Locomotion_ Part I.ppt

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					Locomotion, Part I

     Lecture #3
       Skeletons and Muscles
•  Three types of skeletons in animal
   kingdom
1. Hydrostatic – as muscles contract, fluid
   in cavity is displaced causing change in
   body shape
1. Hydrostatic Skeleton
2. Exoskeleton
3. Endoskeleton

              Outside is
              flexible




              Bone is living
              unlike chitin. It
              can grow, repair
              and remodel
        Vertebrate Skeletons
• Divided into two divisions:
1. Axial – those bones associated with skull,
   rib cage and vertebral column
1. Axial Skeleton
    2. Appendicular Skeleton
• Those bones associated with the
  extremities including shoulder and hip
  bones
            Human Skeleton
•    Total # of bones = 206
1.   Axial = 80
2.   Appendicular = 126
•    Upper extremity = 60
•    Lower extremity = 60
•    Shoulder and hip total 6 bones
          Composition of bone
•    Bone is a living organ
•    Comprised of CT fibers -- collagen
•    Comprised of bone salts – hydroxyapatite
•    Hydroxyapatite – (Ca+2)10(PO-4)6(OH)2
•    Comprised of bone cells – osteocytes
•    Two types of osteocytes
1.   Osteoblasts – lay down bone (build)
2.   Osteoclasts – solubilize bone (deconstruct)
    Movement of the Skeleton
• Movement (motion) occurs when skeletal
  muscle shortens
• Muscles are attached to 2 separate bones
• These two bones share a movable joint.
• Next topic….how do muscles shorten?
Movement
Structure of Skeletal Muscle
   Structure of Skeletal Muscle
• Muscle – comprised of many fascicles
   Structure of Skeletal Muscle
• Fascicle – a bundle of muscle fibers (cells)
   Structure of Skeletal Muscle
• Muscle fiber cell contain bundles called
  myofibrils
  Structure of Skeletal Muscle
• Myofibrils – comprised of myofilaments
• 2 types
1. Thin
filaments
2. Thick
filaments

				
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posted:10/15/2012
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