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Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach

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					Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach

           A. Katzenbach, W. Bergholz, A. Rolinger
          17 th CIRP Berlin (2007): The Future of Product Development
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach




             1 Motivation

             2 Template Based Design

             3 Multi-Model-Links-Systematic

             4 Psychological Aspects

             5 Summary




                                                  Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   2
    Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach

     Influence on the Complexity
     of Products and Processes
                          Influence on the Processes:
                           Influence on the Processes:                 Influence on the Product:
                                                                        Influence on the Product:
                          •• Reduction of “time to market”, product
                              Reduction of “time to market”, product   •• Increase of the models: Body, Engine
                                                                           Increase of the models: Body, Engine
                             development and production launch.
                              development and production launch.          and Options.
                                                                           and Options.
    1983 Compact class    •• Continuous change management.             •• Increase of the product quality.
                              Continuous change management.                Increase of the product quality.
    1 car body
    4 engines             •• Flexible production, high performance.
                              Flexible production, high performance.   •• Reduction of the target costs.
                                                                           Reduction of the target costs.
    1 factory
                         1993 C-Class (202)
                         4 car bodies
                         7 engines
                         4 design lines
                         2 factories              2000 C-Class (203)
                                                  5 car bodies
                                                  7 engines                       2007 C-Class (204)
                                                  3 design lines                  x car bodies
DaimlerChrysler‘s                                 4 factories                     x engines
market conditions:                                                                x design lines
                                                                                  x factories
• International OEM of premium products
• Strategic target: leadership of innovation
• Short product life cycle
• Dynamic requirements of the market



     1 Motivation              2   3   4      5                           Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   3
         Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach
number of classes,

employees MCG/D                                                                                                                                φ number development/model
 budget MCG/D*

                                                                                                                                               φ budget* per annum and
                                                                                                               /   a
                                                                                                         +5,9%                                 development/model
                                                                                                         +2,0%/a                               *budgets inflation-adjusted for
                                                        +5,2%/a                                                                                2000
                                                                                                         -4,5%/a
                                                   +1,2%/      +2,4%/
                                                                  a                                                                            φ number of employees per
                                                      a
                                                                                                                                               annum and
                                8    82,2   747                              9     137,1 948                           16     168    599       development/model
                                     M€                                             M€                                        M€

                                    1983                                          1993                                       2003                                      2013
   class examples




                           1983 Compact Class                           1993 C-Class (202)                  2000 C-Class (203)                2007 C-Class (204)
                           (201)                                        2 car bodies, 7 engines,            3 car bodies, 7 engines,          x car bodies, x engines,
                           1 car body, 4 engines                        4 design lines, 2 factories         3 design lines, 4 factories       x design lines, x factories
                           1 factory
systems /




                                                                                                                          feature-based
 methods




                                                        2D-CAD,                                                          design-assembly,              template-based
                        drawing                                                            3D-solid-construction
                                                   3D-generated shape                                                     DMU and DPT,                lead-engineering
                         board
                                                         design                                                           digital factory


                                                                                                            engineering data
   data




                                                                          geometry data                                                       company spanning
                            microfilm        file structures                                                 management
                                                                           management                                                      product data management
                                                                                                               (Smaragd)
                                                                              (GIS)


                    1 Motivation                        2      3    4        5                                              Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger                       4
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


The long term Challenges of the Automotive Industry till
2015 will be addressed by Digital Product Creation




 [source: “Die smarte Revolution in der Automobilindustrie", McKinsey & Company, 2004]


1 Motivation                         2    3     4    5                                   Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   5
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


Standardization of design concept

So Far:                                 In The Future:
No systematic standardization of design Strategy for a comprehensive
concepts                                standardization of design concepts
Concepts                                            Concepts
                                                                     BR 1    BR 2      ...      ...     BR n
for Components BR 1     BR 2                 BR n   for Components
                                                                               Lead Engineers
                                   ...

Vehicle                                              Vehicle
projects                                             projects                                  ...

                                                         Body in white standardization
     Separate development of                             Car body components, interior/exterior
     components for each product family
                                                         Strategy for standardized component
     Standardized design concepts only in                concepts between product families
     isolated cases


 1 Motivation           2      3   4     5                             Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger          6
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach




             1 Motivation

             2 Template Based Design

             3 Multi-Model-Links-Systematic

             4 Psychological Aspects

             5 Summary




                                                  Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   7
   Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


   Speed Factor of the Different CAD-
   Technologies

          Speed - Factor

               7
                                              Knowledge based Operation System;
                                              Template based engineering, created by geometrical modeler
               6

               5                                  Operation System




                                                                                                                 semantics
                                                  Engineering, created by geometrical modeler

               4
                                                                               form-feature and semantics
                                                    System with Support of
               3                                    Feature-Technology only form-feature

               2                                         Parametric System
Conventional                                                   Base System;
               1
                                                               Geometrical modeler
Engineering
               0
                   System Roll Out                    Average                                        Expert Know-how

    1   2 Template Based Design   3   4   5   6                             source: Krause, IPK
                                                                                Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger               8
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


Definition Templates

Knowledge based Templates are for parametric, reusable, pre-structured end of the line
construction (automotive parts, assembly).
Exceptions:
     Templates contain experience from previous models, whose function description as well as
     process information is gathered along the product life cycle.
     Templates guarantee contents of best-practices and guidelines for the construction.
     Templates secure a consistent flow of information throughout the production process.
     Templates supports Lead Engineering.


     Concept-Template                     Study-Template       Part Template          Parametric                                Features


                                                                                                                         0.05 XYZ




                                                                                                        42+/-0.05   74+/-0.05




                                                                        Development of series                                           Planning/
                        Beginning phase                                                                                             Follow up process




 1      2 Template Based Design                3     4     5                                       Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger                       9
    Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


     Type of Template

                                                            Analysis, Tests
                                                            Study Templates
                       Body
          Vehicle
                         Comp

                                                               Overall Vehicle
          Layout                                                                                                Final Design
                            In Wh
                            Powe
                               onent



(with Concept Model)
                                 rtrain

                                 ite



                                                                                                            Assemblies

                                                  Speci




                                                                                  ation
                                     s




                                                               Sub- Structures                              (Information for
          Assembly-
                                                                                                            Downstream Processes)
          Templates                                    fi




                                                                                 Integr
                                                    cation
          (Components)
                                                                    CAVA

               Part-                                                                                       Parts
           Templates
            (Components)


                                                             Detailing Phase


      1    2 Template Based Design        3   4      5                                    Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger    10
  Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


   Components: Fuel Tank

                                     Template Design Concept - Tank Type A
    Start Model with                     Feature Library of
                                                                 Detailing Using Features               Result: Tank
     Basic Structure                   Functional/Form Objects




        Tank Basis

        Cut Out for Exhaust System

        Top

        Saddle

        Bottom

        Depression for Fasteners

        Maintenance Openings

Benefits:
• Modularity of design
• Reuse of design concepts
• Common structure
    1    2 Template Based Design           3   4    5                           Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger         11
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach




             1 Motivation

             2 Template Based Design

             3 Multi-Model-Links-Systematic

             4 Psychological Aspects

             5 Summary




                                                  Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   12
  Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


  Component template – Side Door
  Concept Structure
  Definition-formula:
  A multi-model-link is the technical process to define (out of the model border) and dependence
  between different CAD models.
         hinge reinforcement         site impact reinforcement              inner part

                       panel                           lock reinforcement                glass window channel
   Body in white
 MML




Method
    Add on parts
               hinge     wiring grommet     door weaterhstrip             glass drop        glass

                       lock    door outer handle             door modul

   1   2   3 Multi-Modell-Link Systematic   4      5     6                             Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   13
                Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


                 Component Template – Side Door
                 Information Flow
             Door handle pos.

             Door joint
VALIDATION




             Lock position

             Wiring grommet

             Glas drop

             „Entrance“ flange

             Door weatherstrip

             Door module


             Panel

             Glass window cha.
DESIGN




             Site impact reinfor.

             Inner part

             Mirror triangle rein.

             Lock reinforcement

             Hinge reinforcem.

             Border egde reinf.



                                                                                                                            time sequence
                                           information flow           validation process
                                                                      design process



                     1       2       3 Multi-Modell-Link Systematic     4    5    6        Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger           14
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach




             1 Motivation

             2 Template Based Design

             3 Multi-Model-Links-Systematic

             4 Psychological Aspects

             5 Summary




                                                  Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   15
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


Empirical Studies for the Design of
Templates

Exploratory Study
Question:
   Do design processes and their performance differ
   depending on varying methods in the components set-up?
   (templates with or without feature)

Empirical method
         Realization of two design tasks with different
         complexity
         Sample: 6 engineers
         Test duration: 1 hours
         Materials:
         o   Quality rating system for performance & design
             process
         o   Behavior monitoring

 1   2   3   4 empirical studies            5                 Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   16
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


Design of Template Results

Using templates with feature for complex task

         Higher performance
         Shorter design time (time for model analysis)
         Advantage by the design process

         The results are based on clearly structuring the model elements
         with the use of templates with feature.


Using templates with feature for less complex task

         Less performance
         Longer design time
         Disadvantage by design process
         In less complex task structuring the model elements does not play
         an important role.
         Time for handling the new operation method is longer than the
         benefit of clearly structuring model elements.
 1   2   3   4 empirical studies           5                        Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   17
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


Design of Template
Conclusion & Open Questions

Conclusions
Effectiveness of the feature implementation dependents on the complexity of the task
            Complex design task:
              o     Shorter analysis time
              o     Assurance method conforms to operation method
              o     Likewise for shorter design time
              o     Shorten time frame (more potential via learning curve)

Next Steps
Implementation of enhanced feature by complex design task:
           Approve results with more complex the design task
           Classify types of complexity
           Replicate empirical results in future studies with bigger samples
           Evaluate long time complexity effects in CAD Models
           Evaluate interaction effects between features and Multi-Model-Links


 1   2   3   4 empirical studies          5                         Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   18
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach




             1 Motivation

             2 Template Based Design

             3 Multi-Model-Links-Systematic

             4 Psychological Aspects

             5 Summary




                                                  Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   19
Knowledge-Based-Design – An Integrated Approach


Summary




     Product concept                               Design method



                 Excellent design results require
                         an holistic approach!

     CAD-Technology                                   Work -
                                                      Psychology

 1   2   3   4   5 summary
                                                  Katzenbach, Bergholz, Rolinger   20

				
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posted:10/16/2012
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