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Welcome to “Introduction to Botany _ Zoology”


									                                Welcome to
“Introduction to Botany & Zoology”

Mrs. Schalles
Textbook: Introduction to Botany by Murray Nabors
 Pics from:
      What to expect: (see agenda)
• Approximately 18 weeks on Plants

• 4 weeks on microbes & a discussion of other
  photosynthetic organisms

• Rest of the year:
  – Short review of invertebrates
  – About 12 weeks of vertebrates, especially
    birds & mammals & including animal
   What to expect with Botany: (see agenda)
• 4-5 weeks: chapter 1 & classification (chapters 20-23)
• 1-2 weeks: chapter 2 review of the cell – students will review
  chapter independently- write a paper on medically important plant
• 1-2 weeks: chapter 3- Plant structures &Types of cells
• 1-2 weeks: chapter 4 Plant structures- Roots, Stems & Leaves
• 2 weeks: chapter 5 Plant structures- secondary growth (wood,
  bark, cork)
• 2 weeks: chapter 6- Reproduction in plants
• 2 weeks: chapter 7 Basic plant biochemistry
• Few days- chapter 8 student packet on photosynthesis
• Few days- chapter 12/13 genetics review
• 2 weeks- chapter 14 - Plant Biotechnology
       Guests & special events planned:
• Chapter 1 & 20-23 Intro & classification
   – Game commissioner speaker
   – nature walk
• Chapter 5(wood)-Bonsai tree speaker
   – Make bonsai tree? (Need to know this week if students want to
     pay to do this for extra credit)
   –   Tree ID from bark
   –   Make own paper
   –   Sustainable wood resources
   –   Hardwoods in guitars, instruments
• Chapter 6- Reproduction in plants-
   – Unusual fruit day
   – FT-Phipps Conservatory
• Chapter 14- Biotechnology
   – Possible FT to Carnegie museum plant lab
                           Class rules
• Be prepared!
       Bring your own pencil & a calculator will be needed many days.)

• Be on time!
   – Be in your seat when the bell rings. 3 tardy = a detention.

• Be polite! -One person at a time talks, raise your hand, no rude
  language, Do not interrupt me in the middle of a lecture!
  Restroom passes are given at the beginning of
  class OR during desk work- not in the middle
  of a lecture.
• No eating or drinking or personal
  grooming in class!
• Be educated!
         How to contact me:
• Mrs. Lori Schalles
• Email:
• Website:
             Lab Report Format
• Title Page -Name of experiment, Lab partners, date,
  possible diagram or design
• Introduction –Acquaint reader with experiment, state
  problem to be solved background theory, purpose of work.
• Methods & Materials – Complete list of equipment
• Procedure – Numbered description of all the steps
• Results & Data – Give actual results, not what should have
  happened. Can include tables, charts, graphs, diagrams.
• Discussion/Conclusion – Sentences discuss, analyze ,
  interpret results, critique of experiment, what was learned.
• References – Include author, title, publishing company , date
Expected Quality of Work

• Please write in complete sentences.
• Use legible handwriting
• Turn in work on time- penalty for
  late work.
• Do your own work.
             Writing Assignments:
               (See each assignment sheet for details)
• Introduction:
  – Here you will introduce topic.
• Body: 3 paragraphs- see English Dept handout
  – This section may be several paragraphs long. Each paragraph should have a
    topic sentence & a concluding sentence & one or more sentences about the topic
  – Use complete sentences (no phrases or lazy answers)
  – Discuss what you have learned about this topic from the reading & answer any
    questions that have been assigned.
• Conclusion
  – Summarize the article & your thoughts You should add a personal statement
    (about the relevance of the reading to something in your life, its application to
    society or a thought about what might happen in the future, etc.)
  Lab Safety
• Go over lab safety hand-out
                    Report any accident (spill,
• Must be signed breakage, etc.) orteacher(cut,
                    burn, etc.) to the

• Questions?

     Review Jeopardy Game
• Pass out white boards
• See how much you remember
• Jeopardy Game

• Obscure Science Facts Game
What is Botany?
• From the Greek word for
 “plant” or ‘herb”.

• All of our biological energy needs are met
   by the plant kingdom, either directly or
         through herbivorous animals
            What is Botany?
• The study of plants

• The first people to specialize in the study
  of botany were primitive medicine men &
  witch doctors
  – had to know the plants that could kill or cure
  – botany was closely linked with medicine for
    hundreds of years.
      Branches of Botany:
• Plant Anatomy - the structure of plants
• Plant Genetics- plant heredity
• Ecology - studies of the distribution of plants
  throughout the world, & why certain species grow
  in certain places.
• Palaeobotany - plant evolution & fossil remains.
• Plant Physiology- plant metabolism.
• Plant Pathology- the study of plant diseases.
     Plants can be studied at many
            different levels
• Molecular level, -biochemical, molecular and
 genetic functions of plants.
• Cellular, tissue and organelle,- which
  studies the anatomy and physiology of
• Community and population level, which
  involves interactions within a species, with
  other species and with the environment
            A little Botany History:
• In the fifth century B.C., Empedocles believed
  plants not only had a soul, like animals, but also had
  reason & common sense.
• Aristotle classified organisms as:
• Plant or
• Animal
• Aristotle’s pupil Theophrastus
wrote 2 books about plants that still
were in use in the 15th century.

     Botany History continued-

• Carl Linnéus
• father of the “2 name- naming”
  (binomial nomenclature)
• He invented it in 18th century
• It’s still used to give scientific
   names to all species, plant and
    Botanists also study other kingdoms in
       addition to the plant kingdom:
•   Fungi
•   Protists
•   Bacteria
•   Disease causing organisms (from any
    kingdom) & viruses (which are not alive)
• Historically, botanists studied any living being
  that was not an animal.
           Fungi Kingdom- chapter 19
Characteristics of Fungi:
• Eukaryotic
• Heterotrophic
• Different body plan than other organisms:
  – Filamentous cells,
  – hyphae
  – mycelia
• Botanists study them because they are
  Important as:
  – Decomposers
  – Symbiotic relationships with plant roots
  – Associations with other photosynthetic organisms such as
    bacteria & algae
 Kingdom Protista- Algae: chapter 18
Characteristics of Protists:
• The protists kingdom members are a
  variety of eukaryotic organisms.
• May be unicellular, colonial or multicellular
• Some are heterotrophic, others are
• Botanists are interested Algae which are
   Bacteria & Viruses - chapter 17
Characteristics of Bacteria:
• Prokaryotic
• Some are heterotrophic, some autotrophic
• Some are disease causing.

Characteristics of Viruses:
• Not alive- are not cells!!!
• All require a host- THEY ARE OBLIGATE
• Can replicate themselves with their nucleic acid (RNA
  or DNA) in a host cell
            Careers in Botany
• An undergraduate degree in botany
  prepares students for employment or
  for graduate studies.
• Careers in applied fields of:
  –   plant pathology, forestry, crop production,
  –   horticulture, genetics and plant breeding,
  –   plant biotechnology
  –   environmental monitoring and control
     What do you think of when someone
•   GREEN?
              says “PLANT”?
    – All Plants are photosynthetic
    – Not all plants have leaves!
    – Not all plants have flowers or fruit!
    – Not all plants have stems!
    – Not all plants have seeds!
    – Life on earth does depend on     photosynthetic organisms
      like plants, algae & photosynthetic bacteria.
   Take a kids’ quiz on plants:
the Biosphere
•Process by which plants &
 Certain other Organisms
 use solar energy to make food
•by transforming carbon dioxide & water
into sugars (carbohydrates) that store
chemical energy.

•Also very important:
Oxygen is released in the process.
   Here is the chemical formula for
 Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light = Carbohydrate + Oxygen

  6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light = (CH2O)6 + 6O2

All life depends on photosynthesis
    “Interesting Photosynthesis Facts”from:
  Rajni Govindjee

•The Sun - source of most energy for
                             Life on Earth.

• Each minute the Sun converts 120 million tons of its mass into
  electromagnetic radiation &sends it into space.
• One billionth of the energy reaches the Earth.
• It takes only 8 minutes for this radiation to travel 93 million
  miles to reach us.

• Visible portion of EM radiation (ROYGBIV)
  (rainbow) is captured by plants, algae and cyanobacteria.
           Why are leaves green?
• The green color of the leaves is
  due to the presence of a pigment
  called chlorophyll.
• Chlorophyll absorbs blue and
  red light efficiently, but not
• the transmitted green
  light gives the leaves their
  green color.

• The thin     layer of
Earth’s crust with the
atmosphere & ocean
layers that support

LIFE that includes:

   – All plant and animal life
   – The things that sustain life: air, soil and water.
   – It includes a variety of ecosystems that are connected by natural cycles

                              Pic from:
 Biosphere- is composed of three parts:

• ATMOSPHERE – a light blanket of air
 enveloping the earth, with more than half its mass
 within 4 miles of the surface and 98% within 16 miles
• HYDROSPHERE --- the surface and subsurface
 waters in oceans, rivers, lakes, glaciers, and
• LITHOSPHERE --- the upper reaches of the
 earth's crust containing the soils that support plant
 life, the minerals that plants and animals require for
 life and the fossil fuels and ores that humans exploit.
     Photosynthesis summary:
• Produces almost all of the world’s oxygen
• Produces almost all the world’s food
  – All organisms get their energy either
    DIRECTLY or INDIRECTLY from the sun
    through photosynthesis
  – Plants/photosynthetic organisms are the
    primary producers in the food chains.

  –Sugars made in photosynthesis are the
   building blocks of life.
      Plants capture only
     one thousandth of the
sunlight that falls on the Earth.
Yet, without this process all life
     on Earth would come
           to a halt.

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