A basic tool for defect removal
Urgent need for QA and removal can be
supported by inspection
Various software artifacts available at the
end of the Software development can
only be inspected and not tested.
Different degrees of inspection
Generic inspection process
Planning and preparation
Goals and objectives
Software artifacts to be inspected
Who are performing inspections
Who else need to be involved
What are the process , techniques and
Inspection or collection
Corresponds to the execution of QA
Focus on identifying faults in the software
Record the inspection results
Correction and follow up
Faults to be corrected
Design or code owner need to fix the
design or code
Follow up activity to verify the fix
Close interaction between inspection
technique and the inspection process.
Informal desk checks, reviews,
Informal desk checks refers to informal
check and inspection of technical
documents produced by oneself.
Reviews refer to informal check or
inspection of technical documents
produced by someone else.
Focus should be on logical and technical
Defect Detection Techniques
Checklist based defect detection
Checklist for major features and functions
In requirement and specification inspections.
Component in design inspections , data
structures and data definitions.
Property based checklist
Checklist for coding style and standard ,
conformance to development methodologies ,
coupling between different modules
Quality improvement & cost reduction technique.
Design & code inspections
Cost effectiveness of the program
Fundamental Process and the requirement for
1.Identify potential defects during preparation &
2.Validate the fact that identified items are actual
3.Record the existence of the defect.
4.Provide the record to the developer to use in
1.To provide traceability of requirements to
2.To provide sound base for the next phase
3 To Increase programming quality.
4.To Increase product quality.
5.Lower life cycle cost.
6.To provide feel of program maintainability
The moderator is responsible for the entire
inspection process for the software product.
1.Assure the identification of team
3.Avaialability of material to be inspected and
conformance to standard
4.Preparation of check list
Determine the need for an overview
Place for inspection meeting
Schedule the time & place
Serve a notice to all parties involved
Assign the role of reader to a selected member
of the inspection team
At least five working days before the start of
inspection meeting, the material must be
Must not go exceed two hours.
Defects are recorded on inspection –defect log
Defects are discussed and recorded. The
moderator is responsible for proper conduct of
Verification of defects
Defects are recorded by each team member, the
defect type is noted & at the end of the
inspection defects are counted.
Must be limited to finding defects
The author correct the defects.
Corrections are verified.
Must discuss the corrections with moderator.
May be recommended for further inspection.
HIGH LEVEL DESIGN INSPECTION
LOW LEEVEL DESIGN INSPECTION
HIGH LEVEL DESIGN
During the high level design phase, overall design for a module
function is produced.
For each function, the design specification will provide:
1. The source of design (new, other contract, etc)
2. A graphical presentation of the function allocation to hardware
3. A graphical presentation of function flow
4. A description of scheduling, timing, and synchornization
5. A definition of interfaces
6. The process of decomposition
HIGH LEVEL DESIGN
7. The design definition as follows:
Retained modules: reference to the existing
preliminary (i.e. high level) design specification, as
Modified modules: reference to the existing preliminary
(i.e high level) design specification, where applicable,
and a narrative description of the changes
New modules: high level description of the interfaces
LOW LEVEL DESIGN
Low level reflects back on the overall design
objectives. Key objectives considered in designing
1. Accuracy with high performance
2. Reliability and fault tolerance, enabling the system to
continue to perform in the event of hardware
intermittent failure or other unexpected occurences;
3. Flexibility to accommodate change and growth;
4. Easy testability and
5. That it be readily maintainable
KEY FEATURES OF LOW LEVEL
Detail design module is developed and inspections are
held for all modules which meet any of the following
1. New module development;
2. Any change to the external interface or function of an
3. A structural change in an existing module; and
4. A 40 percent or greater change in the source lines of
code in an existing module. This % presumes that the
size requirements as specified in the military standards
are adhered to. In the case of unrestricted module
size, where the module is large, this percentage
criterion may not be proper.
A code inspection is held for all new codes or
code from another task being modified to meet
the requirements of the new task or contract.
The code inspection is not performed until after
there has been an error free compilation.
It serves the following purpose:
1. Verification that the code conforms to the
requirements specification, design specification and
interface design specification requirements for
2. Confirmation that the design has been correctly
converted to the target language.
3. Early audit of code quality by the software developer’s
4. Early detection of errors.
5. Verification that the code meets level to level module
INSPECTION DEFECT TYPES
Return code/ message defect
Requirements change defect
Performance improvement defect
A team of technically competent ,trained
A trained moderator
Proper planning and distribution of material
Full preparation prior to the inspection meeting
Completely design or cleanly compiled code
Updated resource requirements
Responsibilities of the moderator
Complete The SQE training course
Check the entry criteria
Preview the material for conformance to
Team size and mix is proper
Assure there are at least five days of
During inspection/After inspection
Lead the inspection meeting
Require re-inspection for major defects,
specification changes, or greater then 50
defects per 1000 LOC
Review results with the author
Provide the manager with an estimate of
rework completion data
Eliminate duplicate defect log entries and
send summary to SQE
Verify correction of all defect log entries
Add completion notice and send copy to
Responsibilities of Inspectors
Attend the SQE training classes
Thoroughly all material
Assure understanding of function, consult
author if necessary
Record detected defects on inspection defect
log form prior to inspection
Responsibilities of Manager
Meet with moderator and author
Monitor individual inspection time
Review SQE defect summary for defect
trends and perform defect trends analysis