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Revising and Editing Grammar Review

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Revising and Editing Grammar Review Powered By Docstoc
					Preparation
for the SFA:
Revising and
Editing
Grammar Review

 Commas
 Capitalizations
 Run-ons and Fragments
 Apostrophes
 Spelling
 Misplaced modifiers
Commas
 Use commas:
  - to separate dates, cities and states,
  person addressed in dialogue, introductory
  words
  - before a coordinating conjunction
     (FANBOYS)
  - series of words or phrases
  - a direct quotation
  - introductory phrase in a sentence
  - appositives, nonessential phrases
“Gotta keep ‘em separated!”
The president lives at 1600
  Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington
  D. C.

May 3, 1992, is her birth date.

Whatever, I don’t really care!
FANBOYS
(For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

You need to take out the garbage before
  you go to your friend’s house and,
  Sam, don’t forget to take the cans to
  the street because tomorrow is
  Wednesday, trash day!
“They keep going and going…”
Her chores at home include washing the
  dishes, making the bed, and walking
  the dog.

Her favorite colors are blue, orange, and
  yellow.

He hates veggies, dogs, and sports.
“What he said!”

Bob asked, “Is Sue home?”

The girl shouted across the room, “Does
  anyone have a pencil I can borrow?”

The bus driver whispered under his
  breath, “Only 14 more stops.”
“I’m proud to introduce…”
Because she is my friend, I asked her
  first.

With no expectations and only hope in
  her heart, she gave her valentine to
  him.

With hands in pockets, he walked away.
Aristotle Example
While Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar is primarily a play
   about political and moral issues, the play also focuses
   a great deal on various methods of persuasion. The
   ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle identified three
   ways a speaker can appeal to an audience. The
   characters in Julius Caesar employ all three methods
   at various times in the play. Recognizing these
   different appeals can help the modern speaker
   become more effective in the art of persuasion. For
   although Aristotle and the characters in
   Shakespeare’s play lived in ancient times, the three
   methods of persuasion named by Aristotle are as
   current as todays adertisements. In fact, modern
   teenagers use all three appeals on a regular basis.
Capitalization
   Proper Names
   Titles (first, middle important words, last)
   First word of sentence
   Direction as a location
ALL CAPS

The young lady, Sandra, and her
  boyfriend, Brett, set out on a trip to
  the South to visit her favorite
  author’s home town and the same
  location as her favorite story New
  Orleans.
Run-ons and Fragments
 Run-on sentence
   a sentence that continues without any
    defined breaks using a comma and
    conjunction or ending punctuation


 Fragment
   a part of a sentence lacking either the
    subject or a verb
“Stop that run-on!”
Rewrite the following sentence.

The teacher stood up to walk to the
  front of the room and a student
  placed his bag where the teacher was
  to stand and the teacher tripped on
  the bag and fell on her face and the
  class laughed and the boy felt silly.
“Hmmm…it needs something.”
Add to the fragment to make it a
  complete sentence:

Which was found on the floor.

When it was near the end of the day.

As the students were packing to leave.
Apostrophes
 To show possession
 Contractions
 To add ‘s’ to numbers or letters
“That’s mine!”
Make the following scenarios into
   possessions
1. The dog belongs to Brenda.
2. That homework belongs to Jim.
3. That IPOD belongs to Mr. Foust since
   you brought it to school.
“Should a, Could a, Would a”
Make the following words into contractions:
1. Should have
2. Could have
3. Would have
4. Did not
5. Will not
6. Is not
7. Could not
8. Have not
“I love the 80’s!”
Answer the following questions using ‘s:

1. What is your favorite decade?
2. What grade do you hate making?
3. What letters of the alphabet do you
   despise?
Spelling

YOU CANNOT USE THE DICTIONARY
         ON THE TEST!

   YOU WILL HAVE TO GUESS ON
   SPELLING IF YOU ARE NOT SURE.
Commonly Wrong
   Accept, except
   Effect, affect
   Principle, principal
   Then, than
   Receive, deceive
   Conscious, conscience
   Write, right
   There, their, they’re
   To, too, two
   ensure, insure
   since, because
Misplaced Modifiers
 Putting the descriptive phrase in the
  wrong place.
 How to check:
   Ask yourself – “Who is being described?”
“Now that’s just crazy!”
Correct the sentences below to make
   sense.
1. Running into the room, the
   typewriter fell over.
2. The lady got on the bus wearing a
   red dress.
3. Blown across the room by the fan,
   we picked up the papers.
Wait! It’s not just grammar!
   Sentence combining
   Transitions
   Adding sentences for clarification
   Rearranging sentences
   Who and Whom
   Good and Well
Sentence Combining
 Combine the following sentences:
   The robber was masked.
   The robber carried a loaded gun and a
    black bag.
   The clerk stared at the robber.
   The robber shouted, “Everyone down!
    Now!”
Transitions
 Why use transitions?
   To make sentences or paragraphs make a
    smoother change from one idea to another
    or to continue an idea over to another
 How do I know which to use?
   The purpose of the sentence: opposition,
    clarifying, explanation, example, additional
    information
 List all of the transition words that
  you know.
Needed: Clarification
Write a sentence or sentences to clarify
  the situation.

The teacher sat down with the student. A
  look of disappoint was on her face.
  She couldn’t believe it was happening.
  The teacher took a tissue. The paper
  was nothing like she expected.
 Movers: $20 an hour
Rearrange the sentences for clarity.

The girl sat on the couch. She was hungry.
  She made herself a sandwich. She had
  forgotten to eat lunch because she was
  so busy with her little brother. She also
  got a drink and chips. Her favorite show
  was on television. She wiped her mouth
  in satisfaction.
 Who or Whom?
 Who – the subject of a sentence.
   Who is standing at the door?
 Whom – the object of the preposition (if you
  can add to or from in front of who then it
  should be whom)
   To whom do I give the gift?


 Who or whom?
   ______ is calling?
   ______ are you calling?
Good and Well
 Good – an adjective
 Well – an adverb

 The boy/girl said, “You look good!”
 Ms. Robinson said that I did well on
  my paper.

 I did ____ on my exam.
 I will do ____ on the TAKS test.

				
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