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									Cultural Practices under INM in Mango




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     Cultural Practices under INM in Mango
 Introduction
Maintenance of good sanitary               Hence, cultural operations should be
condition is a must for keeping            carried out in such a way so that they
mango orchard in healthy and               may help to maintain fertility status of
disease free.                              soil.

That can be done by mulching,              Thus the knowledge of intercultural
growing of green manuring and              operations needed for maintaining
leguminous crops, timely weed              sanitary conditions and effective
management and intercropping               management of mango orchard is
etc.                                       required.

In this RLO we will discuss about
different cultural practices such as
inter crop and cover crop, weed
management and practices for
managing soil health.


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   Cultural Practices under INM in Mango

Different cultural practices

Intercropping
Intercultural operations
Weed control
Cover crop/Green manure crop
Mulching




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    Cultural Practices under INM in Mango
Inter cropping
  Inter crops such as vegetables, legumes, short
 duration and dwarf fruit crops depending on the
 agro-climatic factors of the region can be grown.
 The water and nutrient requirements of the inter
 crops must be met separately.
                         Leguminous crops like green gram, black gram,
                         gram etc., cereals like wheat, oilseeds like mustard,
                         sesame and groundnut can be grown as intercrops
                         in non bearing orchards.

Vegetable crops such cabbage, cauliflower,
tomato, potato, brinjal, cucumber, pumpkin, bitter
gourd, tinda, lady’s finger etc. and spices like
chilies can be grown as intercrops.
                                                     Intercropping with vegetables
                                                           in mango orchard

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   Cultural Practices under INM in Mango

Inter cropping

The partial shade loving crops like pineapple,
ginger, turmeric etc. can be cultivated in fully
grown orchards.

                  In addition to field crops, some short duration,
                   less exhaustive and dwarf type inter- fillers like
                   papaya, guava, peach, plum etc. can be
                   grown till these do not interfere with the main
                   mango crop.




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   Cultural Practices under INM in Mango
Intercultural Operations
The frequency and the time of inter-culture
operations vary with age of the orchards
and existence of inter-crops.

                     It is advisable to break the crust around tree
                     trunk with hoeing each time after irrigations.


The area between the basins should be
ploughed at least three times in a year i.e.
during the pre-monsoon, post-monsoon period
and in the last week of November if intercrops
are taken.


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   Cultural Practices under INM in Mango

 Weed control

Root zone area of the trees must be kept
weed free all the time. Manual cultivation
is not recommended as it will disturb
active roots.
                          Weed killers with a heavy mulch may be
                          quite effective in controlling weeds.

Apply paraquat (3.0 kg a.i./ha) for effective
management of weeds.
                            Diuran at the rate of 9.0 kg/ha can also be
                            used as pre emergence treatment.



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Cultural Practices under INM in Mango
Weed control
Care should be taken to avoid direct
contact of chemicals with plant
tissues.

               Application of atrazine at 2.0 kg a.i./ha
              as pre emergence treatment to soil and
              one spray of paraquat as post
              emergence at 3.0 kg a.i./ha six months
              after soil treatment is effective for
              controlling both monocot and dicot weeds
              in mango orchards.


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   Cultural Practices under INM in Mango

Cover crops/green manuring crops
Besides intercrops, cover crops or green manuring crops
like sunnhemp in light soils or dhaincha in heavy soils
may also be grown to protect the orchard soil from
erosion and also enriching the soil fertility.




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    Cultural Practices under INM in Mango
Mulching

 Growing mango crop on mulch results in partial
 canopy cover, consequently, the energy balance
 of both the mulch and the bare soil between rows
 affect the exchange of energy between the plant
 and its environment.

                        Mulching is a process of covering the soil
                        around the plant to create more favourable
                        conditions for growth and production. It could
                        be done either with natural organic material or
                        synthetic material like polythene.
Polythene mulching
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   Cultural Practices under INM in Mango
Mulching

   Rice straw, rice husk, dried weed lopping, saw
   dust etc. can be used for mulching purposes
   in mango orchards.

                    Some materials like fresh coir dust may be
                    harmful as the leachates from these materials
                    may interfere with tree growth.

 Care should be taken to inspect trees regularly
 for any termite activity after mulching.




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      Cultural Practices under INM in Mango

Advantage of Mulching
Improves soil conditions
Conserve soil
Conserve moisture
Optimize soil temperature
Soil solarization
Weed control
Protect plants against diseases/disorders




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Let us sum up
Intercropping,    weed     management,
mulching etc are important intercultural
operations to reduce nutrients loss and
maintain moisture for good crop.
                    As we know that weeds compete for
                    nutrients and moisture with main crop, thus
                    timely management of weeds can reduce
                    the nutrients loss.

Similarly growing leguminous crops in space
between two rows of mango improve the
nitrogen content of soil by fixing of nitrogen
in their root nodules and can give some
additional income to the orchard owners.
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