types of graphs BAR GRAPHS LINE GRAPHS CIRCLE

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					READING OBJECTIVE #5 INTERPRET
     GRAPHIC INFORMATION

          M LEVEL
      Grade Level 4.0-5.9
         Scale Sores
           461-517
           D Level
      Grade Level 4.0-5.9
        Scales Scores
           518-566
     Interpret Graphic Information

Define:
Graphic information is visual representations
of information, data or knowledge.
 Graphic information helps to illustrate
information that would be cumbersome in
written form, and acts as visual shorthand
for everyday concepts and simplifies
messages.
Graphics are used anywhere, that
information needs to be explained
quickly or simply such as:
newspapers,children’s books, scientific
information, blue prints for construction
and construction of crafts, toys and
furniture.
  TABE 9/10 addresses the use of
  Graphic Information using five (5)
  categories under the Interpreting
       Graphic Information.

1. Graphs M 2/0
2. Forms M 2/2
3. Consumer Materials M1/0 D 3/2
4. Index M 0/2 D 0/2
5. References Sources D 1/1
        M 5/4 D 4/5
TABE 9/10 utilizes three (3) types of graphs:


             BAR GRAPHS
             LINE GRAPHS
             CIRCLE GRAPHS
               Bar Graph

Bar Graphs use thick lines (which look like
bars) to show data. These bars may be drawn
either vertically (up and down) or horizontally
(across).
Hint: The bar graph will have a title which
explains what the graph is illustrating or
comparing.
Gray’s Sales by Quarter 2005
               Circle Graphs
Circle Graphs are very useful when you want to
show what part of a whole thing each part makes
up.
 A circle graph is drawn as a divided circle. Each
piece is given a name and value. The whole circle
represents all or (100%) of the data being
displayed.
Before trying to interpret information about the
graph look for the title and then the percent/whole
assigned to each section.
               Line Graph
Sometimes you want to illustrate that change
has taken place over a period of time. Using a
line graph would be the perfect solution.

Line Graphs use dots connected to thin lines to
plot an outline across the graph. Like the bar
graph, a line graph is drawn using values along
a vertical (up and down) and horizontal (across)
axis to show the data.
The dots connected by the lines show a charted
outline of the graphic information. Now let's look
at a line graph.
              FORMS
Forms are a necessary part of our daily
survival. We fill out forms for many
reasons, but primarily we are providing
information about ourselves and/or our
family.
TABE 9/10 focuses on short phrases or
abbreviations when asking for
information. So a key to being
successful is to become familiar with
the phrases and abbreviations.
            Consumer Materials
TABE 9/10 test Consumer Material in a variety of
areas:
     Schedules (Bus/TV/Plane/Sports)
     Food Products: Cans Goods/Cereal/Etc.
     Newspaper Ads: Classified, Help Wanted
     and General Advertising (Note:
     Abbreviation)
Contracts: Cable /Satellite TV, Credit
Card,Cell/Telephone, Check Cashing, Bank
Loan,Lease for House/Apartment, Car, etc
                     Index
A book’s index is at the back. The index
contains names, topics, and important terms
that are mentioned in the book.

Terms are listed alphabetical order and next to
the item is the page in the book where the
subject items are discussed. Some books give
additional information called sub-entries.
Magazines may also have an index listed
in the back. The information maybe
alphabetized. The information would tell
about where to purchase certain items,
cost, sizes, etc.
             Reference Sources
 References sources give information or tell where
to find information.
TABE 9/10 utilizes samples from:
         Card Catalogs
         Glossary
         National Newspaper Index
         Reader’s Guide to Periodical
      Literature (List articles, stories     and
poems printed in over 200                magazines).
READING OBJECTIVE # 6
 WORDS IN CONTEXT

      LEVEL M
 Grade Level 4.0 – 5.9
SCALE SCORE 461-517

      LEVEL D
 Grade Level 6.0 – 8.9
SCALE SCORE 518-566
     WORDS IN CONTEXT

Same Meaning (Synonyms)
      M/3/4    D 2/1
Opposites Meaning (Antonyms)
       M 1/2    D 2/2
     Appropriate Word
          D 0/1
     M 4/6      D 4/4
 Words in Context on
TABE 9/10 addresses
  three (3) areas:
      Synonyms
      Antonyms
   Appropriate Word
Synonyms:


Words that have the same or almost the same
meaning.
                  Example:


Happy, Cheerful, Jolly, Merry, and Joyful
Antonyms:


   Two words that are opposite in meaning.


    Example: Happy/Sad
              Night/Day
              Man/Woman
Appropriate Word:
Many words have the same meaning, but
an appropriate word is the best word for a
particular sentence.


      Coach /Teacher/ Instructor
     He is the head football coach.


      Tiny/Miniature/Small/Petite
       She is a very petite person.
 Reading Objective # 7
RECALL INFORMATION

   Reading Level M
 Grade Level 4.0 - 5.9
SCALE SCORE 461-517

       Level D
 Grade Level 6.0 - 8.9
SCALE SCORE 518-566
            Objective # 7
          Recall Information
TABE 9/10 concentrates on three (3) sub-
objective under Recall Information. They are:


          Details M 5/6 D 6/8
          Sequence M 4/4 D 4/5
          Stated Concepts M 4/3 D 3/2
          Total? M 13/13 D 13/15
                 Details

Every reading passage contains Details or
(facts). Facts and details often answer the 5
W questions:

                 WHO
                 WHAT
                 WHERE
                 WHEN
                 WHY
                Sequence

Sequence: The order in which things
 happen in a story/event/life is called
 sequence. Sequence tells what
 happened first, what happened second,
 and so on.

Clue words such as: first, next, then, last,
  finally, before and after often tell the
  order in which things happen.
         Stated Concepts

In factual reading material the author’s
  states facts and ideas or concepts.
  When you read factual material, look
  for these stated concepts. They
  provide information about the topics.
 Objective # 7 Construct Meaning
TABE 9/10 identifies seven (7) sub-
   objectives under Construct
      Meaning. They are:
 1.   Character Aspects    M 0/2 D 1/2
 2.   Main Idea            M 6/3 D 1/2
 3.   Summary Paraphrase M 2/3 D 4/2
 4.   Cause and Effect     M 1/2 D 2/0
 5.   Compare and Contrast M 2/4 D 2/2
 6.   Conclusion           M 1/3 D 3/3
 7.   Supporting Evidence M 2/0 D 4/2
       Total ? M 14/17 D 17/13
      Character Traits

      Character traits are the
qualities/behaviors that an author
gives a character. Authors let the
readers know what a character is
like through their words, thoughts
           and actions.
Activity: Have students write out the
 letters in their 1st name in capitals
 letters. Then lists on character trait
 that corresponds with each letter.

         M – Merry
         E - Energetic
         R - Reliable
         R - Refined
         E - Enthusiastic
                 Main Idea
The Main idea is the most important idea in a
 story. The main idea tells what a story is
 mainly about.
     The main idea may be found in the first
             sentence of a story.

  The main idea may be in the last sentence of
                  the story.

     The main idea may not be clearly in the
  story. Just ask, What is this story telling me?
    Summary and Paraphrase

In a summary you use your own words
  to give the main idea of a passage.
  You do not include a lot of detail.

In a paraphrase you restate something
  in your own words, and do include
  details.
   Summary and Paraphrase
      Sample Passage
People do a great deal of walking in their
  lifetime. Many people would be amazed to
  find out how many miles they have
  walked. Most people walk a distance that
  would add up to a trip around the world.

Experts say that most eighty-year olds have
  taken enough steps to have walked six times
  around the world.
      Summary Example


The distance a person walks in a
 lifetime adds up to an amazing
 amount. It equals from one to
 six trips around the world.
      Paraphrase Example
Over their whole lives people walk a
  lot. It surprises most of us to learn
  that we have walked so many miles. It
  could add up to a trip around the
  world. In eighty years of steps a
  person would have walked enough,
  to add up to six trips around the
  world.
           Cause and Effect
A cause is an action or event that brings about
  other actions or events.

An effect is the outcome of an action or event.
          What happened? (effect)
          Why did it happen? (cause)

Cause and effect signal words are: because,
 therefore, so, as a result of, consequently,
 thus, due to, since, in order to, if and then.
    Compare and Contrast

Comparisons show how two or
more people or things are alike.

Signal/Clue words for comparison:
alike, and, both, likewise, like, by
 comparison, similar to, and in the
             same way.
Contrast shows how two or more people
          or things are different.


      Signal words for contrast are:
unlike, on the other hand, different, but, in
     contrast to, however, still, while or
                  although.
      Drawing Conclusion
Drawing Conclusion is making a judgment
 based on facts and what experience
 has taught you.

The facts add up. They help you to
 understand the writer’s point. To draw
 conclusion from what you read, pay
 close attention.
   Here is a formula for drawing a
             conclusion:



Facts +   Personal Knowledge = Conclusion
Drawing Conclusion Examples

During an earthquake buildings on loose
 soil shake more violently.

               Conclusion:

During an earthquake, buildings on loose
 soil are more likely to be damaged.
       Supporting Evidence
In a reading passage the supporting
  evidence is the phrases or sentences that tell
  about the main idea (the most important idea
  in a passage).

Example:
 America has many outstanding land
  features. Dense forests run along our
  northern border. Dry deserts cover the
 Southwest. One of the longest rivers in the
  world divides one-third of our country from
  the rest. In addition, there are mountains in
  the East and West.
  Supporting Evidence Example


Born in 1867 in Lake Pepin, Wisconsin, Laura
Ingalls Wilder, along with her family lived in a
log cabin. It was located at the edge, of a
large woods. Later they moved to Kansas,
Minnesota, and the Dakota Territory. Laura
Ingalls Wilder spent her early life in the Mid-
West.
  READING OBJECTIVE # 9
EVALUATE/EXTENDED MEANING
           LEVEL M
     Grade Level 4.0 – 5.9
   SCALE SCORE 461-517


          LEVEL D
    Grade Level 6.0 – 8.9
   SCALE SCORE 518-566
        Objective # 9
 Evaluate/Extended Meaning

  There are eight (8) sub-
objectives under Evaluate and
       Extend Meaning
1. Fact/Opinion              M 2/1   D 3/1
2. Predict Outcomes          M 1/1   D 2/0
3. Apply Passage Elements M 2/3      D 0/1
4. Generalization            M 3/1   D 2/2
5. Author’s Effect/Intention M 4/1   D 2/2
6. Author’s Purpose          M 2/2   D 1/2
7. Style Techniques          M 0/1   D 2/1
8. Genre                              D¼

     Total ? M 14/10   D? 13/13
        Fact/Opinion
 A fact is a statement that can be
 tested and proved.

              Example:
George Washington was the
first President of the United States.
 An opinion tells how a
 person thinks or fells about
 something.

           Example:
George Washington was the
greatest president.
Signal/Clue Words for an
        Opinion
       it seems
         I think
       greatest
        terrible
         should
       wonderful
     More of facts and opinions
            examples :

Monticello in Virginia was Thomas Jefferson’s
 home. He designed the house himself,
 basing it on classical architecture. After all,
 classical architecture is the best model of
 harmony and proportion. The Temple of
 Vesta in Rome inspired the columned
 porticos Jefferson used at Monticello.
     Predict Outcomes

A prediction is something you
 think will happen in the
 future. A writer gives clues to
 help you predict what will
 happen next and this is
 called predicting outcomes.
     Signal/Clue Words for
     Predicting Outcomes
       probably, or most likely

Example
Characters in stories act in a consistent
 way. If a character named Tom is
 usually curious, you can predict what he
 will do when he sees an odd-shaped
 box sitting on the table. He will look
 inside.
          Apply Passage Elements
Writers often use elements/details/facts that
 allow you to learn more than just what their
 words have stated. Readers use these details
 to extend the meaning of what was read.

Example:
They call it the devilfish. This sea creature has
  wide fins that look like great points wings and
  points that look like horns on its head. It also
  has a long whip like tail. On species of manta
  ray, called Atlantic manta, grows to more than
  23 feet. Superstitious fisherman, fear them
  and think that a ray will wrap people in its
  huge wings and eat them.
A manta ray’s body shape is
         probably


   A.   tall and thin
   B.    perfectly round
   C.   wide and flat
Picture of Atlantic Manta Ray
            Generalization
 A generalization is a conclusion that applies
to many people, events or situations. Several
facts or specific examples lead you to make a
logical generalization.

Signal/Clue words that may help you with
generalizations: most generally usually
              many typically few all
Example


Fish live in rivers, lakes,
 streams, and the ocean. They
 have streamlined bodies and
 fins that help them move
 through the water. They have
 gills for taking in oxygen from
 water.
From this passage we can
   generalize that fish

 A.   move very quickly
 B.   are easy to tame
 C.   always live in water.
             Author’s Purpose
Most author’s have four (4) purposes in mind
              when they write.

 1.   Persuade (make someone want do
                  something)

 2.   Inform (to give information)
 3.   Describe (give a description of someone
                 or something)

 4.   Entertain (tell a story)
                  Example

Why do bees leave their old home for new one?
The reason may be that their old home is too
crowded. There may not be enough room for bees
 to store all the honey they need for food.
           a.     to entertain
           b.     to inform
           c.     to persuade
           d.    to describe
 Author’s Intentions and Effect
     (How people react)
Examples of authors’ intentions are:

        1.   to entertain
        2.   inform
        3.   persuade
        4.   to express feelings
Once an author decides on one or more of the
 intentions listed above then they must decide
 what style/technique will be most effective.

Example:
1. If the author’s intention is tell the
   readers how to make vegetable soup;
   then a straightfoward, no-nonsense
   approach is probably most effective.
2. It ‘s so important to encourage
  organic gardening. If you have a garden
  go organic; if you don’t buy organic.
  Sure, it costs a little more, but it’s so
  better for you and your family. Which
  would you rather put in your mouth:
  lettuce that ‘s been poisoned by
  chemical fertilizers and pesticides, or
  lettuce that’s pure and healthy.
In this article the author uses the words better,
  poisoned, pure, and healthy to persuade
  readers to join his/her position.

So the effect of the passage is convince the
  readers to go organic, and the author could
  be described as determined or impassioned.

Another author could write about the same
 subject in a completely different way just by
 changing the tone.

      Resources: Newspaper/magazine Advice
                Columns
         Style Techniques

A writer’s style can be as individual as a
  fingerprint!

Authors’ have their own unique style of
 writing. Some have such a unique style
 that a passage of their work could be
 identified as their work even when taken
 out of their work.
                      Genre
     Genre refers to kinds of writing such as:

1.   Fiction- is made up. This include science/
     realistic/historical fiction, myths, and tall
     tales.
2.    Poetry –paints pictures of ideas or images, using
     carefully chosen words and sounds. It may be
     long or short/create one or many images/or be a
     song.
3. Drama- meant to be performed by actors. When
   the play is presented the actors speak and act as
   characters.
4. Nonfiction-literature designed to communicate
    information, biographies, newspaper and
    magazine articles and reports are types of
    nonfiction.

             Example of Resources:
                    newspapers
                     magazines
              latest best selling novel
                  paperback books
                      fairy tales
                       folktales
                   nursery rhymes
                   greeting cards

				
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