, is also from the Portuguese capital.
Football is the most popular sport in Lisbon. Major football clubs include S.L. Benfica,
with its home 65,000 seat stadium the UEFA Elite stadium Estádio da Luz (named after
the area in which the stadium is situated (Luz) and not, as is popularly believed,
'Stadium of Light'). Benfica has won the UEFA Champions League twice and has
appeared in the final seven times, and Sporting Clube de Portugal, the other major
football team from the city, also having a UEFA elite stadium, 52,000 seat Estádio José
de Alvalade stadium. It has won the UEFA Cup Winners Cup once and was the UEFA
Cup finalist in the 2004-05 season. Former players from this team include Luís Figo and
Cristiano Ronaldo. Belenenses is another important football team in the city, having
Estádio do Restelo as its home stadium in the Belém neighbourhood of Lisbon.
Belenenses holds the distinction of being the first club, other than perennial winners
Sporting, Benfica and Porto, to win the Portuguese League, taking the trophy in the
1945-46 season.

Other sports, such as indoor football, handball, basketball and roller hockey are also
popular.

There are many other sport facilities in Lisbon, ranging from athletics to sailing to golf
to mountain-biking.

Lisbon was among the Portuguese cities which hosted the UEFA Euro 2004
championship. In 2006 and 2007, Lisbon was the starting city of the Dakar Rally. Every
March the city hosts the Lisbon Half Marathon.

								
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