Docstoc

0534643507_35946

Document Sample
0534643507_35946 Powered By Docstoc
					    Chapter 7
  Social Stratification: United
States and Global Perspectives
           Chapter Outline
• Social Stratification: Shipwrecks and
  Inequality
• Patterns of Inequality
• Global Inequality
• Is Stratification Inevitable? Three Theories
• Social Mobility
• Noneconomic Dimensions of Class
    Social Stratification:
 Shipwrecks and Inequality
• Writers and filmmakers use the
  shipwreck as a literary device.
• It allows them to sweep away all traces
  of privilege and social convention and
  reveal human beings stripped to their
  essentials.
   Robinson Crusoe (1719)
• Defoe was one of the first writers to portray
  capitalism favorably.
• He believed that people get rich if they
  possess the virtues of good businessmen.
• Defoe tells the story of an Englishman
  marooned on a desert island.
• His strong will, hard work, and inventiveness
  turn the poor island into a thriving colony.
       Swept Away (1975)
• A yacht shipwrecks while on a cruise in the
  Mediterranean.
• The only survivors are a rich woman and a
  lowly deckhand.
• They fall in love.
• When they are rescued and return home, the
  woman turns her back on the deckhand, who
  is once again just a common laborer.
        Swept Away (1975)
The movie sends three messages:
1. It is possible to be rich without working hard,
   because one can inherit wealth.
2. One can work hard without becoming rich.
3. Inequality disappears only on the desert
   island, without society as we know it.
 Economic Inequality in the
      United States
• In the mid-1990s, the richest 1% owned 39%
  of national wealth.
   – The richest 10% owned almost 72%.
   – The poorest 40% owned 0.2% percent of
     all national wealth.
   – The bottom 20% had a negative net worth -
     they owed more than they owned.
    10 Richest Americans, 2003
                    Net Worth
       Name                            Source
                    ($ billion)
1    Bill Gates         46          Microsoft Corp.
2   Warren Buffet       36        Berkshire Hathaway

3    Paul Allen         22          Microsoft Corp.
4   Helen Walton       20.5        Wal-Mart stores
                                    (inheritance)
5   John Walton        20.5        Wal-Mart stores
                                    (inheritance)
     10 Richest Americans, 2003
                     Net Worth
         Name                           Source
                     ($ billion)
                                     Wal-Mart stores
6     Alice Walton      20.5
                                      (inheritance)
      S. Robson
7                       20.5         Wal-Mart stores
       Walton
                                     Wal-Mart stores
8     Jim Walton        20.5
                                      (inheritance)
       Lawrence
9                        18           Oracle Corp.
        Ellison
10    Michael Dell       13        Dell Computer Corp.
        Income Classes
        Households, 2001
                  % of
Income Class                 Annual Income
               Households

Upper upper       1.0           $1 million


Lower upper       12.4      $100,000-$999,999


Upper middle      22.5       $57,500-$99,999
      Income Classes,
      Households, 2001
                     % of
Income Class                   Annual Income
                  Households

Average middle       18.8      $37,500-$57,499

Lower middle or
                     22.7      $20,000-$37,499
   working

    Lower            22.6        $0-$19,999
  Distribution of National
Income Among Households
      Patterns of Income
          Inequalities
• 1974 - The top 5th of households
  earned 9.8 times more than the bottom
  5th.
• 2001 -The top 5th earned more than
  half of all national income.
• The rich have been getting richer,
  middle-income earners and the poor
  have been getting poorer.
          Global Inequality
• 1/5 of the world’s population lacks shelter.
• More than 1/5 lacks safe water.
• 1/3 of the world’s people are without
  electricity.
• More 2/5 lack adequate sanitation.
• There are still about 27 million slaves in
  Mozambique, Sudan, and other African
  countries.
           Polling Question
•   If you were asked to use one of the following
    four names for your parents' social class,
    which would you say they belong in?
    A. Upper class
    B. Middle class
    C. Working class
    D. Lower class
              Gini Index
• A measure of income inequality with a value
  ranging from zero to 1.
• A Gini index of zero indicates every
  household earns the same amount of money.
• A Gini index of 1 indicates that a single
  household earns the entire national income.
• Most countries have Gini indexes between
  0.2 and 0.5.
     U.N. Indicators of Human
Development, Top 6 Countries, 2000
  Country          Life       Adult     GDP/
 and Rank       Expectancy   Literacy   Capita
  Norway           78.1       98%       29,918
  Sweden           79.3       98%       24,277
  Canada           78.5       98%       27,840
  Belgium          77.9       98%       27,178
  Australia        78.7       98%       25,693
United States      76.5       98%       34,142
 U.N. Indicators of Human Development,
        Bottom 6 Countries, 2000

  Country         Life       Adult     GDP/
 and Rank      Expectancy   Literacy   Capita
  Ethiopia        44.5       39.1       668
Burkina Faso      45.3       23.9       976
Mozambique        40.6       44.0       854
  Burundi         40.6       48.0       591
   Niger          44.2       15.9       746
Sierra Leone      37.3        n.a.      490
      Top Ten Countries,
Millions of Internet Users, 2003
Internet Connectivity and Population
           Density, 2001
Social Characteristics of Internet
  Users, U.S., September 2001
 Family Income ($)   Internet Use %

  Less than 15,000        25.0

   15,000–24,999          33.4
   25,000–34,999          44.1
   35,000–49,999          57.1
   50,000–74,999          67.3
      75,000              78.9
Social Characteristics of Internet
  Users, U.S., September 2001
 Educational Attainment    Internet Use %

  Less than high school         12.8

High school diploma/GED         39.8

      Some college              62.4

    Bachelor’s degree           80.8

Beyond bachelor’s degree        83.7
Social Characteristics of Internet
  Users, U.S., September 2001

        Race              Internet Use %

Asian American/ Pacific
                               60.4
       Islander
        White                  59.9
       Hispanic                31.6
        Black                  39.8
Social Characteristics of Internet
  Users,U.S., September 2001

 Age Group (years)     Internet Use %

       3–8                  27.9

       9–17                 68.6
      18–24                 65.0
      25–49                 63.9
Household Income Inequality and Low
    Income, Selected Countries
Inequality and Development
          Polling Question
•   Our nation should give more money to assist
    the poor to have better lives.
    A. Strongly agree
    B. Agree somewhat
    C. Unsure
    D. Disagree somewhat
    E. Strongly disagree
         Types of Societies
•   Foraging Societies
•   Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
•   Agrarian Societies
•   Industrial Societies
•   Postindustrial Societies
  Theories of Stratification:
            Marx
• A person’s class is determined by the
  source of his or her income:
   – The bourgeoisie owns the means of
     production.
   – The proletariat do physical labor.
   – The petty bourgeoisie own means of
     production but do some physical labor
     themselves.
  Theories of Stratification:
           Weber
• Four main classes:
  – large property owners
  – small property owners
  – propertyless but relatively highly
    educated and well-paid employees
  – propertyless manual workers
Weber’s Stratification
      Scheme
  Theories of Stratification:
       Functionalism
• Some jobs are more important
  than others.
• People have to make sacrifices to
  train for important jobs.
• Inequality is required to motivate people
  to undergo these sacrifices.
Criticisms of Functionalism
• Inequality encourages the discovery of talent
  only for those who can afford to take
  advantage of the opportunities available to
  them.
• Once people attain high-class standing, they
  can use their power to maintain their position
  and promote the interests of their families
  regardless of their children’s talent.
Blau and Duncan’s Model of
Occupational Achievement
       Poverty Threshold
• The poverty threshold is set at three
  times the cost of an economy food
  budget and adjusted for:
   – number of people in the household
   – annual inflation rate
   – whether adult householders are
     younger than 65
     United States Poverty
          Threshold
• In 2003, the poverty guideline for
  individual adult householders under the
  age of 65 was $8980 per year.
• For a family of four with two children
  under the age of 18, the poverty
  guideline was $18,400.
           Polling Question
•   The poor are poor because the American
    way of life doesn't give all people an equal
    chance.
    A. Strongly agree
    B. Agree somewhat
    C. Unsure
    D. Disagree somewhat
    E. Strongly disagree
Poverty Rate
     Myths about the poor
• The majority of poor people are African-
  or Hispanic-American single mothers
  with children.
   – In 2001, fully 45% of the poor were
     non-Hispanic whites
   – Female-headed families represented
     51% of the poor, 41% lived in
     married-couple families.
     Myths about the poor
• People are poor because they don’t want to
  work.
  – More than 38% of the poor over age 15
    worked in 2001, nearly 12% full time.
  – 46% of poor people are under age 18 or
    over 65.
  – Many of the poor are unable to work due to
    health or disability issues.
     Myths about the poor
• Poor people are trapped in poverty.
  – Only about 12% of the poor remain
    poor 5 or more years in a row
     Myths about the poor
• Welfare encourages married women with
  children to divorce so they can collect
  welfare, and it encourages single women on
  welfare to have more children.
   – Women on welfare have a lower birthrate
     than women in the general population.
   – Welfare payments are very low and
     recipients suffer severe economic
     hardship.
     Myths about the poor
• Welfare is a strain on the federal
  budget.
   – “Means-tested” welfare programs
     require recipients to meet an income
     test to qualify.
   – Such programs accounted for only
     6% percent of the federal budget in
     2001.
    American’s View of the
       Class System
• Most Americans are aware of the class
  system and their place in it.
• Most Americans believe inequality persists
  because it serves the interests of the
  advantaged members of society.
• However, most Americans disapprove of
  government intervention to lower the level of
  inequality.
Quick Quiz
1. Since the early 1960s:
   a. more upward than downward mobility
      has occurred in the United States
   b. more downward than upward mobility
      has occurred in the United States
   c. the amount of downward and upward
      mobility has been about equal
   d. more upward than downward mobility
      has occurred in the United States, and
      the gap between upward and downward
      mobility started to shrink when many
      Americans reported deterioration in their
      economic situation
            Answer: d
1. Since the early 1960s: more upward
   than downward mobility has
   occurred in the United States, and
   the gap between upward and
   downward mobility started to shrink
   when many Americans reported
   deterioration in their economic
   situation.
2. The _________________ is a
    measure of income inequality that
    ranges from 0 (every household earns
    the same amount of money) to 1 (all
    income is earned by a single
    household).
      Answer: Gini Index
• The Gini Index is a measure of income
  inequality that ranges from 0 (every
  household earns the same amount of
  money) to 1 (all income is earned by a
  single household).
3. For Marx, the bourgeoisie:
   a. own the means of production
   b. do not do any physical labor
   c. own the means of production and
      do physical work themselves
   d. are economically inefficient
   e. own the means of production, and
      do not do any physical labor
            Answer: e
• For Marx, the bourgeoisie own the
  means of production, and do not do
  any physical labor.
4. Which of the following is not one of the
   major classes in capitalist society
   according to Weber?
   a. large property owners
   b. small property owners
   c. service workers
   d. propertyless but educated and well-
      paid employees
   e. propertyless manual workers
              Answer: c
•   Service workers are not one of the
    major classes in capitalist society
    according to Weber.
5. According to the functional theory of
    stratification, social inequality is
    necessary because the prospect of
    high material rewards motivates
    people to undergo the sacrifices
    needed to get a higher education.
   a. True
   b. False
            Answer: a:
• According to the functional theory of
  stratification, social inequality is
  necessary because the prospect of
  high material rewards motivates
  people to undergo the sacrifices
  needed to get a higher education.
6. lau and Duncan's main research finding:
    a. ascription is about as powerful as
       achievement in determining social
       mobility in American society
    b. respondents' own achievements had
       much more influence on their current
       occupational status than did ascribed
       characteristics
    c. ascribed characteristics had much more
       influence on respondents' current
       occupational status than did their own
       achievements
    d. all of the above
            Answer: b
6. lau and Duncan's main research
    finding: respondents' own
    achievements had much more
    influence on their current
    occupational status than did
    ascribed characteristics.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:10/15/2012
language:Latin
pages:57