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					                MD GOVERNOR’S GRANTS OFFICE
                     PRESENTS
             LOGIC MODELS training
                       With
    Linda Koser, Community Foundation of Harford
                   County, Maryland

   Martin O’Malley                           Anthony G. Brown
   Governor                                  Lt. Governor

                        Eric Brenner, Director
                      Governor’s Grants Office
                21 State Circle, Annapolis, MD 21401
                            410-974-5090
                  MDGrantsOffice@gov.state.md.us
June 15, 2007
 LOGIC
MODELS
    Limerick to a
    Logic Model
    A model I wanted to be
But the runway was not for me
        So logic I tried
      And to my surprise
         It fit me to a T
         What is a Logic Model?
A logic model is a systematic and
visual way to present and share
your understanding of the
relationships among the resources
you have to operate your program,
the activities you plan to do, and
the changes or results you hope to
achieve.
W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide
   THE WHY OF LOGIC
       MODELS

A simple, common sense
picture of a program
A way to show a series of if-
then relationships
show what the program is to
accomplish
 –Resources to be invested
 –Activities to take place
 –Benefits or results
Key element for program planning,
management, evaluation, and
reporting
A way of thinking
Through a flow chart, shows a
chain of events linking what we
start with (raw inputs) through
desired results
In a linear fashion, helps to “detail”
general goals
Summarizes the main elements of
a program
Shows the difference between
activities and outcomes
Shows what to evaluate
  A picture is worth 1,000
words, so let’s draw a picture
Inputs      Activities   Outputs   Outcomes / Impacts



What is What is What is              What
invested done   produced             results


         Core of a logic model
Inputs - Resources dedicated to or
consumed by the program that are
available to be used in order that a
program can do its work. Inputs may
include constraints on the program
such as laws, regulations, and
requirements (a one year grant).
Inputs, sometimes called resources,
can include: staff
             volunteers
             money
             facilities,
             equipment
             supplies,
             other organizational and
             community resources
Activities – What the program does
with the resources it has at its
disposal in order to carry out the
program. Activities are processes,
actions, techniques and events that
are a part of the program
implementation. By undertaking
these activities, presumably changes
or results are brought about.
Developing curriculum or feeding the
homeless are activities.
Outputs – Direct products of
program activities. Outputs usually
have a number associated with
them and measure the volume of
work accomplished. Examples
would be the number of clients
served, the number of volunteers
trained, the number of classes
held.
 Note: Some logic models will define
 outputs as what is done (activities)
 and who is reached (participants). In
 such cases, outputs are shown as
 below.
  Inputs                Outputs            Outcomes / Impacts

           Activities      Participation


What is    What is           Who we             What
invested   done              reach              results
Very often the words outcome and
impact are used interchangeably.
By-in-large, that’s what we will do
today. For the curious, however,
we can broadly distinguish
between the two terms as follows:
Outcomes – Changes or benefits for
individuals, groups, organizations
expressed as changes in behavior,
knowledge, skills, status,attitudes,
level of functioning, etc.
Outcomes are what participants
know, think, or can do.
Outcomes answer the very important
question, “So What?”
Impact – The ultimate result, the
long-term outcome. It is a
program’s long-term goal. Impact is
the fundamental intended (or
unintended) change occurring in
organizations, communities, or
systems as a result of program
activities. According to the Kellogg
Foundation, impacts occur within 7
– 10 years, often well beyond the
scope of a grant program.
Outcomes are often divided into
•short-term (learning) - awareness,
knowledge, attitudes, skills, opinions,
aspirations, and motivations;
•mid-term (action) - behavior, practice,
decision-making, policies, and social
action); and
•long-term (conditions) – social
economic, civic, and environmental
aka impact
Each outcome along the 3 stage
continuum is more complex, and
outcomes may take years to achieve.
The more “complex” the outcome, the
longer achievement may take, the
more outside influences, and the less
control and influence the program will
have.
You may be used to writing outcome
objectives for grant proposals. Outcome
objectives in grant proposals tend to be more
descriptive and specific than those written in
the logic models.
Outcome objective: 45% of the 50 youth
participating in the tutoring program will
improve their reading skills by the end of the
program.
Outcome: youth improve reading skills
A quick summary:
Inputs - What we use
Activities – What we do
Outputs – The amount we do (produce)
Outcomes – What difference we make
• learning,
• actions, or
• conditions
                                              U of Wisconsin Extension
How to Read a
Logic Model:                              If you accomplish
                                          your planned
                         If you           activities to the
          If you         accomplish       extent intended, then
          have           your planned     participants will
          access         activities,      benefit in certain
Re-       to them,       then you         ways. If these
sources   then you       hopefully will   benefits are
are       can use        deliver the      achieved, then
needed    them to        amount of        certain changes to
to        accomp-        product          organizations,
operate   lish your      and/or           communities, or
a         planned        services you     systems might be
program   activities     intended         expected to occur.

 Inputs     Activities      Outputs        Outcomes / Impacts
LOGIC MODEL for a HEADACHE

Situation: Your head is
pounding like a steel drum.

 Pills and water   Take Pills   Feel Better




 Resources         Actions      Results
LOGIC MODEL for a PARENT
Situation: While shopping with her
health conscious parent, a toddler
begins crying and begging for every
sweet in the grocery store.
 healthful         Give child juice   Child is happy;
 distraction for   box                parent headache
 child                                is averted


 Resources          Actions           Results
      LOGIC MODEL for a TRIP
  Situation: Planning a vacation

Resources         Activities    Outputs       Outcomes


 Flight         Submit leave    Signed       Continued good
 schedule       request         leave slip   will among co-
                                             workers
 Money          Book a flight   Airline
                                tickets      Nervous
 Annual leave   Arrange for                  breakdown
                hotel           Hotel Re-
                                             averted
                                servation
                Rent a car
                                Car rental
                                confirma-
                                tion
LOGIC MODEL for an EMPLOYEE
  Situation: Attending logic model
  training
Inputs           Activities     Outputs         Outcomes


 Friend        Pick up friend   3 exercises   Understand logic
               for moral        completed     model concept
 Car
               support          Volunteer     Practice examples
 Notepad and                    twice         with friend on way
               Drive to
 pencil                                       home
               training         5 ques-
               Listen           tions         Include stunning
               attentively      answered      logic model in
                                              next grant
               Participate in                 proposal
               exercises
         What are these boxes and what do they show?
Inputs         Activities   Outputs      Outcomes / Impacts


 • Logical relationships between the program’s
   resources, the activities undertaken, and the
   anticipated changes or benefits all
   represented in graphic form.
 • Logical sequence of actions and events
   believed to bring about results over a period
   of time.
 • Logical reasoning linking investments to
   results.
 • Logical way of showing connection of inter-
   dependent parts that make up the whole.
A hint for “building” a logic
model: as you are
constructing a logic model,
complete each statement
for inputs, activities,
outputs and outcomes
found on the next slide.
Inputs        Activities    Outputs      Outcomes/Impact

In order to   In order to   We expect    We expect if
accom-        address       once         com-pleted
plish our     our           completed    or ongoing,
set of        problem,      or           these
activities,   we will       underway,    activities
we will       need to       these        will lead to
need the      conduct       activities   the
following     the           will         following
resources:    following     produce      changes in
              activities:   the          1-3, 4-6
                            following    years, and 7
                            evidence     – 10 years:
                            of service
                            delivery:
Inputs     Activities     Outputs        Outcomes/Impacts

A quick review of definitions:
Inputs are the resources dedicated or used by the
program such as money, staff, volunteers, facilities,
equipment, and supplies.
Activities are what the program does with the inputs, in
other words, the strategies and techniques that make
up the program’s service methodology. Examples for a
homeless program might include sheltering, feeding,
training, and counseling homeless persons. It is
hoped that by undertaking activities, changes or
results will be brought about.
Outputs are the direct product of program activities,
usually measured by number.
Outcomes are changes or benefits for participants,
whether individuals, groups, organizations, or
communities. Outcomes may be expressed as
changes in behavior, knowledge, skills, or level of
functioning. Outcomes answer the very important
question, “So What?”.

And if you care to distinguish,

Impact is the ultimate result, the long-term outcome.
It is a program’s long-term goal. Impact is a change
in organizations, communities, or systems resulting
from program activities.
  The Game
 NAME THAT
LOGIC MODEL
COMPONENT
Try your hand at identifying the
     following Logic Model
components for an Employment
Program for Displaced Workers
       Aged 55 and Older
 Participants increase skill in conducting
job interviews
– Outcome
Instructors
– Input
Workshop on dressing for success is held
– Activity
45 job interviews were completed
– Output
Changes or benefit such as gain in skills
are (definition)
– Outcomes
Number of employers participating in the
program increases
– Outcome
Program resources are (definition)
– Inputs
Decrease in participant fears about not
obtaining employment
– Outcome
25 participants enrolled in program
– Output
Presentation on resume preparation given
– Activity
Participants remain employed 6 months after
completing program
– Outcome
10 volunteers were recruited as job coaches
– Output
Visit to job services
– Activity
Direct products of program activities often shown
as a number are (definition)
– Output
Computers
– Input
  Partner organizations
  – Input
  What the program does with resources (definition)
  – Activity
  Informational interviews are conducted week 4
  – Activity
  Mock job interviews held
  – Activity
   DAILY DOUBLE
Identify the following as an outcome or an impact:
National attitudes of employers toward hiring older
  workers are changed
  – Impact
Course curricula
– Input
10 half day workshops were held
– Output
Training space
– Input
Increased skill in conducting and analyzing
interviews
– Outcome
Outcomes are often described as short
term, _____, and _____.
– Midterm and long term (or impact)
Participants increase skill in preparing resumes
 – Outcome
Foundation grants
 – Input
Guest lecturer discusses creative job seeking
 – Activity
Volunteers
 – Input
What is produced (the product) describes what
term
 – Output
LOGIC MODEL OBSERVATIONS
Logic models usually are depicted as a
flowchart with boxes and arrows.
HOWEVER, logic models may show
components and linkages in other
ways such as a concept map. They
may go top to bottom, bottom to top,
or in a circle. Regardless, a logic
model should be shown in a single
image and in such a way that the end
users understand it.
    Adding an
Interesting Layer
  of Complexity
 EVEN SIMPLE LOGIC
MODELS GET A LITTLE
MORE COMPLICATED
        The Complete Logic Model
          Inputs         Activities    Outputs               Outcomes / Impacts
          What                        Products of            Short medium long-term
    P     We
                        What we do
                                      service
          invest                      delivery
S   R
I   I
T   O
U
    R    Staff            Conduct      # classes    Learning     Actions     Conditions
A        Money            Deliver      # sessions   Awareness    Behavior    Social
T   I
         Volunteers       Develop      # clients    Skills       Decision-   Economic
I   T
         Time             Train        #            Knowledge    Making      Civic
O   I                                  volunteers
         Partners         Counsel                   Attitudes    Policies    Environ-
n   E    Materials                                  Opinions     Practice
                                                                             mental
    S



                 Assumptions                          External Factors
      SITUATION is
 The heart of logic model development
 What the program will address
 A part of many other factors
(sociopolitical, environmental, and
economic)
If you incorrectly understand the
situation and misdiagnose the problem,
everything that follows is likely to be
wrong.
What is the problem?
Why is this a problem and what causes the
problem?
For whom does this problem exist (a group
or subgroup, the community, society)?
Who cares whether the problem is solved?
What do we know about the problem and
the people involved?
What research and/or experience do we
have and what does it tell us?
The State of Euphoria is increasingly concerned
about the unhappy work environment for
individuals working for it. A study conducted by
the Department of Happiness & Rapture (DHR)
showed that employees working for the state 10
or more years are twice as likely to lose their
sense of wonder and delight as the general
population. Across all State of Euphoria
departments, only 10% of agencies allow
employees to take enjoyment breaks. The DHR
study, backed up by National Institute of
Happiness data, suggests that a statewide
contentment program will save 1,000 lives per
year for each year it is in effect.
                             Model County Tobacco-Free Coalition is
• What is the problem?       increasingly concerned about the
                             unhealthy work environments for county
• What causes the problem    youth. A recent Chamber of Commerce
(why)?                       study showed 75% of county youth with
                             part-time and summer jobs work in the
• For whom does this         service industry, mainly in restaurants
problem exist (a group or    where youth workers are exposed to
subgroup, the community,     cigarette smoke. Ten percent of the
society)?
                             county's restaurants (non-bars) and 75%
• Who cares whether the      of fast-food establishments are
problem is solved?           voluntarily smoke-free. Research
                             suggests that smoking bans and
* What do we know about      restrictions in public places not only
the problem and the people   reduce environmental tobacco smoke
involved, what research      exposure but also are associated with
and/or experience do we      lower youth smoking rates and delayed
have and what does it tell   onset of smoking
us?
                             Example from U of WIS Extension
               PRIORITY is
Unless resources are unlimited, setting priorities
becomes necessary. Priorities are set once the
situation is fully analyzed. Think about

 Mission of the agency,
 Resources,
 Expertise,
 Experience,
 History, and
 What others are doing in relation to the
 problem
          INPUTS are

The resources and contributions
made to the program. Inputs may
include time, staff, volunteers,
money, materials, equipment,
partnerships, and technology among
other things. What we have to work
with allows the program to create
outputs.
          ACTIVITIES are
Actions we take (what we do). We can
conduct meetings, hold events, develop
resources, counsel participants, train
volunteers, and so forth.

What is done can take the form of activities,
services, events, and products.

These efforts must reach people who
participate in the program. People may be
individuals, groups, agencies, the
community, etc.
           OUTPUTS are
The accomplishment or product of the
activity. Examples might be
50 volunteers recruited;
3 meetings held
7 focus groups conducted
         OUTCOMES are
The direct results or benefits for individuals,
families, groups, communities,
organizations, or systems.
Typically, described as short term, medium
term, or longer-term.
Outcomes can be positive (increase) or
negative (decrease) or neutral. While we
would like them to be intended, they may
also be unintended.
Examples include changes in knowledge,
skill development, changes in behavior,
capacities or decision-making, policy
development.
              IMPACT is
as we are using it in this training refers to the
ultimate consequence or effects of the
program (the long-term outcome farthest to
the right on a logic model).
Impact refers to ultimate, longer-term
changes in social, economic, civic, or
environmental conditions.
Examples are increased life expectancy for
former smokers, improved air quality in
Maryland, etc.
In common usage impact and outcomes are
often used interchangeably.
           ASSUMPTIONS are


The beliefs we have about the program and the
people involved and the way we think the
program will work. This is the "theory" that we
are able to validate with research and
experience. Assumptions underlie and influence
the program decisions we make.
              Assumptions
Assumptions are principles, beliefs, ideas
about:
The problem or situation.
The resources and staff.
The way the program will operate.
What the program expects to achieve.
The knowledge base.
The external environment.
The internal environment
The participants: how they learn, their behavior,
motivations, etc.
              Assumptions
In developing a logic model, we want to make
explicit all the implicit assumptions we are
making. They may not all be portrayed in the
one-page graphic, but we do want to explore
and discuss them. Often, inaccurate or
overlooked assumptions are the basis for
failure or less than expected results.
You are with a toddler in a grocery store when she
begins crying and begging for every sweet she
sees. Experience says that the child needs to be
distracted. So, the logic model shows that first you
need to find something that will be healthful such
as a juice box. Then, you give the toddler the juice.
The end result is that the child is happy and you
do not get a headache or feel embarrassed.


  Juice box         Give child juice   Child is happy;
  (healthful        box                adult headache /
  distraction)                         embarrassment
                                       is averted

  Resources          Actions           Results
Assumptions rooted in the logic model:

It assumes that you can find a juice box.

It assumes that the toddler will want and will
drink the juice.

It assumes that the result will be similar to your
previous experience when the child has been
crying and begging in the grocery store.

It assumes that the distraction of the juice box
will last until you leave the store.
  EXTERNAL FACTORS are
The environment in which the program exists that
can influence the program's success. External
factors include the surroundings in which people
live and which influence them, the climate,
economic structure, housing patterns, culture,
demographic patterns, political environment,
background and experiences of program
participants, media influence, changing policies and
priorities, and so forth.

These external factors may have a major influence
on the achievement of outcomes.
            External Factors
External Factors may affect a variety of things
including the following:
Program implementation
Participants and recipients
The speed and degree to which change occurs
Staffing patterns and resources available.

External factors interact with programs. They not
only influence the initiative but are influenced by
the initiative. A program does not sit in isolation -
somehow "outside" or "apart" from its surrounding
environment. A program is affected by and affects
these external factors.
    External Factors Affecting a
   Program to Keep Low-Income
   Homeowners in their Homes
The economy
The culture of participants regarding accepting
assistance (male clients, female staff)
The war in Iraq
Interest rates
Changes in bank foreclosure policies
  The
Challenge
Challenge yourself to identify whether each of the
following 21 phrases is an

Input
Activity
Output
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact] outcome)
Situation
Assumption
External Factor

Answers are at the end of the presentation.
# 1 - A $10,000 corporate
contribution



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 2 – Because of an unusually large
amount of inexpensive heroin
coming into the area, heroin
induced deaths have increased.

Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 3 - Within the community, social
attitudes change and smoking is
viewed unfavorably by 95% of
youth ages 10 – 18.

Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 4 - Graduates of a training
program apply the skills they
learned on the job.


Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 5 - There is a decrease in traffic
accidents at an at-risk intersection.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 6 - Twenty prenatal classes were
taught.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 7 – Children without a male role
model do not form relationships as
successfully as children that do.


Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 8 - A needs assessment is
conducted.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 9 – A dollar for dollar match




Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 10 – Rehabilitation can work.




Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 11 – Letters are sent to potential
clients.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 12 – Children’s interest in books
increases.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 13 – The rate of global warming
slows.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 14 – Change in political party
winning an election



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 15 – Volunteers




Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 16 – Forty counseling sessions
were held.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 17 – Severe head traumas are
increasing because children are not
wearing helmets while bicycling.


Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 18 – After advertising, an
executive director is hired.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 19 – Parents in the parenting
program spend more time with their
children.


Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 20 – Sixty participants were
recruited.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
# 21 – Parents will value their
children more than drugs.



Input             Situation
Activity          Assumption
Output            External Factor
Short-term/Medium-term outcome
Impact (Long-term [ultimate benefit/Impact]
outcome)
Looking at logic models
developed by others may
help in developing your own.
The following examples of
logic models were selected to
illustrate the diversity that
can be found in the world of
logic models.
      Dental Program Sunflower Foundation: Health Care for Kansas

         Focus Areas              Inputs                 Activities                Outputs                   Outcomes

      Begin a new dental   Executive Director     Locate/refurbish dental   # of dental                Change in patient
      practice             3 FTE Dental Staff     operatory (due date)      operatories                attitude about need
                           Dental Equipment       Hire dental staff (due    # of Dental Staff hired    for dental care
                           Sunflower Foundation   date)                     # of patients enrolled     90% reduction in the
                           grant                  Purchase and test new     in the clinic/year         # of children and
                           Other funding          equipment (due date)      # of patient visits/year   adults with untreated
                                                  Implement new practice                               caries
                                                  (due date)                                           50% increase in
                                                  Report program                                       medical referrals to
                                                  development results at                               dental clinic
                                                  end of the project (due                              90% patient
                                                  date)                                                satisfaction for 3
                                                                                                       years




For this and more logic model examples from the Sunflower Foundation, go to
http://www.sunflowerfoundation.org/html/pdf/07_101_Logic_Model_Examples.doc
To view this logic model online, go to http://www.cyfernet.org/training/jr_logic.pdf
To view this and other logic models, go to http://outreach.msu.edu/CapableCommunities/examples.html
(Michigan State University)
To view this logic model online, go to http://sanctuaries.noaa.gov/education/evaluation/logic.pdf
This logic model may be found online at http://marathon.uwex.edu/ag/documents/IncLogicModelFinal.pdf
For this and other logic model examples from RUSH (Research Utilization Support and Help), go to
http://www.researchutilization.org/logicmodel/examples.html
This logic model is part of Documenting Outcomes in Tobacco Control Programs, University of Wisconsin
Extension, and is found at http://www.uwex.edu/ces/pdande/evaluation/pdf/tobaccomanual.pdf
  Logic Models are helpful in
  evaluation. We will briefly
discuss two key components:

Asking the right questions and
Developing indicators.
The first step in evaluation is to
develop appropriate questions. Since
you can’t evaluate everything about
the program, answering selected
questions well is better than
answering a lot of questions poorly.
Good questions help us not to let
evaluation get out of control so that
too much time is spent collecting data
we will never have time to analyze.
   Parent Child Abuse and Neglect Education Program




University of Wisconsin Extension
Another element to consider when
building a logic model is indicators.
Indicators are an important part of
              evaluation.
  While indicators are associated
 with all parts of a logic model, we
will focus on outcome indicators.
Indicators are items of data tracked to
measure how well a program is
achieving an outcome.

They are linked to the evaluation
questions we want answered.

In evaluation we must ask, “What do
we want to know?”

Indicators explain how we will know it.
In order to evaluate a program,
we must have at least one
indicator for each outcome.
The indicator will help those
involved in implementing the
program know whether the
outcome has been achieved.
       An Indicator must
Represent the achievement of the
outcome and must be a characteristic
or change that is measurable and
observable and
Generally will have a number and
percent attached to it that
summarizes the level of achievement.
Though we will focus on indicators with
numbers and percentages (quantitative),
know that sometimes indicators will be
qualitative.
In a drug treatment program, an outcome
might be increased self-esteem.
Indicators might be
1) Number and percent of positive self-
 esteem statements checked on XYZ test
 (quantitative)
2) Self-reported increase in self-esteem
 (qualitative)
When developing indicators, ask
yourself the following questions:

 How will I know the outcome has
 happened?
 Can I observe and measure this?
 Does the indicator tell me if the
 outcome has been reached?
Outcome: Teachers are knowledgeable
about the signs of child abuse.
Indicator Ex: Number and % of
teachers who can name 3 signs of
abuse.
Outcome: The quality of life for
disabled veterans increases.
Indicator Ex: Number and % of
veterans reporting ways their quality
of life has improved after completing
the program.
Outcome: Binge drinking decreases
among teenage youth.
Indicator Ex: Number and percent of
teens reporting fewer incidents of
binge drinking.

Outcome: Community members sign
up to clean up the stream
Indicator Ex: Number of residents on
sign up sheets.
Can you identify whether the
following examples are
indicators or outcomes? The
answers are at the end of the
presentation.
Drug treatment program
Participants stop using illegal drugs
Number and percent of participants
who are clean at release
Number and percent who have not
relapsed 6 months after program
completion
Participants do not relapse
After School Program
Participants learn conflict resolution
skills
Attendance improves
Number and percent of who miss less
than 5 days during program
Number and percent of youth using 1 or
more conflict resolution skills
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program
Teens delay pregnancy
Number and percent of teens delaying
pregnancy until after high school
graduation
Number and percent of teens delaying
parenthood until marriage.
Number and percent of teen mothers
who do not have another child while in
the program
Hospice Program
Patients are not in pain
Number and percent of patients reporting
they are pain free
Family members exhibit less stress
Number and percent of family members
reporting ways in which stress has been
reduced
Number and percent patients reporting
they are at peace with death
To learn more about Logic Models
University of Wisconsin Extension
http://www.uwex.edu/ces/lmcourse/#
United Way
http://national.unitedway.org/outcomes/
W. K. Kellogg Foundation
http://www.wkkf.org/Pubs/Tools/Evaluation
/Pub3669.pdf
Answers to THE CHALLENGE

Input             # 1 - A $10,000 corporation contribution
External Factor   # 2 - Because of an unusually large amount of inexpensive heroin coming
into                           the area, heroin induced deaths have increased.
Impact            #3 - Within the community, social mores change and smoking is viewed
                         unfavorably by 95% of youth ages 10 – 18.
Outcome           #4 - Graduates of a training program apply the skills they learned on the
                  job.
Outcome           #5 - There is a decrease in traffic accidents at a high-risk intersection.
Output            # 6 - Twenty prenatal classes are taught.
Situation         # 7 - Children without a male role model do not form relationships as
                               successfully as children that do.
Activity          # 8 - A needs assessment is conducted.
Input             # 9 – A dollar for dollar match
Assumption        # 10 - Rehabilitation can work.
Activity          # 11 – Letters are sent to potential clients.
Outcome           # 12 – Children’s interest in books increases.
Impact            # 13 – The rate of global warming slows.
External Factor   # 14 - Change in political party winning an election
Input             # 15 – Volunteers
Output            #16 – Forty counseling sessions were held.
Situation         # 17 - Severe head traumas are increasing because children are not
                  wearing helmets while bicycling.
Activity          #18 – After interviews, an executive director is hired.
Outcome           #19 – Parents in the parenting program spend more time with their
                  children.
Output            #20 – Sixty participants are recruited.
Assumption        # 21 - Parents will value their children more than drugs.
  Answers to Indicators vs. Outcomes

Drug treatment program
Participants stop using illegal drugs - outcome
Number and percent of participants who are clean at release - indicator
Number and percent who have not relapsed 6 months after program
completion - indicator
Participants do not relapse – outcome

After School Program
Participants learn conflict resolution skills - outcome
Attendance improves - outcome
Number and percent of who miss less than 5 days during program - indicator
Number and percent of youth using 1 or more conflict resolution skills -
indicator
Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program
Teens delay pregnancy - outcome
Number and percent of teens delaying pregnancy until after high school
graduation - indicator
Number and percent of teens delaying parenthood until marriage - indicator
Number and percent of teen mothers who do not have another child while in
the program - indicator


Hospice Program
Patients are not in pain - outcome
Number and percent of patients reporting they are pain free - indicator
Family members exhibit less stress - outcome
Number and percent of family members reporting ways in which stress has
been reduced - indicator
Number and percent patients reporting they are at peace with death - indicator

				
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