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					Chapter 10 Introduction to Organic
Chemistry: Alkanes

               10.1
       Organic Compounds




                                     1
Organic Chemistry

 An organic compound

 •   is a compound made from carbon atoms.
 •   has one or more C atoms.
 •   has many H atoms.
 •   may also contain O, S, N, and halogens.




                                               2
Organic Compounds

Typical organic compounds
• have covalent bonds.
• have low melting points.
• have low boiling points.
• are flammable.
• are soluble in nonpolar
  solvents.
• are not soluble in water.

                              oil (organic) and water (inorganic)



                                                                    3
Organic vs. Inorganic

 • Propane, C3H8, is an
   organic compound used
   as a fuel.

 • NaCl, salt, is an
   inorganic compound
   composed of Na+ and
   Cl- ions.

 Why is propane organic,
 but NaCl is not?



                           4
Comparing Organic and Inorganic
Compounds




                                  5
Learning Check

 Identify each characteristic as most typical of compounds
 that are 1) inorganic 2) organic.

 A.   has a high melting point
 B.   is not soluble in water
 C.   has a formula CH3─CH2─CH3
 D.   has a formula MgCl2
 E.   burns easily in air
 F.   has covalent bonds



                                                             6
Solution

 Identify each characteristic as most typical of compounds
 that are 1) inorganic 2) organic.

  1   A.   has a high melting point
  2   B.   is not soluble in water
  2   C.   has a formula CH3─CH2─CH3
  1   D.   has a formula MgCl2
  2   E.    burns easily in air
  2   F.    has covalent bonds



                                                             7
Writing Formulas for Alkanes
 In organic compounds
 • carbon has 4 valence electrons and hydrogen has 1.
         •
        •C•                H•
         •
 • to achieve an octet, C forms four bonds.
       H                        H
       
   HCH                   H    C   H
       
       H                        H       CH4 , methane




                                                        8
Tetrahedral Structure of Carbon


 VSEPR theory
 predicts that a
 carbon atom with
 four single,
 covalent bonds,
 has a tetrahedral
 shape.




                                  9
Organic Molecules

 In organic molecules,
 • valence electrons are shared.
 • covalent bonds form between carbon atoms.

      H    H                  H   H
      ••   ••

   HCCH               H    C   C   H
      ••   ••
      H    H                  H   H

                         ethane, CH3─CH3

                                               10
Tetrahedral Structure of Carbon


 In molecules with
 two or more carbon
 atoms, each
 carbon atom with
 four single bonds
 has a tetrahedral
 shape.




                                  11

				
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