VIEWS: 42 PAGES: 34 POSTED ON: 10/15/2012
Welcome to “Introduction to Botany & Zoology” Mrs. Schalles Textbook: Introduction to Botany by Murray Nabors Pics from: http://www.botany.com/index.16.htm What to expect: (see agenda) • Approximately 18 weeks on Plants • 4 weeks on microbes & a discussion of other photosynthetic organisms • Rest of the year: – Short review of invertebrates – About 12 weeks of vertebrates, especially birds & mammals & including animal behavior. What to expect with Botany: (see agenda) • 4-5 weeks: chapter 1 & classification (chapters 20-23) • 1-2 weeks: chapter 2 review of the cell – students will review chapter independently- write a paper on medically important plant compounds • 1-2 weeks: chapter 3- Plant structures &Types of cells • 1-2 weeks: chapter 4 Plant structures- Roots, Stems & Leaves • 2 weeks: chapter 5 Plant structures- secondary growth (wood, bark, cork) • 2 weeks: chapter 6- Reproduction in plants • 2 weeks: chapter 7 Basic plant biochemistry • Few days- chapter 8 student packet on photosynthesis • Few days- chapter 12/13 genetics review • 2 weeks- chapter 14 - Plant Biotechnology Guests & special events planned: • Chapter 1 & 20-23 Intro & classification – Game commissioner speaker – nature walk • Chapter 5(wood)-Bonsai tree speaker – Make bonsai tree? (Need to know this week if students want to pay to do this for extra credit) – Tree ID from bark – Make own paper – Sustainable wood resources – Hardwoods in guitars, instruments • Chapter 6- Reproduction in plants- – Unusual fruit day – FT-Phipps Conservatory • Chapter 14- Biotechnology – Possible FT to Carnegie museum plant lab Class rules • Be prepared! Bring your own pencil & a calculator will be needed many days.) • Be on time! – Be in your seat when the bell rings. 3 tardy = a detention. • Be polite! -One person at a time talks, raise your hand, no rude language, Do not interrupt me in the middle of a lecture! Restroom passes are given at the beginning of class OR during desk work- not in the middle of a lecture. • No eating or drinking or personal grooming in class! • Be educated! How to contact me: • Mrs. Lori Schalles • Email: email@example.com • Website: http://www.geocities.com/schalleslori Lab Report Format • Title Page -Name of experiment, Lab partners, date, possible diagram or design • Introduction –Acquaint reader with experiment, state problem to be solved background theory, purpose of work. • Methods & Materials – Complete list of equipment • Procedure – Numbered description of all the steps • Results & Data – Give actual results, not what should have happened. Can include tables, charts, graphs, diagrams. • Discussion/Conclusion – Sentences discuss, analyze , interpret results, critique of experiment, what was learned. • References – Include author, title, publishing company , date Expected Quality of Work • Please write in complete sentences. • Use legible handwriting • Turn in work on time- penalty for late work. • Do your own work. Writing Assignments: (See each assignment sheet for details) • Introduction: – Here you will introduce topic. • Body: 3 paragraphs- see English Dept handout – This section may be several paragraphs long. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence & a concluding sentence & one or more sentences about the topic in-between. – Use complete sentences (no phrases or lazy answers) – Discuss what you have learned about this topic from the reading & answer any questions that have been assigned. • Conclusion – Summarize the article & your thoughts You should add a personal statement (about the relevance of the reading to something in your life, its application to society or a thought about what might happen in the future, etc.) Lab Safety • Go over lab safety hand-out Report any accident (spill, • Must be signed breakage, etc.) orteacher(cut, burn, etc.) to the injury • Questions? immediately, http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/debeck_pt/science/safety.htm Review Jeopardy Game • Pass out white boards • See how much you remember • Jeopardy Game • Obscure Science Facts Game What is Botany? “Botany” • From the Greek word for “plant” or ‘herb”. • All of our biological energy needs are met by the plant kingdom, either directly or through herbivorous animals What is Botany? • The study of plants • The first people to specialize in the study of botany were primitive medicine men & witch doctors – had to know the plants that could kill or cure people. – botany was closely linked with medicine for hundreds of years. Branches of Botany: • Plant Anatomy - the structure of plants • Plant Genetics- plant heredity • Ecology - studies of the distribution of plants throughout the world, & why certain species grow in certain places. • Palaeobotany - plant evolution & fossil remains. • Plant Physiology- plant metabolism. • Plant Pathology- the study of plant diseases. Plants can be studied at many different levels • Molecular level, -biochemical, molecular and genetic functions of plants. • Cellular, tissue and organelle,- which studies the anatomy and physiology of plants; • Community and population level, which involves interactions within a species, with other species and with the environment A little Botany History: • In the fifth century B.C., Empedocles believed plants not only had a soul, like animals, but also had reason & common sense. • Aristotle classified organisms as: • Plant or • Animal • Aristotle’s pupil Theophrastus wrote 2 books about plants that still were in use in the 15th century. http://www.aboutbioscience.org/wib_botany.html Botany History continued- • Carl Linnéus • father of the “2 name- naming” system (binomial nomenclature) • He invented it in 18th century • It’s still used to give scientific names to all species, plant and otherwise Botanists also study other kingdoms in addition to the plant kingdom: • Fungi • Protists • Bacteria • Disease causing organisms (from any kingdom) & viruses (which are not alive) • Historically, botanists studied any living being that was not an animal. Fungi Kingdom- chapter 19 Characteristics of Fungi: • Eukaryotic • Heterotrophic • Different body plan than other organisms: – Filamentous cells, – hyphae – mycelia • Botanists study them because they are Important as: – Decomposers – Symbiotic relationships with plant roots – Associations with other photosynthetic organisms such as bacteria & algae Kingdom Protista- Algae: chapter 18 Characteristics of Protists: • The protists kingdom members are a variety of eukaryotic organisms. • May be unicellular, colonial or multicellular • Some are heterotrophic, others are autotrophic. • Botanists are interested Algae which are photosynthetic Bacteria & Viruses - chapter 17 Characteristics of Bacteria: • Prokaryotic • Some are heterotrophic, some autotrophic • Some are disease causing. Characteristics of Viruses: • Not alive- are not cells!!! • All require a host- THEY ARE OBLIGATE INTRACELLULAR PARASITES • Can replicate themselves with their nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) in a host cell Careers in Botany • An undergraduate degree in botany prepares students for employment or for graduate studies. • Careers in applied fields of: – plant pathology, forestry, crop production, – horticulture, genetics and plant breeding, – plant biotechnology – environmental monitoring and control What do you think of when someone • GREEN? says “PLANT”? – All Plants are photosynthetic • LEAVES? – Not all plants have leaves! • FLOWERS? FRUIT? – Not all plants have flowers or fruit! • WOOD? – Not all plants have stems! • SEEDS? – Not all plants have seeds! • FOOD? – Life on earth does depend on photosynthetic organisms like plants, algae & photosynthetic bacteria. Take a kids’ quiz on plants: • http://www.biology4kids.com/extras/quiz_p lantintro/index.html Photosynthesis & the Biosphere Photosynthesis •Process by which plants & Certain other Organisms use solar energy to make food •by transforming carbon dioxide & water into sugars (carbohydrates) that store chemical energy. •Also very important: Oxygen is released in the process. Here is the chemical formula for photosynthesis: Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light = Carbohydrate + Oxygen 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light = (CH2O)6 + 6O2 All life depends on photosynthesis “Interesting Photosynthesis Facts”from: http://www.life.uiuc.edu/govindjee/page2.html Rajni Govindjee •The Sun - source of most energy for Life on Earth. • Each minute the Sun converts 120 million tons of its mass into electromagnetic radiation &sends it into space. • One billionth of the energy reaches the Earth. • It takes only 8 minutes for this radiation to travel 93 million miles to reach us. • Visible portion of EM radiation (ROYGBIV) (rainbow) is captured by plants, algae and cyanobacteria. Why are leaves green? • The green color of the leaves is due to the presence of a pigment called chlorophyll. • Chlorophyll absorbs blue and red light efficiently, but not green, • the transmitted green light gives the leaves their green color. photos.somd.com Biosphere • The thin layer of Earth’s crust with the atmosphere & ocean layers that support LIFE that includes: – All plant and animal life – The things that sustain life: air, soil and water. – It includes a variety of ecosystems that are connected by natural cycles Pic from: http://www.ucar.edu/learn/images/athylibi.gif Biosphere- is composed of three parts: • ATMOSPHERE – a light blanket of air enveloping the earth, with more than half its mass within 4 miles of the surface and 98% within 16 miles • HYDROSPHERE --- the surface and subsurface waters in oceans, rivers, lakes, glaciers, and groundwater, • LITHOSPHERE --- the upper reaches of the earth's crust containing the soils that support plant life, the minerals that plants and animals require for life and the fossil fuels and ores that humans exploit. Photosynthesis summary: • Produces almost all of the world’s oxygen • Produces almost all the world’s food – All organisms get their energy either DIRECTLY or INDIRECTLY from the sun through photosynthesis – Plants/photosynthetic organisms are the primary producers in the food chains. –Sugars made in photosynthesis are the building blocks of life. Plants capture only one thousandth of the sunlight that falls on the Earth. Yet, without this process all life on Earth would come to a halt.
"Welcome to “Introduction to Botany _ Zoology”"