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Caffeine Drug Investigation Grades 9-12 By Scott Ringenwald Drug Facts… Name of drug: Caffeine Street Name: coffee, tea, soda, and chocolate Brand Name: Coca Star- Folgers Cola bucks Hershey’s Chemical Name: Methylxanthine, or Xanthine Description of the Action Caffeine blocks adenosine reception so you feel alert. It injects adrenaline into the system to give you a boost. And it manipulates dopamine production to make you feel good. History… People have been making beverages from plants since the Stone Ages for medical use as well as social enjoyment. For example Cocoa and the Arabica bean have been used as the basis for beverages for centuries by the indigenous people of Central and South America Medical Use… Caffeine is used as an additional ingredient in headache and migraine medications. Caffeine is sometimes used in combination with an antihistamine to overcome the side effect of drowsiness . Citrated caffeine is used to treat breathing problems in premature babies. A Timeline Prior to 1000 A.D.: Members of the Galla tribe in Ethiopia notice that they get an energy boost when they eat a certain berry, ground up and mixed with animal fat. 1000 A.D.: Arab traders bring coffee back to their homeland and cultivate the plant for the first time on plantations. Create a drink they call "qahwa" (literally, that which prevents sleep). 1453: Coffee is introduced to Constantinople by Ottoman Turks. Turkish law makes it legal for a woman to divorce her husband if he fails to provide her with her daily quota of coffee. Timeline Continued… 1607: Captain John Smith helps to found the colony of Virginia at Jamestown. It's believed that he introduced coffee to North America. 1773: The Boston Tea Party makes drinking coffee a patriotic duty in America. 1920: Prohibition goes into effect in United States. Coffee sales boom. 2003: Coffee is a giant global industry employing more than 20 million people. More than 400 billion cups are consumed each year. It is a world commodity that is second only to oil. Schedule Rating Federal Rating of Drug and the Addictive Rating It is not listed as a Scheduled drug by the FDA However, it can be found in over the counter pill format and people can form an addiction. Caffeine is also used as a food additive regulated by the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Food and beverage manufacturers are legally required to list caffeine on their products' label only when caffeine has been added. Caffeine naturally present in other ingredients used in the production process need not be on the label. Physiological Effects Potential Benefits: Results in energy and decreased appetite. Potential Detriments: Can cause agitation, hypertension (leading to possible cardiac conditions), and anxiety. Psychological Effects Studies show there is definitely a psychological addiction to caffeine. The mind convinces the body it needs that cup of caffeine every day. Along with nicotine and alcohol, caffeine is one of the three most widely used mood -affecting drugs in the world. Possible Side Effects I’ve gotta cut back on the Diarrhea caffeine. Dizziness Fast Heartbeat Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia Possible Side Effects Continued… Irritability, nervousness Nausea and vomiting Tremors Trouble in Sleeping The caffeine addiction quiz Do you answer yes to the following questions? Yes No Do you use caffeine to facilitate a physical activity (waking up, exercising, having a bowel movement, concentrating)? Do you have to have caffeine in the morning? Can you substitute hot water with lemon? Do you crash or have caffeine/sugar cravings in the afternoon/early evening? Do you grow irritable, have headaches, feel disembodied if you miss your caffeine fix? Do you have difficulty falling asleep at night and waking feeling refreshed? Do you feel your social routines would suffer without caffeine use? Does the idea of going without caffeine seem impossible to you? Bibliography http://pol.spurious.biz/dev_zero/caffeine.html http://allpsych.com/drugs.html http://www.fda.gov http://science.howstuffworks.com/question531.htm http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/drug-information/DR602089