Is assimilation inevitable

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					(ICE= United States
Immigration and Customs
             Soc 101 7:45am Quiz 2 Results

A 15-14     B 13-12         C 11     D 10         F 9 or less

19 students 19 students 6 students   2 students   4 students

 9 perfect scores (15/15)
 Class average 83%
             Soc 101 9:30am Quiz 2 Results

A 15-14     B 13-12         C 11     D 10         F 9 or less

12 students 22 students 9 students   3 students   4 students

 6 perfect scores (15/15)
 Class average 82%
          Immigration continued
•   Immigration laws
•   Assimilation
•   Illegal Immigration
•   Solutions
       History of Discrimination in Immigration Law
The ethnic background of immigrants was particularly important during
                         times of national crisis

 Great Depression: Mexicans and Mexican-Americans faced mass
  deportation justified by economic problems as well as labor
  arguments similar to those used against Chinese immigrants

 Post World War II: 1954 "Operation Wetback," under President
  Eisenhower a speculated 1 million Mexicans were deported along
  with their U.S. born children in response to labor competition
    History of Discrimination in Immigration Law
• Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: excluded Chinese laborers from
  immigrating to the United States for 10 years

• Immigration Act of 1921: Motivated by fears of growing immigration
  from Southern and Eastern Europe, Harding Administration passed
  this highly restrictive act that established an immigration quota for
  each nationality.

• National Origins Act 1924: further restricted Southern Europeans as
  well as East Asians and Indians

• 1950’s, legislation was passed to eject suspected Communists from
  the country (
      Effects of Post 9/11 Security Measures
USA Patriot Act of 2001: put immigration under the control of the
newly created Department of Homeland Security
2003, Men and boys from Pakistan and Saudi Arabia who were in the
United States as legal immigrants had to voluntarily register for the
controversial National Security Entry-Exit Registration System or face
                        I am a ...
1.   First generation immigrant (came to the U.S. not born here)
2.   Second generation (parents came to the U.S., born here)
3.   Third generation (grandparents came to U.S.)
4.   Family has been in the U.S. more than 3
1. Robert E. Park’s traditional assimilation theory
2. Milton Gordon’s contemporary views
3. Horace Kallen’s cultural pluralism
According to Robert Park’s traditional assimilation model, assimilation
  occurs after 3 generations.
• 1st: struggles to learn the new way of their new country and holds
  on to many aspects of their culture.
• 2nd: attend public schools, learn English better than their parents,
  may move out of ethnically grouped neighborhoods and marry
  someone outside of their race. Yet, still seen as outsiders and may
  consider themselves outsiders as well.
• 3rd: grandchildren of immigrants will move completely into the
  mainstream of American life. May learn a few words of their
  grandparents’ language, know a few recipes, or proverbs, but will
  speak mostly English, and questions regarding their nationality will
  seldom arise.
According to the traditional assimilation
  model, assimilation occurs after 3
• 1st: struggles to learn the new way

• 2nd: learn English better than their        In your opinion or
  parents, may move out of ethnically
  grouped neighborhoods and marry
  someone outside of their race. Still seen   experiences has
  as outsiders                                this been true?
• 3rd: move completely into the
  mainstream of American life.
     Criticism of traditional assimilation model
1. Ignores age of entry: (1.5 generation) children who arrive in the
    U.S. with their parents: technically 1st generation but depending on
    their ages, their experiences may be similar to 2nd generation
     Criticism of traditional assimilation model
2. Ignores race: Does not accurately describe the experiences of non-
    European groups in America.
     Criticism of traditional assimilation model
3. Ignores choice: Voluntary versus involuntary entrance (slavery) are
    factors that effect the likelihood of immigrants following the 3
    generation process of assimilation.
            Criticism of traditional assimilation model

4. Ignores how group size, concentrations, and time of entry also
    effect assimilation.

5. Another factor affecting the rate of assimilation of a minority group
   in the U.S. is the similarity between the culture of minority and
   culture of the majority.
 Milton Gordon’s Contemporary Views on Assimilation

Gordon described 7
  different sub processes
  of assimilation
          Milton Gordon’s Contemporary Views on Assimilation

1. Cultural (practices and traditions)
2. Structural (schools, jobs, housing, recreational spheres of society)
3. Marital (acceptable partners)
4. Identificational (the group you identify with)
5. Attitudinal (prejudice)
6. Behavioral (discrimination)
7. Civic (political power, representation in politics) assimilation.
Gordon’s stages differ from Park’s, a group may assimilate completely without
   going through all stages, and they do not have a specific order
Both Park and Gordon agree that assimilation is inevitable.
   Horace Kallen’s Cultural Pluralism
Allows for those whose appearances are clearly not Anglo to
still be considered as completely assimilated.

• Members of minority groups should be accepted as
  completely Americanized and assimilated without being
  required to disappear as distinctive groups.
• Majority’s culture is added to the minority’s culture
  rather than substituted for the minority’s culture.
    Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl

                                 Cultural Pluralism

Which do you feel is better for the United States?
  Where are most legal immigrants from?

                                              Top 10 in 2010
Source: U.S.
Department                      Dominican Republic
of Homeland
  What parts of the U.S. do most immigrants settle in? And why?

                                        Illinois   New York

                                                              New Jersey

 Push and Pull factors of Immigration into the U.S.

Push factors               Pull factors

poverty                    perception of endless
                           religious freedom
military draft
                           economic freedom
religious or political
Immigrant does not = illegal immigrant

Illegal immigrants also called undocumented workers/

Remember immigrant does not =Latino/a

“Latino/a” or country of origin is preferred over “Hispanic”
                  ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION

Views for                       Views against
deportation of illegal          deportation of illegal
immigrants                      immigrants
              Pros and Cons of the Solutions

(1) More border control.                Discuss in groups
(2) Prevent employers from hiring             Be Respectful
   undocumented immigrants.               Allow others to finish
(3) Withhold government services             their comments
   from unauthorized immigrants.        a)Which do you think is
(4) Grant workers a path to gain        best? Why?
   citizenship or work permits.         b)Which do you think is
(5) Give police the authority and       worst? Why?
   responsibility to identify illegal
                                        c) Can you think of
   immigrants (Arizona SB 1070)
                                        other pros or cons to
                                        any of the solutions?
Asylum may be granted due to
   Fear of return to country of nationality based on
   persecution related to:
   • race
   • religion
   • political opinion
   • membership in a particular social group

  Must show:
• been here for more than 10 years
• Have an otherwise clean criminal record
• A relative who is a U.S. citizen would suffer
  exceptional and unusual hardship if deported
      Which of these do you think best explains
             treatment of immigrants?
1) Cultural Transmission: focuses on how prejudice is transmitted
   through culture from generation to generation through family
   and/or media.
2) Group Identification Theory: focuses on how prejudices are tied
   in with an individual’s racial and ethnic group membership.
3) Personality theories: assert that those with high levels of
   frustration or authoritarian personalities have higher tendencies
   of holding prejudice beliefs.
4) Frustration-aggression hypothesis: ethnic prejudices develop in
   response to people’s need to cope with the frustration in their
   daily lives.
Due next week
Bring in a media image from a magazine (non-
pornographic) that you feel relates to issues of
gender or age.
•Think of an open-ended question to ask the
class about the picture.
                                                       How do sexualized
•Type up the question. 4 points                        dolls like the Bratz
•You must be in class to earn full points          influence young girls?

          Why do you
          think Dove
          created this
                   Coming Up
Read Ch 9 Gender
        Timeline of significant U.S. Immigration Laws

Texas Proviso 1952: makes harboring an illegal entrant a felony, but
does not punish those who employ them.
Immigration Act of 1965: abolished the national origins quota
 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986: made it illegal for
employers to knowingly hire illegal immigrants.
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996:
authorized more Border Patrol agents and a triple fence along the San
Diego border,
USA Patriot Act of 2001: put immigration under the control of the
newly created Department of Homeland Security (Kimer, 2005)
Real ID Act May 2005: prohibits undocumented immigrants from
holding a driver’s licenses
Bill 4427 December 2005: Made remaining in the U.S. as an
undocumented immigrant a federal felony (
      Source: NACLA Report on the Americas; Jul/Aug2005, Vol. 39 Issue 1, p34-35, 2p
Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security

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