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```									READING OBJECTIVE #5 INTERPRET
GRAPHIC INFORMATION

M LEVEL
Scale Sores
461-517
D Level
Scales Scores
518-566
Interpret Graphic Information

Define:
Graphic information is visual representations
of information, data or knowledge.
Graphic information helps to illustrate
information that would be cumbersome in
written form, and acts as visual shorthand
for everyday concepts and simplifies
messages.
Graphics are used anywhere, that
information needs to be explained
quickly or simply such as:
newspapers,children’s books, scientific
information, blue prints for construction
and construction of crafts, toys and
furniture.
TABE 9/10 addresses the use of
Graphic Information using five (5)
categories under the Interpreting
Graphic Information.

1. Graphs M 2/0
2. Forms M 2/2
3. Consumer Materials M1/0 D 3/2
4. Index M 0/2 D 0/2
5. References Sources D 1/1
M 5/4 D 4/5
TABE 9/10 utilizes three (3) types of graphs:

BAR GRAPHS
LINE GRAPHS
CIRCLE GRAPHS
Bar Graph

Bar Graphs use thick lines (which look like
bars) to show data. These bars may be drawn
either vertically (up and down) or horizontally
(across).
Hint: The bar graph will have a title which
explains what the graph is illustrating or
comparing.
Gray’s Sales by Quarter 2005
Circle Graphs
Circle Graphs are very useful when you want to
show what part of a whole thing each part makes
up.
A circle graph is drawn as a divided circle. Each
piece is given a name and value. The whole circle
represents all or (100%) of the data being
displayed.
Before trying to interpret information about the
graph look for the title and then the percent/whole
assigned to each section.
Line Graph
Sometimes you want to illustrate that change
has taken place over a period of time. Using a
line graph would be the perfect solution.

Line Graphs use dots connected to thin lines to
plot an outline across the graph. Like the bar
graph, a line graph is drawn using values along
a vertical (up and down) and horizontal (across)
axis to show the data.
The dots connected by the lines show a charted
outline of the graphic information. Now let's look
at a line graph.
FORMS
Forms are a necessary part of our daily
survival. We fill out forms for many
reasons, but primarily we are providing
family.
TABE 9/10 focuses on short phrases or
information. So a key to being
successful is to become familiar with
the phrases and abbreviations.
Consumer Materials
TABE 9/10 test Consumer Material in a variety of
areas:
Schedules (Bus/TV/Plane/Sports)
Food Products: Cans Goods/Cereal/Etc.
Abbreviation)
Contracts: Cable /Satellite TV, Credit
Card,Cell/Telephone, Check Cashing, Bank
Loan,Lease for House/Apartment, Car, etc
Index
A book’s index is at the back. The index
contains names, topics, and important terms
that are mentioned in the book.

Terms are listed alphabetical order and next to
the item is the page in the book where the
subject items are discussed. Some books give
Magazines may also have an index listed
in the back. The information maybe
alphabetized. The information would tell
about where to purchase certain items,
cost, sizes, etc.
Reference Sources
References sources give information or tell where
to find information.
TABE 9/10 utilizes samples from:
Card Catalogs
Glossary
National Newspaper Index
Literature (List articles, stories     and
poems printed in over 200                magazines).
WORDS IN CONTEXT

LEVEL M
SCALE SCORE 461-517

LEVEL D
SCALE SCORE 518-566
WORDS IN CONTEXT

Same Meaning (Synonyms)
M/3/4    D 2/1
Opposites Meaning (Antonyms)
M 1/2    D 2/2
Appropriate Word
D 0/1
M 4/6      D 4/4
Words in Context on
three (3) areas:
Synonyms
Antonyms
Appropriate Word
Synonyms:

Words that have the same or almost the same
meaning.
Example:

Happy, Cheerful, Jolly, Merry, and Joyful
Antonyms:

Two words that are opposite in meaning.

Night/Day
Man/Woman
Appropriate Word:
Many words have the same meaning, but
an appropriate word is the best word for a
particular sentence.

Coach /Teacher/ Instructor
He is the head football coach.

Tiny/Miniature/Small/Petite
She is a very petite person.
RECALL INFORMATION

SCALE SCORE 461-517

Level D
SCALE SCORE 518-566
Objective # 7
Recall Information
TABE 9/10 concentrates on three (3) sub-
objective under Recall Information. They are:

Details M 5/6 D 6/8
Sequence M 4/4 D 4/5
Stated Concepts M 4/3 D 3/2
Total? M 13/13 D 13/15
Details

Every reading passage contains Details or
(facts). Facts and details often answer the 5
W questions:

WHO
WHAT
WHERE
WHEN
WHY
Sequence

Sequence: The order in which things
happen in a story/event/life is called
sequence. Sequence tells what
happened first, what happened second,
and so on.

Clue words such as: first, next, then, last,
finally, before and after often tell the
order in which things happen.
Stated Concepts

In factual reading material the author’s
states facts and ideas or concepts.
When you read factual material, look
for these stated concepts. They
Objective # 7 Construct Meaning
TABE 9/10 identifies seven (7) sub-
objectives under Construct
Meaning. They are:
1.   Character Aspects    M 0/2 D 1/2
2.   Main Idea            M 6/3 D 1/2
3.   Summary Paraphrase M 2/3 D 4/2
4.   Cause and Effect     M 1/2 D 2/0
5.   Compare and Contrast M 2/4 D 2/2
6.   Conclusion           M 1/3 D 3/3
7.   Supporting Evidence M 2/0 D 4/2
Total ? M 14/17 D 17/13
Character Traits

Character traits are the
qualities/behaviors that an author
gives a character. Authors let the
readers know what a character is
like through their words, thoughts
and actions.
Activity: Have students write out the
letters in their 1st name in capitals
letters. Then lists on character trait
that corresponds with each letter.

M – Merry
E - Energetic
R - Reliable
R - Refined
E - Enthusiastic
Main Idea
The Main idea is the most important idea in a
story. The main idea tells what a story is
The main idea may be found in the first
sentence of a story.

The main idea may be in the last sentence of
the story.

The main idea may not be clearly in the
story. Just ask, What is this story telling me?
Summary and Paraphrase

In a summary you use your own words
to give the main idea of a passage.
You do not include a lot of detail.

In a paraphrase you restate something
in your own words, and do include
details.
Summary and Paraphrase
Sample Passage
People do a great deal of walking in their
lifetime. Many people would be amazed to
find out how many miles they have
walked. Most people walk a distance that
would add up to a trip around the world.

Experts say that most eighty-year olds have
taken enough steps to have walked six times
around the world.
Summary Example

The distance a person walks in a
amount. It equals from one to
six trips around the world.
Paraphrase Example
Over their whole lives people walk a
lot. It surprises most of us to learn
that we have walked so many miles. It
could add up to a trip around the
world. In eighty years of steps a
person would have walked enough,
to add up to six trips around the
world.
Cause and Effect
A cause is an action or event that brings about
other actions or events.

An effect is the outcome of an action or event.
What happened? (effect)
Why did it happen? (cause)

Cause and effect signal words are: because,
therefore, so, as a result of, consequently,
thus, due to, since, in order to, if and then.
Compare and Contrast

Comparisons show how two or
more people or things are alike.

Signal/Clue words for comparison:
alike, and, both, likewise, like, by
comparison, similar to, and in the
same way.
Contrast shows how two or more people
or things are different.

Signal words for contrast are:
unlike, on the other hand, different, but, in
contrast to, however, still, while or
although.
Drawing Conclusion
Drawing Conclusion is making a judgment
based on facts and what experience
has taught you.

understand the writer’s point. To draw
conclusion from what you read, pay
close attention.
Here is a formula for drawing a
conclusion:

Facts +   Personal Knowledge = Conclusion
Drawing Conclusion Examples

During an earthquake buildings on loose
soil shake more violently.

Conclusion:

During an earthquake, buildings on loose
soil are more likely to be damaged.
Supporting Evidence
In a reading passage the supporting
evidence is the phrases or sentences that tell
about the main idea (the most important idea
in a passage).

Example:
America has many outstanding land
features. Dense forests run along our
northern border. Dry deserts cover the
Southwest. One of the longest rivers in the
world divides one-third of our country from
the rest. In addition, there are mountains in
the East and West.
Supporting Evidence Example

Born in 1867 in Lake Pepin, Wisconsin, Laura
Ingalls Wilder, along with her family lived in a
log cabin. It was located at the edge, of a
large woods. Later they moved to Kansas,
Minnesota, and the Dakota Territory. Laura
Ingalls Wilder spent her early life in the Mid-
West.
EVALUATE/EXTENDED MEANING
LEVEL M
SCALE SCORE 461-517

LEVEL D
SCALE SCORE 518-566
Objective # 9
Evaluate/Extended Meaning

There are eight (8) sub-
objectives under Evaluate and
Extend Meaning
1. Fact/Opinion              M 2/1   D 3/1
2. Predict Outcomes          M 1/1   D 2/0
3. Apply Passage Elements M 2/3      D 0/1
4. Generalization            M 3/1   D 2/2
5. Author’s Effect/Intention M 4/1   D 2/2
6. Author’s Purpose          M 2/2   D 1/2
7. Style Techniques          M 0/1   D 2/1
8. Genre                              D¼

Total ? M 14/10   D? 13/13
Fact/Opinion
A fact is a statement that can be
tested and proved.

Example:
George Washington was the
first President of the United States.
An opinion tells how a
something.

Example:
George Washington was the
greatest president.
Signal/Clue Words for an
Opinion
it seems
I think
greatest
terrible
should
wonderful
More of facts and opinions
examples :

Monticello in Virginia was Thomas Jefferson’s
home. He designed the house himself,
basing it on classical architecture. After all,
classical architecture is the best model of
harmony and proportion. The Temple of
Vesta in Rome inspired the columned
porticos Jefferson used at Monticello.
Predict Outcomes

A prediction is something you
think will happen in the
future. A writer gives clues to
happen next and this is
called predicting outcomes.
Signal/Clue Words for
Predicting Outcomes
probably, or most likely

Example
Characters in stories act in a consistent
way. If a character named Tom is
usually curious, you can predict what he
will do when he sees an odd-shaped
box sitting on the table. He will look
inside.
Apply Passage Elements
Writers often use elements/details/facts that
words have stated. Readers use these details
to extend the meaning of what was read.

Example:
They call it the devilfish. This sea creature has
wide fins that look like great points wings and
points that look like horns on its head. It also
has a long whip like tail. On species of manta
ray, called Atlantic manta, grows to more than
23 feet. Superstitious fisherman, fear them
and think that a ray will wrap people in its
huge wings and eat them.
A manta ray’s body shape is
probably

A.   tall and thin
B.    perfectly round
C.   wide and flat
Picture of Atlantic Manta Ray
Generalization
A generalization is a conclusion that applies
to many people, events or situations. Several
facts or specific examples lead you to make a
logical generalization.

generalizations: most generally usually
many typically few all
Example

Fish live in rivers, lakes,
streams, and the ocean. They
have streamlined bodies and
fins that help them move
through the water. They have
gills for taking in oxygen from
water.
From this passage we can
generalize that fish

A.   move very quickly
B.   are easy to tame
C.   always live in water.
Author’s Purpose
Most author’s have four (4) purposes in mind
when they write.

1.   Persuade (make someone want do
something)

2.   Inform (to give information)
3.   Describe (give a description of someone
or something)

4.   Entertain (tell a story)
Example

Why do bees leave their old home for new one?
The reason may be that their old home is too
crowded. There may not be enough room for bees
to store all the honey they need for food.
a.     to entertain
b.     to inform
d.    to describe
Author’s Intentions and Effect
(How people react)
Examples of authors’ intentions are:

1.   to entertain
2.   inform
4.   to express feelings
Once an author decides on one or more of the
intentions listed above then they must decide
what style/technique will be most effective.

Example:
1. If the author’s intention is tell the
readers how to make vegetable soup;
then a straightfoward, no-nonsense
approach is probably most effective.
2. It ‘s so important to encourage
organic gardening. If you have a garden
go organic; if you don’t buy organic.
Sure, it costs a little more, but it’s so
better for you and your family. Which
would you rather put in your mouth:
lettuce that ‘s been poisoned by
chemical fertilizers and pesticides, or
lettuce that’s pure and healthy.
poisoned, pure, and healthy to persuade

So the effect of the passage is convince the
readers to go organic, and the author could
be described as determined or impassioned.

Another author could write about the same
subject in a completely different way just by
changing the tone.

Columns
Style Techniques

A writer’s style can be as individual as a
fingerprint!

Authors’ have their own unique style of
writing. Some have such a unique style
that a passage of their work could be
identified as their work even when taken
out of their work.
Genre
Genre refers to kinds of writing such as:

1.   Fiction- is made up. This include science/
realistic/historical fiction, myths, and tall
tales.
2.    Poetry –paints pictures of ideas or images, using
carefully chosen words and sounds. It may be
long or short/create one or many images/or be a
song.
3. Drama- meant to be performed by actors. When
the play is presented the actors speak and act as
characters.
4. Nonfiction-literature designed to communicate
information, biographies, newspaper and
magazine articles and reports are types of
nonfiction.

Example of Resources:
newspapers
magazines
latest best selling novel
paperback books
fairy tales
folktales
nursery rhymes
greeting cards

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