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Phrases Additional Words and Phrases

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					Phrases
Phrases – 2
Remember
 A phrase is a group of words that acts
  as a unit
 A phrase DOES NOT have a subject and

  a verb
Phrases - 2
   These are the four categories of
    phrases that we are studying:
       Prepositional phrases
       Appositive phrases
       Verbal phrases
       Absolute phrases
Phrases – 2
We have already looked at prepositional
 phrases.

Now we are going to look at the second
 type of phrases - appositives
Appositive Phrases
   An appositive phrase is another group
    of words that acts as a unit and does
    NOT have a subject and verb.
   It consists of a noun (and all of its
    modifiers) that renames or provides
    additional information about another
    noun in the sentence.
Appositive Phrases
   An appositive normally sits next to the
    noun it renames; in other words, it is
    “positioned next to” that noun, which is
    why it is said to be “in apposition”.
Appositive Phrases
   Can you identify the appositive phrase
    in this sentence?

    One Fish,Two Fish, my favorite book
    by Dr. Seuss, is the the only book I
    have read completely on my own.
Appositive Phrases

 One Fish,Two Fish, my favorite book
 by Dr. Seuss, is the the only book I
 have read completely on my own.

“my favorite book by Dr. Seuss” renames
 One Fish,Two Fish
Appositive Phrases
   Appositive phrases are either

     essential appositives
         or
     nonessential appositives
Appositive Phrases
   An essential appositive provides
    information that is necessary to the
    meaning of the sentence
   No comma is used to separate it
    from the rest of the sentence.
Appositive Phrases
   What is the essential appositive in this
    sentence?

    My favorite president Harry Truman led
    the American people through the end of
    World War II.
Appositive Phrases
 My favorite president Harry Truman led the
 American people through the end of World
 War II.

 Harry Truman is the essential
 appositive. If I do not include his
 name, you will not have enough
 information to understand my meaning
 completely.
Appositive Phrases
 My favorite president Harry Truman led the
 American people through the end of World
 War II.

 One check is to eliminate the appositive, and
 see what happens. Here, you have a
 complete sentence, but you really don’t know
 to whom I am referring. The information is
 incomplete. I need to supply his name.
Appositive Phrases
 My favorite president Harry Truman led the
 American people through the end of World
 War II.
 The second check is to see if I can change
 the appositive and keep the meaning of the
 sentence. If I do change this appositive and
 put in another name, I have changed the
 meaning of the sentence entirely.
Appositive Phrases
 My favorite president Bill Clinton led the
 American people through the end of World
 War II.


 As you can see, this changes the basic
 meaning of the sentence, making it
 historically incorrect.
Appositive Phrases

 The other type of appositive is the
 nonessential appositive.
Appositive Phrases
   A nonessential appositive provides
    information that in itself may be
    important, but is really only additional
    information and is not necessary to the
    core meaning of the sentence.
   Commas are used to separate it from
    the rest of the sentence.
Appositive Phrases
 What is the nonessential appositive in
 this sentence?

Harry Truman, my favorite president, led
 the American people through the end of
             World War II.
Appositive Phrases
Harry Truman, my favorite president, led
    the American people through the end of
                World War II.

 My favorite president is the nonessential
 appositive. I don’t have to tell you he is my
 favorite president in order to tell you that
 he led the American people through the end
 of World War II.
Appositive Phrases
 Harry Truman, my favorite president, led the
 American people through the end of World
 War II.


 And now for the second test. Can I
 change the appositive but keep the
 basic point of the sentence intact?
Appositive Phrases
 Harry Truman, the president who succeeded
 FDR, led the American people through the
 end of World War II.


 As you can see, the basic point of my
 sentence, that he led the American
 people through the end of World War
 II, remains intact.
Appositive Phrases
   With appositives, remember that if you
    need the phrase to make the meaning
    clear, or if changing the appositive
    changes the basic point of the
    sentence, it is an essential appositive
    and does not require commas.
Appositive Phrases
 My favorite president Harry Truman led the
 American people through the end of World
 War II.


 If you need the phrase, you DON’T
 need the commas.
Appositive Phrases
   If you do not need the phrase to make
    the meaning clear, and changing the
    appositive does not affect the basic
    point of the sentence, it is an
    nonessential appositive and requires
    commas.
Appositive Phrase
 Harry Truman, my favorite president, led the
 American people through the end of World
 War II.


 If you don’t need the phrase, you DO
 need the commas.
Appositive Phrases
   In class, we will be practicing
    identifying appositives, determining
    whether they are essential or
    nonessential, and punctuating them
    correctly.
Appositive Phrases
   We will also look at how to use
    appositives to improve
    the basic sentence
    structure in your writing.
Appositive Phrases
   Verbs of being are weaker verbs that
    don’t do much for your sentence.
   You want to eliminate as many of them
    as you can to use action verbs to make
    your writing vibrant.
   Using an appositive phrase is a good
    way to eliminate verbs of being in your
    writing.
Appositive Phrases
   Wilbur is the new class president.
    He is the president of the junior
    class. He met with his officers to
    plan fundraisers to offset the cost
    of the Prom.
Appositive Phrases
   In that group of sentences, we have
    three verbs, two of which are verbs of
    being. They are not dynamic enough to
    make the sentence vibrant. One way to
    improve these three choppy sentences
    is to combine them into one, eliminating
    the verbs of being.
Appositive Phrases
   Wilbur is the new class president.
    He is the president of the junior
    class. He met with his officers to
    plan fundraisers to offset the cost
    of the Prom.
Appositive Phrases
   Wilbur, is the new class president.
    He is the president of the junior
    class, He met with his officers to
    plan fundraisers to offset the cost
    of the Prom.
Appositive Phrases
   We will be working in class on ways
    to combine short, choppy, little
    sentences into more sophisticated
    ones by eliminating verbs of being
    using appositives.

				
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posted:10/15/2012
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