Topic_ Introduction

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					          Topic: Introduction
           Sub-topic: Basic Concepts
1. Ethics:
(a) Ethics is the principles of conduct governing
   an individual or a group.
An individual may have personal ethics. This will
   be the rules by which that individual lives his
A group such as a Physicians Association may
   have a code of ethics that is applied to the
   behavior of its members.
           Topic: Introduction
Sub-topic: Basic Concepts
1. Ethics:
Ethics is thus a mechanism to control or regulate
   the behaviors of individuals or groups.
(b) Ethics is also the study of morality. In other
   words, ethics studies or investigates the morality
   of some conduct.
2. Morality: It is the standards that an individual
   or a group has about what is right and wrong,
   or good and evil.
             Topic: Introduction
                    Sub-topic: Basic Concepts
2. Morality (Cont.)
•     Moral standards include
(a) Norms: the kinds of actions we believe are morally
      right and wrong. These norms are usually expressed
      as general rules or statements.
Examples: “Always tell the truth.”
“It is wrong to kill innocent people.” “It is wrong to steal.”
(b) Values: These are the judgments, in terms of good
      and bad, we put on objects.
Examples: “Honesty is good.” “Injustice is bad.”
             Topic: Introduction
                      Sub-topic: Basic Concepts
2. Morality (Cont.)
• Sources of Moral Standards: Where do moral standards
  come from?
We learn about these standards through the socialization
  process as we grow up from childhood to adulthood.
When we become adults, experience, learning, and
  intellectual development may lead us to revise these
  standards. We may even discard some moral standards
  and adopt new ones as we mature.
• Notice that we do not always live up to the moral
  standards we hold. In other words, we do not always do
  what we believe is morally right. Also, we do not always
  pursue what we believe is morally good.
               Topic: Introduction
                         Sub-topic: Basic Concept
Salient Characteristics of Moral Standards (Morality):
These characteristics distinguish moral standards from non-moral
    standards. An example of non-moral standards is standards of
    etiquette such as table manners.
 a. Moral standards deal with matters that can seriously injure or benefit
    human beings.
Examples: a drug company does not tell its clients the side effects of
    some of its medications. Murdering people, raping people
 b. Moral standards are not established or changed by the decisions of
    particular authoritative bodies.
c. Moral standards are preferred to other values, particularly self-
Example: Consider a business firm (a drug company) that lies about
    the side effects of one of its medical drug.
Characteristics of Moral Standard (Cont.)
d. Moral standards are based on impartial
  considerations. This means one should
  not be biased or prejudiced when making
  a decision. For example, A judge should
  not judge on the basis of friendship. He
  does, then his judgment will be partial, not

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